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'* Of our ship we made a house; 

" By a boat we got our living, 

'' In which our father went to fish. 

'^ Fish had we to eat. 

'' Turbot, salmon and mullet, 445 

^ Whale^ porpoises and mackarel, 

'' In great plenty; and in abundance 

'^ We had bread and good fish. 

'* The fish we exchanged for bread, 

^< Men brought us in plenty. 450 

** And when we had money, 

*' My father then became a Salter. 

" While he lived, he and my mother 

" Nourished you well, better than my brother. 

'^ And I remained and took a husband. 455 

*^ He has kept me in great honour. 

*' He was a merchant, he knew how to cross the sea. 

" He knows well how to buy and sell. 

'' In Denmark was he the other day, 

*• And heard many pray, 460 

" That if he found you, you should come, 

'* And claim the land. 

" Truly we counsel you to go. 

Take your two lads with you, 

Let them be with you to serve you. 466 

*' If good befal you, send us word, 
«* We will follow, if you will, 
" If God gives you back your inheritance." 

Said Haveloc and his wife. 
** We will give you a right good recompence, 470 
" We will do more than you ask, 
** If God gives us back our inheritance, 
" And the lads we will take with us, 
*' By God we will think well of it." 
The lady replied : « Truly, 476 

" Here you will remain till you have a wind: 



** And if I can, before you go, 

^' Tou shall be dad in better clothes." 

They remained then^ tarrying there, 

They were clothed honourably. 480 

They tarried thei*e until the wind came, 

And then they went on board the ship^ 

And Dan Alger^ the merchant^ 

Made the bargain for them. 

He gave them garments^ he and Eelloc. 485 

For Haveloc's crew 

He stowed away enough victual for them^ 

He would not have it fail for three months. 

Bread and wine and flesh and good fish, 

He put in their ship in great plenty. 490 

Directly the ship was a6oat, 

The steersman was right busy. 

Two ships there were, in truth. 

ey spread their sails to the wind ; 
So far have they floated and steered, 495 

That they have arrived in Denmark. 
In the country at which they landed. 
They went to a town, 
There they sought horses and carts. 
And caused their belongings to be carried thither. 500 
The merchants all retui*ned. 
With their tackle, to the two ships, 
And Haveloc and his wife, 
Went to the town to lodge. 

There dwelled a rich man, 505 

Sigar Estalre was his name. 
Steward was he to king Gunter, 
And justice of his land. 

But now it was so that he kept himself quiet. 
And he hated this rich king greatly, 510 

506. Steallere, A. S. for steward. 










t- 51689. H 



o .^ 







On the 26tli of January 1857, tlie Master of the Roils 
submitt*ed to the Treasury a proposal for the publication 
of materials for the History of this Country from the 
Invasion of the Bomans to the reign of Henry VIII. 

The Master of the Ex)lls suggested that these materials 
should be selected for publication under competent 
editors without reference to periodical or chronological 
arrangement, without mutilation or abridgment, prefer- 
ence being given, in the first instance, to such materials 
as were most scarce and valuable. 

He proposed that each chronicle or historical docu- 
ment to be edited should be treated in the same way as 
if the editor were engaged on an Editio Princeps ; and 
for this purpose the most correct text should be formed 
from an accurate collation of the best MSS. 

To render the work more generally useful, the Master 
of the Bk)11s suggested that the editor should give an 
account of the MSS. employed by him, of their age and 
their peculiarities ; that he should add to the work a 
brief account of the life and times of the author, and 
any remarks necessary to explain the chronology ; but 
no other note or conmient was to be allowed, except 
what might be necessary to establish the correctness of 
the text. 

a 2 

The works to be published in octavo, separately, as 
they wore finished ; the whole responsibility of the task 
resting upon the editors, who were to be chosen by the 
Master of the Rolls with the sanction of the Treasury. 

Tlie Lords of Her Majesty's Treasury, after a careful 
consideration of the subject, expressed their opinion in a 
Treasury Minute, dated February 9, 1857, that the plan 
recommended by the Master of the Rolls "was well 
calculated for the accomplishment of this important 
national object, in an effectual and satisfactory manner, 
within a reasonable time, and provided proper attention be 
paid to economy, in making the detailed arrangements, 
without unnecessary expense." 

They expressed their approbation of the proposal that 
each Chronicle and historical document should be edited 
in such a manner as to represent with all possible correct- 
ness the text of each writer, derived from a collation of the 
best MSS., and that no notes should be added, except 
such as were illustrative of the various readings. They 
suggested, however, that the preface to each work should 
contain, in addition to the particulars proposed by the 
Master of the Rolls, a biographical account of the author, 
so far as authentic materials existed for that purpose, 
and au estimate of his historical credibility and value. 

Rolls House^ 

December 1857. 



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[Ail Bights Reserved.] 

















And to bo purchased, cither directly or through any Bookseller, froni 
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ADAM AFD CHARLES BLACK. C>, NoBTn Bbidoe, EniNBUBan ■, or 
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J 889, 




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Printed by 

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For Her Majesty's Stationery Ofllce. 


Preface - - - - - - ix 

Errata - - - - - - xli 

Transi^ation - - - - - 1 

Index ------- 247 



The pi-eseni volume contains the translations of 
" Lestorie des Engles '* and of the *' Lai d Haueloc le 
** Danois" The translations have been made line by 
line in order that the same index may refer both to the 
texts and to the translations. 

The preface to the previous volume treated of the 
manuscripts in which Oaimar's work is preserved and of 
the language employed by him, but there remain to be 
said a few words about historical matters connected 

Considerable research has failed to bring to light any 'jnie 
more facts about the author of " Lestorie des Engles *' •«tl»or. 
than are told by himself.^ He wrote the book at the 
request of Custance, wife of Ralf FitzGilbert/ using 
for it manuscripts borrowed by their friend Walter 
Espec from Robert Earl of Gloucester. This nobleman 
was natural son of Henry L — 

"li reis meillur 
*' ki vnkes fust, ne iames seit " * 

according to Qaimar. 

Gloucester died in 1147, and as it is clear from Gaimar's 
words that he wrote in his lifetime, this date is the 
latest limit of time for the composition of the work. 
The earl's father, King Henry, appears, from the lan- 
guage used concerning him, to be dead, though this is 
not distinctly stated. If this assumption be correct, 
1135 would be the earliest date possible. In any case, 

> See vv. 6435, et seqq. | ' v. 6505* 


Gaimar precedes by some years Maistre Wace, who 
wrote in 1155. 

As to Gaimar's nationality, his frequent mistransla- 
tions of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle prove him not to 
have been an Englishman ; he was, no doubt, a 
Norman, the French in which he writes being his natu- 
ral tongue. His name may, perhaps, have been derived 
from a place in the town of Caen described by Mons. 
Dupont, formerly a judge of the Court of Appeal there, 
and author of the Histoire div Cdtentiii, as " un petit 
" quartier qui renferme une rue, une fontaine ct un 
" moulin, qui ont port^ de toute antiquitd et portent 
'* encore aujourdhui, le nom de Gemare.''^ The Rue 
Gemare is to the south-west of the castle, south-east of 
the Benedictine convent, and runs from the Rue des 
Cordeliers to the Rue des Teinturiers. The "Molen- 
" dinum de Gaimara,*' which was granted in frank- 
almoign to the Abbey of Ardenne by Richard I.,* is now 
the " TJsine Hydraulique de Gemare.'* ^ 

' I am indebted for this letter to 
the kindness of my friend Mr. W. 
L. de Gruchy. 

2 Stapleton, Rot Scacc. Norm. I., 
185, Sid.; Charter Roll, 1 John, 
V. 6 ; Rot. Norm., 2 John, pp. 15, 16. 

3 " La Rue de Gemare est celle 
qui va du Moulin de Gemare ^ 
la Rue dc Geosle. Le Moulin, 
la Fontaine Toisine, le Pont sur 
rOdon, qu*ou nomme'Le Fonchel, 
et tout ce petit quartier, portent ce 

« mdme snmom de Gemare. Dans 
" les anciennes^ Chartres des do- 
*' nations fiiites a I'abbaye de S. 
** Estienne, ce Moulin est appell^ 
" Molendinwm de Waimara, Et 
" les Registres poBterleurs, mais 
" ancieus, I'appellent Guymare, 
Gymare, Gimaire, Giesmare et 
Guiemare. Cette Rue de Ge- 
mare s'appelle autrcmeut les 














** Tours des Terres. Quoyque ce 
nom ne se troavc point dans M. 
le Bras, il n*est pourtant pas 
recent. Ces mdmes Registres 
*' marqnent un Petit, un Grand & 
" un Ilaut Gemare. II appellent 
le Petit Gemare, le has de la 
Rue de Gemare, qui aboutit h, 
*' la rue de Geosle, et le Grand 
*' Gemare le haut dc la meme 
'^ rue, qui aboutit au Moulin 
** de Gemare, et a la rue des 
" Teinturiers ; et le Hant Gemare, 
** la Rue qui va du Moulin de 
" Gemare au Carrefour de TEpin- 
ette. Us plaoent anssi vers la 
Rue de Gemare, la Rue et THotel 
de Foulongne, la Rue de la Bou« 
" cherie, et la Venelle de Plmage, 
<* mais dont on ignore la situation." 
Origines de la Ville dc Caen, Daniel 
Iluet, 1706, p. 97. 





This locality supplied a surname to its inhabitants 
and in 1195 Robert and William do Uaimara paid their 
share of the tallage for the ransom of Richard I.^ 

Among the suite of Humbert Count of Maurienue, at 
the marriage settlement of his daughter Aalis with John 
son of King Henry II., there was a person named Go- 
fredus Gamerii,* which sounds very much like the Latin 
for Gefirei Gaimar. This marriage treaty took place in 
1173, when Gaimar might possibly have been alive, but 
there is no evidence of the identity of the two persons. 

A similar name is found in the Lombard princely 
family of Salerno, four of the reigning princes between 
A.D. 880 and 1050 being named Guaimarius { 
or Weimarius,^ but this was not a surname. 

Another similar name, Gamardus^ is older, and pro- 
bably of a different origin. St. Erembert in the seventh 
century had a brother Gamardus, who was a benefactor 
of the Benedictine abbey of S. Wandrille, near Caude- 
bec,^ and in the eleventh century a man of the same 
name was a benefactor of the monks of Dol.' 

The name, however, cannot have been common or 
have survived till later times, as it is not mentioned in 
Moisy's " Noms de Famille Normands." 

In England the various forms in which the name 
occurs are as follows. Guarinus fil. Guimeri was a wit- 
ness to a charter of Alan Earl of Brittany and Richmond, 
to Fountains Abbey, which was founded about 1132.® 

1 Stapletou, Rot. Scacc. Norm. I., Civile del Regno di Napolt, i. 864 ; 

172, 173, 175, 180. Grsevias, Thesaur. Antiq. et Hist. 

- Bened. Abbas, i. 38. The MS. ItalisD, vol. iz., pt. i., 09, 48, ftc. \ 

(Jul. A. XI. f. 43 b) has Sofrediis Feregriui, Hist. Princip. Langobard. 

here and again further on, but this , i. 260, 261, v. i. 

is almost certainly an error, S and * Gall. Christ., xi. 161 b. 

G being much alike in some MS. ! ^ Bre<iuigny, Table Chronolo- 

^ Codex Dipl. Cayensis, i. x. ; \ gique dcs Diplomes, ii. 217. 

Pertz,iii. 210; P. Giannone, Istoria i ^ Dugd. Mouast., v. 806. 



Some time before 1195 a certain Guiemarus gave 
certain lands, and himself as well, to Jervaulx Abbey .^ 
His brother Roger fil. Radulfi is mentioned at the same 
time. In the Jervaulx Charters printed by Dugdale, 
Rogerus lil. Wyemari, Rogerus do Guiiymary, and Hugo 
fil. Wymari occur, with a brother Garnarus or Wamerius. 
No doubt these all refer to the same person, and there is 
some error either in the fine or the chattel's. 

In or before 1199 there was a Guiomar son of Warin de 
Bassingeburn connected with Hertfordshire.^ The coin- 
cidence of the names leads to the suggestion that we have 
here a son of the Guarinus mentioned at the foot of the 
last page. In the same year, 1 John,^ the King confirmed 
a grant of the manor of Thwiford and lands in Campeden 
by the Earl of Chester to a Breton named Gwiomarus, 
])erhaps the same person as G. the Breton hostage, in the 
custody of the Abbot of Fecamp, whom Alan Fitz Count 
obtained from the King at the price of a gift of four 
greyhounds.* The fact that Alan witnesses the charter 
to Guiomarus renders this probable. In the next King's 
reign Guimerua Senescallus is found acting as justice in 
Norfolk and Suffolk.* Perhaps some future discovery, 
accidental or otherwise, may establish some connexion 
between the poet and some of these names, but at present 
no such conjectures can be hazarded. 

A Gaufridus Capellanus also attested charters to 
Kirkstead,® the abbey of which Half Fitz Gilbert was 
a benefactor, but the name is very common, and identi- 
fication is impossible. 

» viginti acris terre in Cristecroft 
dim pertinenciis qnas Guiemarus 
frater suus dedit cum corpore suo 
ablracie de Gvrevall. Fines, Un- 
known and Divers Counties 10. 

2 Rot. Cur. Reg., 1 John, vol. ii., 

3 Charter Roll, 1 John, m. 10. 

* Rot. de Oblatis, p. 29. 

« Close Roll, 10 Hen. III., 
m. 26 d. 

« Dugd. Men., V. 419. 


There was another Galfridas, who was chaplain of 
Henry I. ; ^ and a man holding such an appointment 
might well be able to say, as Oaimar does^ — 

"Sil ad guarant 
Del Rei Henri diiTat auant; 
Ke sil en volt vn poi parler 
E de sa vie^ranslater, 
Tels mil choses en purrad dire 
Ke vnkes Davit ne fist escriuere."' 

But the date of the charter to which his name is 
appended (112-5-1127) makes it unlikely that this 
person should be Oaimar. It is more likely to be 
Geoffrey Rufus, chancellor, afterwards Bishop of Durham. 
The same name is found on the Pipe Rolls of the reign 
of Henry IT.,' but there is nothing to identify the person. 

I have also attempted to identify Raul lo fiz Qilebert, Sifj^/^** 
who appears to have been Qaimar^s patron, but without 
arriving at any certainty. That he lived in the east of 
England is most probable irom Oaimar's reference to 
events in that part of the kingdom. I find accordingly 
a man named Radulfus filius Gilleberti in the service of 
Gilbert of Ghent, second Farl of Lincoln. As a reward 
for his services the earl granted him the lordship of the 
town of Scampton in Lincolnshire, with 26 bovates of 
land, and a mill, for the service of half a knight.^ 
Scamptou is in the hundred of Lawress, then called the 
Wapentake of Laulris. 

A few years later Ralf gave this land, together with 
Thomas son of Wigot and his descendants and his 
holding, to Kirkstead Abbey.' The charter is addressed 
to Robert, Bishop of Lincoln, who must be Robert de 
Chesney, bishop from 1147 to 1168, and it was con- 

1 Dngd. Mon., iii. 87. 

2 TV. 6484-9. 
* Pipe Roll, 2 Hen. II., p. 16 ; 

7 Hen. II., p. 68. 

IT 51689. 1 

* Vesp. E. xviii., 99 b. 
' Vesp. £. xriii. 99 ; Dngd. 
Mon. AngL, ▼. 421. 



firmed, with other grants, by Henry II., between 1157 
and 1161.^ 

The grant was confirmed also by Roliesia, widow of 
Earl Gilbert, in a twofold method, by a repetition of the 
grant to Half with a remission of the service, and by a 
grant of confirmation to the abbey.* In the latter 
document the countess states that the land in question 
had previously been given to her by her husband as 

The probable date of this confirmation is between 
1149 and 1156. Alice her daughter, with her husband, 
Simon de St. Liz, Earl of Huntingdon and Northampton, 
also signified their concurrence.' 

These confirmations certainly suggest some connexion 
between Balf and the family of Gilbert of Ghent. 

In another charter of the earl, the same name 
(Bad. fil. Gileberti), and doubtless the same person^ 
occurs as a witness.^ According to Dugdale, Gilbert 
left only daughters, and it is possible that Half was 
an illegitimate son. In the Countess of Lincoln's con- 
firmation, a brother of Balf is mentioned, bearing the 
same Christian name, and called Badulphus Yillanus.^ 
This might possibly be a brother by another father. 

None of these charters contains the name of Custance, 
EitzGilbert's wife, according to Gaimar. A wife is 
mentioned but nameless, and a nameless son, who 
was buried at Scampton in his father's lifetime.^ 
Another son, Half, confirms the donation to Eirkstead^ 
and appears at a later time as tenant of a later Gilbert 
of Ghent^ the earl's nepl^ew, and as assisting him in re- 
dressing injuries committed against the see of Norwich, 

1 Harl. Ch. 43, c. 17. The 26 
bovates of the original grant here 
figure as 8 carucates and 3 bo- 

^Vesp. E. zyiii. 99 b.; Harl. 
Ch. 50, F. 32, 

» Cott. Ch., xvi. 87 ; Vesp. E. 
zTiH. 99b; A. in Charters; Dug- 
dale calls her Alice, Baronage, 400. 

< Harl. Ch. 88, B. 54. 

» Harl. Ch. 50, F. 82. 

* Vesp. E. xyiii. 99. 


when it was taken by Louis of France in 1216.^ This 
confirmation by Ralf the younger, and his father's second 
charter, are both attested by a person who, if our 
identification of Ralf Fitz Gilbert be correct, may very 
possibly have been Oaimar himself. In one place he is 
called " Gaufridus Capellanus de Tateshale," and in the 
other simply *' Gaufridus Capellanus." * 

Gaimar does not expressly say that he was a priest, 
but it is certainly probable. 

The founder of Markby Priory in Lincolnshire,' and 
the benefactor of the Gilbertine House of Lindelai, whose 
donation was confirmed by Henry IL about 1156,* were 
contemporaries of the benefactor of Eirkstead, and may 
have been the same person. The same may be said of 
Randulfus, who was brother of Robert Fitz Gilbert of 
Thadwell, founder of Leybome Nunnery,* and present 
at the declaration of the grant at the grantor's funeral, 
by William his son, which must have taken place 
before the reign of John. 

This Robert Fitz Gilbert occurs in the Pipe Roll of 
7 Henry II. as living in Lincolnshire/ while Ralf must 
have had property also in Wiltshire, as 4 marks which 
he owed to the Exchequer were directed to be levied in 
that county.^ 

The same name occurs also in 9-10 Ric. I. (1197-9) 
in Bedfordshire,® in 3 John (1201-2) in Lincolnshire, 
Notts, and Derby,® in 1218 m the West of England,^® 
and during the same century in Kent.^^ 

The Lincolnshire notice may possibly refer to the 
person in question, or to his son, but not the others. 

* Vesp. B. xriii., f. 106 b. 

3 Gaof capeir et Jugaa' filios 

' Dngd. Mod. Ad^L, vi 561. 

4 HarL Ch. 43, c. 19. 

* Dogd. Mod. Angl., y. 684. 

* Pipe RoU, 7 Hen. IL, p. 16. 

7 Pipe Roll, 7 Hen. II., p. 57. 

8 Hot. Cur. Keg., i. 158, 172. 

' Rotuluf Cancellarii, pp. 169, 
191, 313. 
" Close Roll, 2 Hen. lU., p. 855. 
»> Harl, Ch. 79 D. 43. 

b 2 




Contemporary with Gaimar there were also other 
Fitz Gilberts : — Alexander, in Essex ; ^ Baldwin, who 
witnessed two charters of King Stephen^ dated at 
Lincoln and Northampton, and another connected with 
Bourne in Lincolnshire ; * Reginald, who had a house 
near " Wenlauesdene " and " Bulileie " ; '^ " Ricardus fil. 
" Gisleb. fil. Bleihoc,"' in the West ; * '* Herbertiis filius 
" Gilleberti filii Herberti de Rigghesbia," a benefactor 
of the Nuns of Grenefeld ; * Conanus fil. Roberti fil. 
Gilberti, alive in 1154;® Jordan, who gave the church 
of Wilberfoss, Yorks, to the nunnery there, in the 
rPign of Henry IL ;^ Walter, who granted l\i\d at 
Wallam to Maurice fil. Galfredi ; ® John, who attested a 
pardon granted by Henry Duke of Normandy to Ranulf 
Earl of Chester in 1152 ;* and William, who performed 
the same function with regard to a charter to the 
monks of St. Neots, in 1165.^® 

The surname occurs several times ^^ also in the follow- 
ing century, especially in the eastern counties, but it has 
not been possible to establish any relationship between 
the various holders, as patronymics had scarcely become 
general for family names at this early period. 

As to Walter Espec (the Woodpecker) who lent Lady 
Custance some of the books which Gaimar used, there 
is no difficulty. His name is well known as the founder 
of the Abbeys of Kirkham, Rievaulx, and Warden, and 
for his gallant conduct at the Battle of the Standard in 
1138. "The noblest character among the lay barons of 

* Cott. Ch.. xxvii. 96. 

» Harl. Ch., 43 C 18; 50 A. 9; 
83 A. 24. 
» Harl. Ch. 78 A. 68. 
< Harl. Ch. 49 B. 28. 
« Harl. Ch. 55 D. 12. 

• Pipe Roll Soc. Charters, i. 54. 
7 Dugd. Mod. Angl., iv. 354. 

« Add. MS. 5937, f. 150. 

9 R^m., i. 16 ; Cott. Ch., XTii 2. 

" Add. Ch. 8617. 

" Harl. Ch. 52 F. 7, 9 ; 52 B. 88, 
89; 50 A. 42; 51 B. 14, 16, 22, 
25; 52F.46;44 6.44; 50 A. 41 ; 
50 B. 80 ; 57 D. 48, E. 7 ; 88 G. 
19,28; 84 A. 2; Add. Ch. 5381, 
20923, 20924, 20961-2, 8412-8, 
20689; Campb. Ch., v. 9; Lansd. 
Ch., 405 ; Cotton Ch., xziz. 5. 



*' his time,"^ he died in Rievaulx Abbey in 1153, 
leaving no issne, his son having been killed by a fall 
from his horse.' His three sisters inherited his estates, 
of whom the second, Albreda, married Nicolas de Trailli, 
and had four sons by him, Geoffrey, William, Nicholas, 
and Gilbert. The Nicolas de Trailli appealed to by the 
poet • is either Albreda's husband or son. 

The history of the composition of Gaimar's poem, Sources of 
according to what the author himself tells us, was as * * ^^"'' 
follows :— Custance the wife of Ralf Fitz Gilbert sug- 
gested the work to him. His facts were derived from 
many books, French, English, and Latin, and the following 
are especially mentioned. 

1. A translation made by order of Robert, Earl of 
Gloucester of a Welsh Chronicle of Welsh Kings, which 
was borrowed for the purpose by Walter Espec. The 
earl was a great patron of learning, and it is to him 
that Geoffrey of Monmouth dedicates his Historia Regv/m 
Britannice, which is very probably the book referred to 
here. This has not been much used in Leatorie dea 
EngUsy but was no doubt the foundation of the livere 

bien devant, referred to in the opening lines, though^ ^*:^/'^^'v '' 
the statement that Twain -^as made King of Mureif X/^^^^^'J,^^^/ ' /, 
and Loeneis^ does not quite tally with Geofirey of ^^ y ^..^..y' t^ 
Monmouth's stoiy. Iwain, however, may be merely a !' o ^ 
mistake of Gaimar's for Urien, whom Arthur is said to 
have made King of Mureif, while Loudonesia was the 
share of Lot his brother-in-law. 

2. A book belonging to Walter, Archdeacon of Oxford. 
This is the person who is known as Walter " Calenius," 
a surname, according to Mr. H. Bradley, with no contem- 
porary authority, but given, presumably by Bale, or 
some other modem scholar as a classical translation of 




ix' .*-•• 


/ \ t, X.( < 

^. ^ 


- t * ' 

* Norgate*t Angoyiii Kings, i. 67. 

* Ailrediu Abbas Hievallensis. 
Twysden, x. Seriptt Dugd. Mon. 

Angl., V. 274, 286, 369 ; tI. 207 ; 
BaroDage, 590. 

* ▼. 6482. 

* V. 6. 



" of Oxford/*^ He was archdeacon in the early part of 
the twelfth century, and acted as the King's justiciar 
at Winchester and at Peterborough in 1125. He was 
succeeded in the archdeaconry by Robert Foliot in 1151,^ 
and we may therefore suppose died in that year. If 
this book was the same as that of which tJie loan is 
acknowledged by Geoflfrey of Monmouth, and described 
by him as "quendam Britannici sermonis librum 
" vetustissinium, qui a Bruto primo Rege Bri- 
'' tonum usque ad Cadwaladrum filium Cadwalonis, 
'* actus omnium continue et ex ordine perpulcris 
" orationibus proponebat ;" ^ as it was translated by him 
for his Historia Regum Britannice, it could only have 
been used by Gaimar for the purpose of testing Geoffrey's 
accuracy of translation and supplying omissions made 
by him, but his acknowledgment of his indebtedness ^ 
certainly means more than this, and I think his words 
imply that the bon livere de Ooceford ^as not Welsh. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth says that the owner of the book 
" ex Britannia advexit." * Mr. Bradley tliinks this means 
Brittany, but Geoffrey uses Armorica for Brittany and 
Britannia for Britain, and I see no reason for considering 
it as anything more than a Welsh book from Wales.® 
It is true that Adveho generally implies importation by 
sea, but, even if the word was confined to this use in 
classical Latin, an argument could hardly be founded 
on the precise meaning of the word. 

3. Another book of which Gaimar gives the name is 
the History of Winchester.^ What this was he tells us 
himself, viz., a volume of history, or rather annals, com- 

1 Diet, of Nat. Biog., viii. 249. 

'Le Neve's Fasti Ecc. Aug., 
ii. 64. 

' Geoffrey of Monmoath (Cazton 
Soc.) , i. 1. 

^ fes i mist ke 11 Waleis 

Qorent leisse, v. r»461. 

* GeoflErey of Monmouth (Cazton 
Soc.), 228. 

^ On the other hand, Geoffrey of 
Monmouth certainly uBedGuaiensea 
for Welsh sometimes. 

7 YY. 2284, 2884, 6467, 8451. 



piled by Alfred's orders from information furnished by 
monks and canons in various parts of England, and 
chained up like a church Bible in Winchester Cathedral. 
This cannot be the volume known as the Armales 
WintonicB, now in the British Museum,^ which is of 
later date, and in Latin, nor is any copy of the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle which has come down to us known 
to have belonged to Winchester Cathedral, but we may 
fairly assume that leetorie de Winceatre was the copy 
of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle which Oaimar used, and 
which, as we shall show,^ did not exactly tally with 
any which we now poasess. 

4. The English book of Washingborough.' Here I 
can only repeat Petrie's note. " Nothing has occurred 
" to identify the book here noticed/' Washingborough 
is about three miles east of Lincoln, and was granted to 
Peterborough Abbey by Wulfhere of Mercia in A.D. 
664,* and in Domesday book is said to be held by the 
King.* Eirkstead Abbey, of which Qaimar's friends the 
Fitz Gilberts were benefactors, also had property there, 
by the gift of Conan, Duke of Brittany and Earl of 

This may account for Qaimar's having access to the 
book, but gives us no further clue as to what the book 
might be or who its owner was. It has been suggested 
that it might have been iElfred's translation of Orosius, 
and I have no better suggestion to offer, unless, judging 
from the connexion between Washingborough and Peter- 
borough,* it was a copy of the Peterborough verbion of 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle such as Bodl. MS. Laud., 
636, the chronology of which Gaimar often follows. 

1 M8. Cott. Domit. A. tuL 
Edited by Bey. H. B. Loard in 
Annalee Monastici, toI. ii. (Bolls 

> See p. zxiii. 

* ▼. 6469. 

4 Kemble, Dipl. Sax., 984. 

' Domesday, 337 b. 

« Dogd., T. 428. 


5. Gildas is also cited ^ in the commencement of the 
story of Haveloc, but there is no passage in the De Excidio 
BritannicB or indeed in the Epistola OUdoe, the only 
works of his which have come down to the present time, 
which in any way refers to the kingdoms of Adelbrit 
and Edelsie. Geoffrey of Monmouth mentions another 
book by Gildas, called De Victoina Aurelii ATobrosii, 
which is not extant, and Giraldus Cambrensis speaks 
of his having written and destroyed libroa egregios de 
Oestis Arthuri et gentis avxe} besides this, Geoffrey of 
Monmouth, as well as Geoffrey Gaimar, quotes him " for 
" information of which no trace exists in any copy with 
*' which we are acquainted." So that we must suppose 
that some unknown work of Gildas passed through 
Gaimar's hands. Geoffrey of Monmouth sometimes 
confuses Gildas and Nennius, but the present story does 
not occur in either writer,* so that Nennius cannot be 
intended here. 

There are other terms used by the author to describe 
his sources. 

La geate,"* sometimes with the addition of the adjec- 
tives vereie or veille, clearly always means the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle, that is, the facts which are referred to 
it are to be found in the Chronicles. This same authority 
is also called Croniz * and Cronicle, though in one place " 
Gaimar's confusion between Oswald and Alf wold might 
lead to the surmise that some other source was meant. 

This is not invariably true of the phrase lestorie, 
vera/ie estorie^ &c., which is applied also to the original 
jof Haveloc, that is, to some lost work of Gildas ; to the 
account of Eadmund's martyrdom, here clearly distin- 

» V. 41. I * w. 828, 2233, 2527. 

> Giraldus Cambrensis, vi. 209. * vv. 954, 2110, 2331. 

(Bolli Ed.) 

' See Sterenson's edition of 
Gildas, pp. ix-XT. 

•v. 2110. 

' vv. 758, 1949, 2255, 2335, 2930, 
3937, 5712. 


guished by Qaimar from his principal authorities ; and 
to the story of Eadward's murder at Corfe Gate. 

Le livere, li livere aTicien^, and li ancienz^ also 
evidently mean the Chronicle. 

The phrase lantive gent ' is perhaps used rather for 
tradition than for written authority. 

Mi Meistre * certainly does not mean the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, but some French book. 

Li brefy ^ which is adduced as vouching for the burial 
of Oswald's head with St. Cuthbert at Durham, must be 
some biography of the latter saint, or account of his 

The Chronicle mentions only the preservation of 
Oswald's hands, but a narrative of the translation of S. 
Cuthbert to a new tomb in a.d. 1054, preserved in a 
M.S. of the eleventh century, speaks of finding the 
head of St. Oswald and bones of St Aidan with the 
saint's corpse ut in antiquis libria legitur,^ one of 
which antiqui libri no doubt Oaimar had seen. William 
of Malmesbury also bears testimony to the same fact7 

Another saint's life used by Gaimar is that of St. 
Outhlac, perhaps the life by Felix, his contemporary.^ 

For the period before the Morman Conquest, Gaimar Uieofthe 
certainly depended mainly for his facts upon a copy of ^ ^' 
the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, but occasionally he gives 
stories and versions of stories which are not to be found 

K our identification of Ralf Fitz Gilbert be right, 
Gaimar must have lived in Lincolnshire, and from his 
patron's friendship with Walter Espec have had special 

1 TT. 990, 8288. 
«w. 168S, 1786. 
s T. S405. 

* T. 8S41. 

* V. 1296. 

* Aeta Sanctomm» is. 188 f. 

7 Caput Oswald! 'Regin et Martyris 
inter brachia cjas (sc. Cuthberti) 
inyeotum. Geita Pont., Lib. iii., 
§ 134, Bolk Bd. 

* y. 1687. Printed in Acta Sanc- 
torum, 11 Apr. 



means of acquiring information concerning events con- 
nected with the Northern and Eastern parts of the 
kingdom. We find, accordingly, that his additions to 
and amplifications of the bare words of the Chronicle, 
more often refer to these localities than to other dis- 

The Lay of Haveloc, with which Gaimar almost com- 
mences his history, has been the subject of an English 
lay, as well as of the two French ones printed here. It 
tells us of a Danish king's son, brought up as a scullion, 
and founding a kingdom in the east of England. As a 
story, it contains many elements of interest, but as it is 
scarcely historical, and has been so thoroughly discussed 
by Sir Frederick Madden,^ and more recently by Mr. 
H. L. D. Ward,^ there is no need to do more here 
than refer the reader to the writings of these high 

The brief mention in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle of the 
Northumbrians expelling their king Osbryht, and the 
death of his successor at York, is expanded into a long 
and interesting story, not without a touch of the super- 
natural, in which the Danes are invited to invade Nor- 
thumbria by a thane to avenge his wife's dishonour.^ 
The motif is common enough, and a similar story is 
told with different names, the king being iEUa and the 
thane Aernulfus. This occurs in a MS. of the early 
part of the thirteenth century, and is printed in Vol. I., 
p. 328. 

The foot-notes to the translation will show how closely 
the Chronicle has generally been followed, and will also 
point out certain mistranslations and other errors, which 
can only be explained by assuming that Gaimar mis- 

^ Havelock the Dane, Boxburgh 
Clab, 1828. 
^ Catalogue of Bomfincefl in tlie 

Dept. of MSS. in the British 
Maseom, pp. 423, 940. 
» w. 2695-2886. 


imderstood his original.^ In this he was not alone, even 
Patricius Consul Fabhis Qusestor Ethelwerdus, though 
English by birth, makes such mistakes as translating 
*' gefuhton wip Qerente " " bellum gesserunt contra 
" Uuthgirete regem." * 

Whether the Chronicle used by Qaimar was any which 
we now have is uncertain* To show the difficulty of 
determining such a point, it may be noticed that Qaimar 
puts the death of Cenwulf, King of- the Mercians, seven 
years after Ecgbryht's raid in West Wales.^ Of the six 
texts of the A. S. Chronicle printed by Thorpe only two 
afford a basis for such a statement. Tiberius B.L 
(called by Josselyn, Chronicon Abbendonie) gives the 
dates as 812 and 819, and Domitian A. VIII. 815 and 
822, while all the others allow only six years, viz., from 
818 to 819. 

On the other hand, the fleet which arrived at South- 
ampton in A.D. 837 ^ had according to Qaimar 33 ships. 
This is the reading of all the MSS., except Tiberius B.L, 
which Qaimar follows in the passage referred to above. 
Domitian A. VIII. omits the event. The death of 
Sihtric again ^ is only mentioned in Tiberius B. IV., 
while Laud. MS. 636 and Domitian A. VIII. are followed 
in the omission of all occurrences between A.D. 893 and 
A.D. 901. Both these manuscripts are ascribed to the 
twelfth century, and cannot therefore be much earlier 
thanQaimar's own time. The Bodleian MS. is supposed 
to have belonged to Peterborough Abbey. 

The probability therefore is that the copy used was 
different to any now extant. 

It may be worth while to note here a few specimens 
of Gairaar's additions to or differences from the 
Chronicle, as throwing some light on his historical 

» See pp. 64, 75, 76, 97, 98, 

s Mon. Brit, p. 607 B. 

s y. 2289. 
* T. 2397. 
» T. 8506. 


A writer of history in verse, a Trouvfere, is often 
tempted to enlarge and expand his facts merely from 
bis artistic sense and desire to produce a certain effect. 
This tendency can be clearly seen to have operated 
strongly on Geoffrey Gaimar, and suspicion is thus 
throvni on all his additions to the bare record of the 
Chronicle. Titles and epithets are inserted freely, even 
at random. Sigbald, for instance, is only called " uns 
'* riches home del pais*" to rhyme with ** oscis' though 
the description is very possibly connect. Henry of 
Huntingdon, a prose writer, in this instance sins worse 
than Gaimar, for he says that Sigbald was killed in the 
beginning of the battle between Ine and Nun, and 
Geraint, though the Chronicle only says the same year. 

Similarly the praise applied to Quenburh, 

" Tant se penat de faire honur, 
Ke unc en eel tens, en la contree 
U ele fu, nout tant amee.**^ 

and to Hunferth, 

" De clergie f ud mult bon mestie, 
Unc plus sage nestuet estre," 

sound suspiciously like stock phrases, and the sus- 
picions are confirmed on finding that ''Karl/' that is 
Charles the Great, is called ''King of Cumberland" 
merely, as far as one can judge, becauHC Eardwulf King of 
North umbria occurs close by.' 

The victory of the Welsh over Cuthred, King of the 
West Saxons, in A.D. 753,* must, we fear, be ascribed 
to the same cause. Neither the A. S. Chronicle, the 
" Annales (yambrise," nor the '* Brut y Ty wysogion " 
mention it Florence of Worcester, on the contrary, has 
embellished the simple words (gefeaht wi'S Wealas) in 
another sense, writing ''ex eis quam plurimos inter- 
" fecit." In some cases these fanciful additions are 

» w. 1634, I * ^- ^^^®- 

« T. 1680. < V. ISO*. 


dearly wrong. According to Gaimar,^ King Sihtric who 
died in A.D. 926« was slain by King Eadward in revenge 
for the death of his brother Niel five years before ; and 
even the detail of the weapon being a sword is added. 
Unfortunately Eadward died before Sihtric, according to 
the A. S. Chronicle, and there is no reason to doubt its 

That JEthelred should be crowned at Winchester, as 
Eadward was afterwards, was natural enough, but though 
Gaimar adds the detail that the ceremony was performed 
before St. Vincent's altar, it is probably a mere guess 
of his, as the A. S. Chronicle distinctly says that 
"JEthelred was hallowed King at Kingston."' I am 
informed b3' the Dean of Winchester that nothing is 
known of the altar so precisely named, nor was there 
any church in Winchester dedicated to St. Vincent. 

There are other additions of a similar kind which may 
possibly be true, but in many cases thei e is no conclusive 
evidence on the point. 

The burial of Cynewulfs kinsman at Defurel* is 
mentioned nowhere else. The description of the serpents 
in Sussex changing colour and singing is not preserved 
in writing, but according to the editor of the " Monu- 
'* menta Britannica," * " they seem to be still remembered 
" in the popular traditions of the western parts of Sus- 
" sex^" so that these wonders are not perhaps solely the 
fruit of " the poet s eye." 

The comet of A.D. 678 ® is not supposed in the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicle to have any connexion with St. Wil- 
frith's banishment, though it happened the same year. 
That the comet followed him is evidently another version 
of the story told by Eadmer of the saint's jailers being 

» V. 3A06 I * V. 1919. 

' ▼. 4030. 
3 A" 979. 

* p. 788, n. 1. 

• V. 1450. 



alarmed at seeing a light shining in his prison during 
the night.^ 

The martyrdom of St Eadmuud, King of the East 
Angles,^ is told at much greater length than in any other 
historian. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle does not even 
mention, though Henry of Huntingdon does, that the 
King was tied to a tree and shot. The source from 
which Gaimar obtained his account of the King's equi- 
vocal answer to the Danes is not known. It does not 
appear in any printed life of St. Eadmund,^ but may 
have been current in the country. 

The story of Eadgar's marriage with ^Elfthrythe is 
also told at much greater length, the bare fact only being 
mentioned by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. In this case 
Gaimar mentions, not, alas, by name, his authority — 

Mes tant vus di, cum dit lestorie, 
Bichesce i out e grant baldorie.* 

This estorie seems to have extended to the next 
Eing's reign^ for the murder of King Eadward, Eadgar's 
son, in A.D. 978,^ is also narrated with much detail. 
The incident of the King's anger with Wulstanet the 
dwarf is peculiar to Gaimar, but the memory of it 
remains in tradition. Hearne supposed Wulstanet to be 
the original of Tom Thumb.® Other writers ascribe the 
King's visit to his desire to see his brother.^ This is an 
obvious explanation, and therefore the probability is 
that Gaimar is here preserving a genuine tradition. The 
discovery of the King's remains in the marsh where it was 
concealed, by a ray of light falling on them, is narrated 
in the Hagiography, though not in the Chronicles. 

^ Acta S.S., xii. S06. 

3 V. 2877. 

» V. 8937. 

<Acta SS.; Life by Abbo, 
Migne, Patrol. Cursus, toI. 189; 
Life by Osbert de Clare, Tit. 

A. yiii. 83; Gapgrave, Nova Le- 
genda, f. 107. 

» ▼. 8990. 

^ Reliquiae Heamiane, p. 822. 

7 See Acta SS., TiiL 643 ; Oap- 
graye, Noya Legenda, f. 116. 



The account of the Danish ravages in France in 
A.D. 879 and the following years ^ is compiled from the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles and some French source. The 
movements of the Danish army from Cirencester to 
Chippenham and East Anglia come from the Chronicle, 
with the exception of the name of Qurmunt, which here 
appears to represent Guthorm, whose baptism is men- 
tioned just before. According to the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronide he " abode in East Anglia/' but Gaimar makes 
him lead his army across the channel, confusing Guthorm 
and Guaramundus, who, the French accounts tell us, was 
leader of the heathen bost.^ In speaking of Guthorm's 
death, however, Gaimar calls him by his right name,' 
though he wrongly states that he was buried at Thet- 
ford instead of Hadleigh, in Suffolk, where his tomb is 
still shown. The plundering of the abbeys of St. Valeri 
and St. Riquier in AD. 881 is mentioned only by French 
writers.* The fatal wound of King Louis * was not 
received in battle, as Gaimar implies, but from being 
crushed by his horse against an archway when in pur- 
suit of a young lady, quia juvenia erat^ 

The arrival of the fleet at Chezy ^ formed part of a 
campaign several years afterwards,® but the whole story 
is told by Gaimar in a very confused manner, and not 
directly taken from any single authority which we have 
at present. It is not necessary to unravel the tangle here, 
but the reader who wishes to do so should consult M. 
Depping's " Expeditions Maritimes des Normands," ® a 
clear but not very detailed narrative of the ravages of 
the Northmen on both sides of the Channel. 

Another fact relating to Normandy from an unknown 
source is iBthelred's crossing the sea on the occasion of 

^ VY. 3362-^816. 
^ Dom Bouquet, yiii. 278. 
' V. 8881. 

^ Annales Vedast., Dom Bouquet^ 
vxij. 81. 

* ▼. 3291. 

' Annales Vedast., p. 82. 

7 V. 3262. 

s See A. S. Chr., 887. 

' Liyre ii., ch. 5, 6^ ed. 1848. 



his marriage with Emma, daughter of Duke Richard.^ 
No French chronicles refer to it, nor do they mention the 
extent of her dowry.* The former statement was pro- 
bably only another of the Trov/vire's embellishments, but 
the latter must surely have been grounded on common 
report. The account of the same King's brother Edmund, 
who made war on him with the help of his father-in- 
law, a Welsh King, is very puzzling. An Eadmund 
iEtheling, who doubtless was ^Ethelred's brother, died 
some years before, and was .buried at Romsey,' but there 
is nothing in the Welsh Chronicles or English either to 
connect him with Wales or to explain this passage. 

Lappenberg, indeed, pointed out^ a passage in the 
history of Theoderic the Monk of Drontheim, about 
S. Olaf reconciling uSthelred to his brothers, which 
might seem to refer to the same event ;^ but as the 
next sentence speaks of ^Ethelred being driven into 
perpetual exile by Cnut, its authority is clearly not of 
much weight. 

Gaimar mentions this shadowy Edmund again as 
helping his nephew Eadmund Ironside and being buried 
at Hereford.® Nothing, however, is known about him 
at the cathedral there, whose Saxon saint is Ethelbert 
of East Anglia. Mr. Woodward, too, in referring to 
this Edmund, speaks of '' Gaimar's unsupported asser- 
" tion," and evidently does not believe it.^ 

The fortunes of Eadmund's sons ® when driven from their 
native country are also told at great length, and there 
is no earlier account extant on which the story is based. 
It is not altogether accurate, as Cnut was hardly five 

1 V. 4125. 

^ Wincestre en drurie li donat, 
Rogingham e Botelant, v. 4138. 
Rockingham was part of the dowry 
of the Qneen in later times. 

» A. S. Ch., 972 (970). 

^ England under the Anglo-Saxon 
Kings, 150, n., 3. 

^ Reconciliavit Adalredum fratri- 
bus suis et ut in Begem sublima- 
retur, obtinuit. Langebek, Rer. 
Danic. Scriptores, y. 323. 

• V. 4218. 

7 Hist, of Wales, 204. 

8 V. 4566. 


and twenty when he became King of England, and could 
not therefore have had two sons ruling in Denmark.^ 
His son Sweyn did succeed him there eventually, and 
hence the mistake. But the main difference between the 
accounts of Qaimar and Florence is that the latter says 
that the children were sent away to be killed, while 
Gaimar says that they were carried off by a friend to save 
their lives. Foreign writers ^ know of their sojourn in 
Hungary and Russia, but not of the previous circum- 

The death of Cenwulf of Mercia at Basingwerk ^ is a 
statement the source of which is not known, but the 
burial of Swegen at York, * though not in the Anglo- 
Saxon Chronicles, is coh6rmed by, or derived from, 
Simeon of Durham,^ who wrote some years earlier than 
Qaimar, and also in a measure by the Encomiv/m Emmce!^ 
when narrating the embarcation of the Danisli king's 
corpse for his lajst voyage across the North Sea. 

The sharers of Alfred's victories over the Danes, 
Ceolmer, Chude, and Chilman,^ are probably not fictitious 
names, though we cannot verify them. Chude may be 
either Hudda or Tudda, both of which names occur as 
witnesses of charters of iEthelwulf,® and Chilman, Ceol- 
mund, or Cialmund. Both an abbot and a thane of 
this name are found in connexion with Ring Alfred." 

The description of the internal machine which caused 
the death of Eadmund Ironside is peculiar to Qaimar. 
Henry of Huntingdon ^® speaks of Eadric's son as the 
murderer, while William of Malmesbury ^^ is more vague. 

> V. 4566. 

' SteeoRtrup, Normannerne, iii. 
305, quoted in Diet, of Nat. Biog., 
vol. ix., p. 8. 

8 V. 2239. 

< V. 4162. 

« Qesta Regain, ii. 146. (Rolls 

^ Aflsumpto corpore Sveini Regis 

sua in patria sepulti. Duchesne, 
Hist. Norm. Script., 167. 

f y. 8168. . 

^ Kemble, ii. 18, 35. 

9 Kemble, ii. 96, 122. 

^^ p. 186, Rolls ed. 

" Geata Regum, i. p. 217, Rolls 

U 51689. C 



The punishment of Eadric by Cnut in person is also an 
additional fact ; and the detail of holding the victim's 
forelock while his head is severed is ijiteresting. In 
the north of Europe until the last century, when exe- 
cutions were performed with a sword on a criminal 
seated in a chair, the head was held in this way, as may 
be seen in contemporary engravings. I should be inclined 
to respect Gaimar's authority here. There is an air 
of truth about his narrative. He knew that a Dane 
used an axe, for instance. Besides, in the story about 
Cnut and the waves, Henry of Huntingdon places the 
scene "in littore maris," ^ while Gaimar describes it as 
happening on the banks of the Thames near Westminster 
Abbey. I think everyone will agree that the latter ver- 
sion is more likely to be coiTect. Huntingdon's phrase 
is a natural ampliHcation for any one to make in re-telling 
the stoiy if no place was specified to him, and the waves of 
the sea are more impressive than the tide of the river, 
so that I think there can be no doubt that Gaimar's 
verrtion is founded on fact. About this period Gaimar 
becomes much more minute in his narration, as in the 
account of the duel between Cnut and Eadmund, where 
the equipment of the champions is catalogued.^ The 
chances de fer is an anachronism due to the poet's 
imagination, as the Hon. H. A. Dillon, one of our best 
authorities on armour, has pointed out. In the middle 
of the next century, Gaimar's own time, they became 

1 p. 189. 

' The A, S. Chr. and Florence 
speak only of a meeting. The En- 
comium Emmse and William of 
Malmesbary (Gesta Regom, 217), 
of a combat refused by Cnut, while 
Heniy of Huntingdon and Ailred 
of Kievaulz (Twysdeo, 363) speak 
of the fight as begun, the latter 
adding evidently imaginary details. 

In the Transaction! of the Royal 
Society of Literature, New Series, 
vol. v., p. 169, there is a paper on 
the subject by Mr. Hogg, in which 
the author does not sufficiently dis- 
criminate between the different 
▼alue of the authorities he quotes. 
See also a note by Mr. Earle in his 
edition of the A. S. Chr., p. 340. 


common, but in the Bayeux tapestry only a few of the 
most important personages among the Normans, as Wil- 
liam and Odo, and none of the English, wear such 
armour on their legs, and sixty years before that they were 
probably unknown. The speeches of Marleswain, Si ward, 
and the earls at the Witenagemote which restored' the 
banished Godwine are likewise, no doubt, imaginative,^ 
like the speech of Waltheof in Orderic ; ^ but like the 
chances de /er just mentioned they show us what might 
be the course of procedure in such cases in the poet's 
own time. The presence of li quens LeicUie (Earl 
Leofwine) betrays the historical inaccuracy. It must be 
meant for the father of Earl Leofric, who had been dead 
some time. 

The account of Earl Tostig's piratical descents on the 
kingdom of his brother Harold in 1066'^ is slightly 
different to that of any other writer. The names of 
Wardstane and Brunemue as places which were harried 
by his men are in Gaimar only, but Simeon of Durham * 
agrees with him in giving Fulford as the " campstede " 
where Tostig defeated Edwin and Morkere, both his- 
torians being connected with the northern parts of 
England and therefore perhaps using a common autho- 
rity. That Gaimar drew information from a northern 
source is clear also from his insertion of the comet of 
A.D, 1067* as being visible in Northumberland. It 
is not mentioned by writers in other parts of England, 
nor indeed by Simeon. 

The Battle of Hastings is but briefly narrated by Battle of 
Gaimar, with the exception, of the picturesque incident ^ ^^' 
of the commencement of the combat by Taillefer, on 
which the poet dwells at considerable length. 

1 YV. 4940, et seqq. 

* p. 180. 

2 Prcvost's ed., ii. 261. 

5v. 6371. 

3 \v. 5160 Pt 8c<jq. 








Wace tells us that as the Minstrel Knight rode forth 
from the Norman ranks he sang 

" De Karlemaine et de BoUant 
E d' Oliver e des vassals 
Ki morurent en Renchevals."^ 
but says nothing of his juggling performance. 

A French Chronicle in the Barberini Library at Rome 
says that "Talifer avant que les Cheveyntayngnes 
des batayllies fussent venus, jowa deuant le rey de 
Engleterre ou deus espees que il geta ca e la. E 
" cum tuz fussent de eel iu enpoweri, il tuwa celuy 
que porta la baner le rey de Engleterre; autre feiz 
fist il ceo, e a la terce feiz fust il tuwe limemes."* 
The only other writers^ who do mention this say that 
it was his sword which he threw up and caught, and not 
his lance, as Gaimar says. Wace^ however, speaks of him 
as killing an enemy with his lance before he used his 
sword, and certainly in the Bayeux Tapestry the 
Norman horsemen, except William and Odo, all appear 
to be armed with a lance at the beginning of the combat, 
so that Gaimar is more likely to be right than wrong. 

Reign of ^^ *^® whole reign of William I. it is the occurrences 
William L which concem the north and east of the kingdom which 
seem most familiar to Gaimar. He mentions indeed, tout 
court, that the Conqueror revisited Normandy in A,D. 
1067, but the other events recorded are the comet which 
was seen specially in Northumberland ;* William's journey 
north in A.D. 1067, where Gaimar magnifies the giving 
up of the keys of the city and hostages by the men of 
Tork^ into a treacherous capture by the Conqueror ; ^ the 

1 V. 13162. 

^ There is a copy of this Chronicle 
among the Bymer Transcripts, vol. 
clviii., pt. 2, p. 193. 

3 Henry of Huntingdon and the 
Carmen de Bello Hastiugensi, as- 

cribed to Gny of Amiens. The 
latter should have been added to 
the note in vol. ii., p. 167. 

* V. 6360. 

» Orderic (Le Provost), ii. 186. 

« vVi 5380-5404. 



Danish invasion and the taking of York in A.D. 1069 ; 
the story of Herewaixl ; William's visit to Scotland ; and 
the revolt of Ralf, Earl of Norfolk and Roger, Earl of 
Hereford and Waltheof. The invasion by Harold's sons ^ 
is evidently supposed by Gaimar to have been in the 
north, and not in Somerset, as he treats it as the imme- 
diate prelude to the taking of York, either that by 
Eadgar iEtheling in Jan. 1069, or the later and more 
striking success of Waltheof and the Danes in Sep- 
tember of the same year. 

Dui'ham Castle ^ was not built, according to Simeon, 
immediately after the insurrection in Yorkshire, but 
after the King's return from his expedition in Scotland 
in 1072, which Gktimar mentions later.' 

In his account of the invasion by Asbiom and his 
nephews, Gaimar quite omits the southern part, the 
unsuccessful attacks on Dover and Sandwich,^ following 
in this respect his usual authority, the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, with which Florence ^ also agrees. 

He also speaks of the murder of Bishop Walchere at 
Durham as if it had occurred during the Danish inva- 
sion, and not some years afterwards, placing it befoi*c 
the meeting of Morkere and iEgelwine at Ely, and 
William's expedition to Scotland, which in truth pre- 
ceded it. 

But the incident in William L's reign which more Herewanl. 
than all stirs Gaimar's muse is the gallant defence of 
the Isle of Ely by Hereward and his subsequent ex- 
ploits as an outlaw. The historical aspect of the legend 
has been so thoroughly discussed by Mr. Freeman,® that 

> y. 5405. For the third brother, 
MagnnH, mentioned by Florence 
of Worcest^, Qaimar substitates 
Tostig, son of Sweyn. 

2 V. 5425. 

»▼. 5711. 

* Ord. Vit. (Prevo»t), ii. 191. 


« ▼. 5488. It Bhoold b« « tho 
peasants came to join them,*' 
eridently taken from the phcue in 
the A. S. Chr., 1070, '* )« land fole 
** eomen him ongean, and gri^Sedon 
« wW hine." 

* Norman Conquest, iv. 804 1 



there is no need to insist here upon the inconsistencies 
and impossibilities which render it so difficult to sepa- 
rate the true from the false. 

In addition to the brief notice in the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, the Latin Oesta Herwardi, which professes to 
have been compiled from an English life written by 
Hereward's priest, Leofric, and which, as we gather from 
the Liber Elie7i&is, was compiled by Richard, a monk of 
Ely, has been the source from which nearly all sub- 
sequent writers ^ have derived their information. This, 
in some instances, is quite apparent from the words 
used, Gaimar, however, is quite independent of the 
Oesta. He knows nothing of Hereward till the revolt 
of Ely, nothing of his parentage, nothing of his first 
wife, Turfrida, but he tells ue, what the Oesta does not, 
of his accompanying William to Maine in 1073, and of 
his death in England at the hands of the Normans after 
he had made peace with the Conqueror. The Hyde 
Chronicle ^ also mentions his violent death, and besides, 
a feat, not celebrated either by Gaimar or Richard, the 
capture of a castle by gaining admission to the chapel 
as a pretended corpse on a bier ready for burial. 
Another account ' says that Hugh de Ewermoth,* Here- 
ward's son-in-law, who is not mentioned either in the 
Oesta or by Gaimar, was his slayer, but the MS. contain- 
ing this account is much later and of no independent 
authority. The writer of the Oesta speaks of seeing 
himself, and of the person to whom he sends his book 
seeing likewise,*^ some of Hereward*s companions, pro- 
bably in extreme old age, crippled by the brutality 
of Norman punishments. In J 1 39 ^ there was a hermit 

> liber Eliensis, the pseudo 
Ingulf, John of Brompton, Simeon of 
Dnrham, Balf de Diceto, Waverley 
Annals, the Book of Hyde, John of 
Peterborough, Hugo Candidus. The 
last two no doubt had Peterborough 
traditions to rely upon. 

3 Bollfi ed'., p. 295. 

* Cott. Ch., xiii. 9. 

* A benefactor of Bee Abbey. 
Tanner, Not. Mon., 268. 

* vol. i., p. 340. 

^ Dugd., Mon. Angl., v. 418; 
Harl. Ch., 51 C. I. 


living in Leicestershire of the same name (Outi) as one of 
Hereward's comrades. There is nothing to show that he 
is the same man, but it is not impossible, and if so, he may 
well have been Gaimar's informant. Living so near the 
time, it is remarkable that the writer of the Oesta should 
have been ignorant of how his hero met his death, 
unless, indeed, he simply used the material left by 
Leofric, who may, of course, have died before Hereward. 
Out of seven names of Hereward's companions given by 
Gaimar, five also occur in the Gesta} It is worth 
noticing here that the way the names are recounted by 
the writer of the Gesta is some confirmation of the truth 
of the statement in bis preface about the sources of his 
work. It is quite clear that the names have been 
copied from two separate lists, in which some names are 
repeated, and the compiler has not taken the trouble to 
notice this, and to omit those which he had already 
written down. 

In the reign of William IL, as in that of his father, William 
it is only a few of the most striking incidents that are ®'*^***' 
mentioned, and even for these, although so near his 
own time^ Gaimar was^ as he tells us himself,^ indebted 
to written testimony as well as to what he heard from 
old people with whom he came in contact. 

The principal events which he records are William's 
war in Le Maine^ the conspiracy of Robert of Mowbray, 
and the King's death in the New Forest. 

The campaign in Le Maine is told very briefly. The 
"crossing the sea"^ was in November 1097, but the 
next two lines, according to Orderic,* cover a period of 
seven months, it being June before the army marched 
from Alengon. Nor did the King tarry till he took the 
city, but raised the siege in July, and a month later 
returned and entered Le Mans, not as a successful 

11^.871,873. I 3 7.5784. 

'^v. 571a. I < Yol. iv., p. 45. 



besieger, but in consequence of a peaceful agreement with 
Fulk, Count of Anjou. The subsequent recapture of the 
town, which brought William back across the Channel, 
took place in the summer of 1099, and though it is possible 
that Geoflfrey Martel may have been with the army, it 
was not he, but Hellas de la Fl^che, who was in command 
of it. Geoffrey, who was betrothed to Helias' daughter, 
had been put in command of Le Mans by his father, 
Fulk le Rechin, Count of Anjou, during the captivity of 
Helias the previous year.^ This may have been in 
Gaimar's mind when he wrote this line. Orderic does 
not mention Geoffrey's presence on either occasion. 
Gaimar also differs from Orderic^ in saying that the 
news of the capture of Le Mans came to William at 
Brockenhurst, instead of at Clarendon. The places are 
about 20 miles apart, and the discrepancy is easily 
explained by supposing that the King's head-quarters 
during his hunting expedition were at Clarendon, but 
that the news was brought to him while away from 
home and camping out in the Forest. Matthew Paris ^ 
in one of his two veraions mentions the Forest, but in 
the other ignores it, and rather implies that the scene 
took place in the palace, adding^ in direct contradiction 
to Gaimar, that the messenger would not wait until the 
King's meal was ended. 

William's landing place after his adventurous journey 
is said by Gaimar to have been Barfleur ; in which Wace 
follows him. This port was constantly used by the 
Anglo-Norman Kings, and therefore, no doubts inserted 
by the two poets, but the credit of Orderic's account * of 
the King's arrival at the mouth of the Touques and his 
ride on the curb's mare to Bonneville sur Touques is in 
no way impaired by this disagreement. 

^ Mabillon, Vetera Analecta, 313. 
3 vol. iv. 58. 

' Chron. Maj., ii. Ill; Hist. 
ADgl., i. 166. 
* iv. 58. 


The interview between William and his prisoner 
Helias is also put out of its proper place. It took place 
in Aug. 1098.^ So far from the Eling giving back Le 
Mans to Helias, it was only taken by him a year after 
by force, and the poet is not much truer to character 
than to fact. William of Malmesbury's explanation of 
the Ejng letting Helias go, that he vtba prcB f wrote extra 
se poaitue, is far more consistent with Kufus' temper 
than that he 

*'prent a rire. 
Par bel amur et nient par ire."* 

And Orderic's epithet of turgidua rex does not connote 
good humour. Gaimar, again, says nothing of Helias' 
offer to serve the King, and the only speech put into his 
mouth is more in the natm*e of a threat. Wace follows 
Oaimar in his false chronology, and in the main in his 
account of the interview, though the Whitsuntide Court 
at the new Hall at Westminster, which Gaimar describes 
at such length, is also postdated a year. The real 
date was AD. 1099, just before the King's victorious 
campaign in Le Maine. It is impossible to say whence 
Gaimar derives his amusing details of what took place 
there, and the dispute between the Kings of Wales and 
the Normans as to carrying the swords, and he does not 
mention what, though only resting on a single testimony, 
is probably true, that Eadgar, King of Scotland, bore 
one of the swords.^ Nor, being a Norman, is there any 
echo in his verses of the complaint of the oppressed 
English, who had to minister to the pride and luxury of 
a tyrannical King. 

The revolt of Robert of Mowbray really preceded the 
events which in Gaimar's verse it succeeds, Bamburgh 
being taken in November 1095. The new castle * men- 

» Ord. Vit, IT. 61. 
« V. 5948. 

U 51689. 

3 Aujiales WintonisB in Aniiales 
Monastic!, ii. 40. 
< T. 6150. 



tioned as being built by the King must be the Malvoisin 
which he erected to overawe the defenders ofBamburgh, 
and must not be confused with the new castle, which 
was taken by the King early in the campaign.^ Mow- 
bray's flight by sea to Tynemouth is a detail not given 
else where. There are two versions of his subsequent 
fate, that he died in imprisonment, and that he became 
a monk in St. Albans, and Gaimar clearly supports the 

In connexion with the death of the Red King, Gaimar 
mentions two circumstances of which other historians 
know little. The first is the Oab of Walter Tirel and 
the King, which is introduced as suggesting some motive 
for the subsequent tragedy. Walter begins by magni- 
fying the King's power, and then chaffing him for making 
no use of it. The King replies at once by more Gab, 
that he is going to lead an army to the Alps and keep 
Christmas at Poictiers. The fact was that the Count of 
Poictiers was going to mortgage his county to him for 
the expenses of the crusade,* and the visit might there- 
fore have been one of peace, but Tirel took it, as the 
King no doubt meant him to, as a threat of war, and 
Gaimar hints, determined on his death. 

There had already been a plot to murder the King in 
a similar way five years before.^ 

The King's death is minutely described as happening 
in the sight of his companions, who said that the arrow 
which struck him came from Walter's bow. Instead of 
fleeing at once, as other accounts say, the hunters give the 
dying King some grass as a substitute for the sacrament * 

' Fre«man, Will. II., ii. 46. 

* W. Malms. (Jesta Regum, ii. 

' Freeman, Will. II., ii. 45. 

^ Benyenuto CcUiui tells us that 
the same thing was done to him when 
knocked over by a shot daring the 
8iege of Borne. On coming to, he 

says, ** Tolendo comiuciare a par> 
** lare, non potevo, perche certi 
'' sciocchi soldatclli, mi avevano 
*' plena la bocca di terra, parendo 
'* loro con quella di avermi dato 
** la commanione." Vita di B. 
Cellini in Classici Italiaiii, yol. 142^ 
p. 123. 



which he demands, and bitterly bewail his loss.^ The corpse 
is carried to Winchester, not in a common cart covered 
with dirty cloths,^ but on a carefully constructed bier 
suspended between two horses and covered with the 
new cloak of one of his servants. The corpse is watched 
by a Bishop Walkelin and buried with due pomp, instead 
of being hurried into the ground with less ceremony 
than would have accompanied the funeral of the poorest 

The presence of Walkelin is clearly an error, as he 
was already dead, but that mistake alone is scarcely 
enough to discredit the whole story, if for other reasons 
it were credible, but, as Mr. Freeman says, '^ it is abso- 
" lutely impossible to believe it in the teeth of opposite 
** statements of so much higher authority." * 

The story is of a piece with Gaimar's entire con- 
ception of William's character. He extols his ma{ina- 
nimitas and his prodigal liberality to his immediate 
circle of followers, and in some cases to his enemies of 
the higher ranks, but says not a word of his many 

Many of the notes to the translation, as well as what 
is said in this preface, are based on the works of pre- 
vious editors of GeflBrei Gaimar, and on the writings 
of historians who have treated of this period, more 
especially Lappenberg's " England under the Anglo- 
" Saxon Kings," and Freeman's Histories of the Nor- 
man Conquest, and of the reign of William II. It has 
been impossible to acknowledge in a footnote to every 
sentence the source whence the information therein was 
derived, but none the less I am conscious of and wish 

^ Orderic tells as the kiod of folk 
who acted thas: Stipendiarii mi- 
lites, et nebuloues ac vulgaria 

* Orderic, iv. 89; W. Malms. 
Geata Regnm, Lib. it. § 833. 

8 Ord. Vit., iv. 90. 

* Will. II., ii. 660. 


to acknowledge my obligations to previous workers in 
the same field, as well as to my official colleagues and 
other friends for ready assistance whenever requested. 

For the list of books and for the index I am indebted 
to my daughter, Miss M. T. Martin. 

Dec. 1888. C. T. M. 

List of Books BEFERsnTG to Gaimar JlKd Hatelock. 

Monmnenta Historica Britannica, pp. 91, 764; Publications 
of the Caxton Societ7,^Yol. II.; 61mreh Hiato i!iaaa-of-Bagh«d, 
^L II., port H., p. Ji X t . 72 9 ; Michera Ohroniques Anglo Nor- 
mandes, Vol. I. ; MicherB Bapports but les anciens Monumens 
•de la litt^rature et de Hiiatoire de la France, I., 44, 194, 244 ; 
Roquefort's De TEtat de la Po^sie PranQoise, pp. 68. 82-4; 
Duval, KiBtoire Litt^raire de la France, ziii« 63, xyiii. pp. 731, 
738; De La Bue, Essais Historiques Bur les Bardes, iii. 104, 120; 
-Fr^re, Manuel de Bibliogn^hie 2^rmande ; Vienna, Jahrbiicher 
der Literatur, Yol. IxzYi., p. 266 ; GknEitleman's Magazine, 1857. 
Vol. II., p. 21; Ardneologift^ Vol. XII., pp. 307-342; Free- 
man's Norman Conquest, IV. 486, 486, 806, V. 99, 581, 824; 
T^illiam II., II. 660 ; Parker's Early History of Oxford (Oxford 
Historical Society), pp. 123, 126, 161, 180, 325 ; Jobann Vising, 
^tude BUT le Dialecte Anglo-Kormand du xii. si^cle ; Lappen- 
^-~her^ £)ngland under the ^Ajiglo-Saxon Kings ; Pluquet's Me- 
moire sur les Trouv^res Normands in M^moires de la Soci^t^ 
des Antiquaires de Normandie, I., 375 n., 414-6. ; ititson, 
Ancient -English Metrieal BemtmceB ; I. 3 6, ^40r43, 88 ; Wood- 
ward's History of Wales, 200, 204 ; Madden's Havelock the 
Dane, Boxburgh Club ; The Lay of Havelock the Dane. Edited 
by Bev. W. Skeat for the Early English Text Society ; Le Lai 
d'Havelok le Danois. Edited by F. Michel ; p. L. D. Ward's 
Catalogue of Bomances in the MSS. Department of the British 
Museum, pp. 423, 496, 940; Romania, IX. 480; Kupfer- 
Bchmidt, "Die Havelok*Sage bei Gaimar und ihr Verbal ten 
■" zum lai d'Havelok;" Ludorff, Ueber die Sprache des Alten 
Englischen Lay, "Havelock the Dane," 4; Sir T. D. Hardy's 
Descriptive Catalogue of MSS. II. 86, 245, III. 241, 800, 862. 




Vol. L, p. I, for " I " read " [C] I.' 

„ V. 27, for fuUstop substitute comma. 

„ V. 632, and note, /or ** Argentele " read " Argentelete." 

„ V. 556, after " roant " dele comma. 

„ vv. 798-800, add inverted commas. 

„ Y. 822, dele comma after " Laltre." 

„ ▼. 107 6, for fullstop substitute comma. 

„ V. \2U, for « Le " read « Li." 

„ Y. I224f for fullstop substitute comma. 

„ V. 1400, for " vallees " read " valees." 

„ Y. 1640, dele fullstop. 

„ Y. 1778, n.,/or " mestre '* read " estre." 

f„ V. 21 17, n., for " Colesdeburch " read " Colesdeburc." 
„ Y. 2532, after <<fiz," dele comma. 
„ Y. 267 1 , for " e " read " le." 
„ Y. 2893-4, add inverted commas. 

Y. 4282, /or fuWsiop substitute comma. 

v. 4598, dele fullstop. 

V. 4599,/or comma substitute fullstop. 

v. 5575, text and translation, after ** Aluerij! " dele comma. 

V. 5580, y2;r fullstop substitute comma. 

v. 5661, /or fullstop substitute comma. 

V. 5715, dele fullstop. 

Y. 6320, the numbers of the verses in the margin are wrong from 
this point to p. 277. 
„ p. 280, v. 46, add fullstop. 

p. 281, V. 72, for fullstop substitute comma. 

V. 79, add fulb<top. 
p. 285, V. 180, n., /or " tresqual" read ** tresquen." 
V. 1 90, add fullstop. 
„ V. 191, /or fullstop substitute comma. 
f „ p. 289, V. 280, dele comma. 

„ p. 290, V. 6, /or fullstop substitute comma. 
„ „ V. 7, for comma substitute fullstop. 

„ p. 297, V. 288,/or fullstop substitute comma. 
„ p. 314, V. 908, add fullstop. 
„ p. 322, for ** 370 " read " 369." 
„ p. 876, 1. 20, for " ipsis " read «* ipsius." 
Vol. II., Y. 556,/or " Havelock " read « Haveloc." 
v. 1258, n., /or "584" read "634." 
V. 1260, n.,/or *• 564" read " 634." 
v. 1296, /or "book" read ''writing." 
p. 65, for " 2500" read " 2005." 

U 51689. Q 

» i* 


»» >» 





Vol. II., V. 2117,/or " ColdeBdeburch " read " Colesdeburc.'' >| 

„ T. 2387, for " who chased Offa " read •« whom Offa drove out." i 

V. 4265, for « steel " read " iron." 
p. 155, for « 5895 " read « 48»5." 
„ T. 5408, n.,/or ** Swegen III." read ** Swegen II." \ " 

„ „ /or " 104d ' r«irf " 1048." \ 

„ V. 5488, for « against " read " to join." 

„ T. 6140, this Terse is, I think, corrupt. Mainus, Mauma, may 
mean nnttilaied (^ccxatus et exieaticulatua), which, 
according to William of Malmesbury (Gesta Regum, 
II., 501), was his fate. 
„ Y. 6191,/or " kingdom " read " land." 



• i 










Heretofobe in the fonner book^ 

If you remember it, 

You have heard how perfectly 

Constantine held the dominion after Arthur; 

And how Iwain was made king 5 

Of Murray and of Lothian. 

But afterwards he fared rin;ht ill. 
f All their best kindred died, 

And the Saxons spread themselves, 

Who had come with Cerdic, 10 

From the Humber as far as Caithness. 

Modred the king had given it to them, 
, So they seized, and wholly occupied 

The land which once Hengist held. 

This they claimed as their heritage, 15 

» For Hengist was of their lineage. 

1. M. Tbing miggesU that the former book xneani Wace's Brat, but 
Wace does not saj that Muref and Loeneis were given to Iwain, bat 
Scotland (Brat, ii. 286). GeoflPrey of Monmouth (ix. 9) says that 
Mureif waa given to Urien, Iwain*t father, and ** Loudonesia " to Lot 
bit brother. 

U 51689. Wt.r,925. A 

h ■ 


Behold the occasion, 

By which the Britons came into great trouble, 

So did the Scots and Picts, 

The Welsh and the Oymri 20 

Such war the outlandish folk made, 

Britain came to great grief. 

The English every day increased, 

For they often came from over sea. 

Those from Saxony and Almain 25 

Joined their company 

For the sake of Dan Hengist, their ancestor, 

The others made them lords. 

Every-day as they conquered 

From the English, they explored the land. 30 

HereBri- The land which they went on conquering, 
name tod^ They called it England, 
was called Behold a cause 
"^^ ' By which Britain lost its name. 

Aiid the nephews of Arthur reigned, 85 

Who warred against the English. 
But the Danes hated them much. 

Because of their kindred, who had died 

In the battles which Arthur fought 

Against Modret, whom he afterwards slew. 40 

If that is true that Gildas said 

In the Geste, he found written 
"" That there were two kings formerly in Britain 

When Constantino was chief. 

This Constantino was the nephew of Arthur, 45 

Who had the sword Caliburc. 
Kin? . One of the kings had for his name Adelbrit. 

Adelbrit tt • t_ i i_ tv 

Norfolk, -^l® ^^ & ^^ch man^ also he was a Dane. 

35. By the nephews of Arthur, Gulmar probably means Aorelias Conan, 
nephew of Constantine, and Vortiporiiu. See Geofiej of Monmouth, 
Lib. xi. caps. 5 and 6 ; Brut, v. 13,740. 

47. The names Adelbrit and Bdeln do not occur in Gildas. 


The other had for his name Edelsie. 
His were Lincoln and Lindsey. 
From the Himiber to Batland 
The land was under his command. 
The other was king of the country, 
Which is now called Norfolk. 
These two kings were so united, 
That they were sworn companions, 
And between them two was such love 
That Edelsi gave his sister 
To Adelbrit, that rich king, 

Who was of the lineage of the Danes. 
The other king was a Briton, 
Who had the name of Edelsi, 

His sister was named Orwaiu. 
Very noble was she, and bountiful. 
By her lord she had a daughter, 

Whom they called Argentille. 

The maid grew and throve. 

For her nurse was sufficient for her. 

So it came to pass, in all truth, 

That her father had no other heir. « 

In the kingdom of Denmark 

He had four rich earldoms, 

And in Britain he had conquered 

Cair Coel with all the country. 

From Colchester as far as HpUand 

His kingdom extended in the hands of one holder. 

As long as he was so powerful. 

Edelsi was his good friend, 

But then it happened that Adelbrit died 

In the city of Thetford. 

He was carried to Colchester, 

There was this king buried. 

50 Edolsie. 



Queen Or- 

15 r The 
05 daughter 



Qf\ the King 
^^ dies. 

74. Colchester. 

A 2 


And Orewain and Argentille, 

That is his queen and his daughter, 

Went away to lindsey 85 

To her brother, king Edelsie. 

The kingdom that Adelbrict held 

They delivered to him, that it might be guarded. 

For the queen was sick, 

Nor did she live twenty days more 90 

After Albrict. When she came to her end 

They buried the queen. 

And Aigentille was brought up 

At Lincoln and in Lindsey. 

As old folk say, 9* 

She had no near kinsman 

On the side of her father, of the Danes. 

Hear what this felon king did, 

For the inheritance which he coveted 

He mismarried his niece. 100 

He gave her to a lad, 
Cretan ^^^ ^^ named Cuheran. 
was Have- Because he wished to abase her 
^^^- He bethought himself that he would give her to him. 

This Cuheran was a cook, 105 

But he was a very handsome youth. 
A fine face he had and beautiful hands, 
His body was graceful, sweet and smooth, 
His countenance was always cheerful. 
Good legs he had and good feet. 110 

But because he was bold, 
And willingly fought. 
There was no groom in the house. 
If he played with him, 

And began to hustle him, 115 

That he did not upset him with his legs in the air. 
And if he was very angry. 
He tied him with his belt, 


And if the other had no protection. 

He would beat him well with a rod. 120 

And yet he was so frank, 

K the groom promised him 

That for this he would not love him less, 

He would instantly untie him. 

When they had embraced each other, 125 

Then was Cuharan pleased. 

And the king and the knights 

Qave him of their meat. 

Some gave him cakes, 

Some quarters of simnels, 130 

Others gave him pieces of meat and fowl 

Which came to them from the kitchens. 

So that he had so much food and provision 

That he had two servants with him. 

And to the servants of the house, 135 

He often gave great gifts 

Of simnels and of biscuits, 

Of meat and of cakes. 

For this he was so well loved, 

And so valued and so praised 140 

That there was no freeman in the house, 

If Cuheran wished for a gift 

But he would willingly give it him, 

But he did not care for gain. 

To give whatever he had, 145 

This was his way, at that time^ 

And when he had nothing to give. 

He was ready to go and borrow. 

Then he gave it, and spent it. 

What he borrowed, he repaid well. 160 

When he had anything he gave it all. 

But asked no one for anything. 

ThuSj he was in the house 

Scullion to a cook. 


There were two servants whom he kept^ 155 

listen^ Lords, why he did so. 

He thought they were his brothers. 

But his fatlier was not theirs. 

Nor his mother, nor his lineage. 

Nor was he of their rank. 160 

Although he was of such low estate. 

He had come of gentle blood. 

And if the King had known it, 

I think he would never have had his niece. 

Of whom he was born, he did not know, 165 

He made him his juggler. 

In order to gain the land of Albricht 
He caused his niece to lie with him ; 
The daughter of the king in a poor bed. 
Now it is needed that God should help, 170 

For the king has done great cruelty 
For covetousness of this kingdom, 
Since, to have the kingdom for himself. 
He disgraced his niece, as he hoped. 
And gave her to his cook, 176 

Who was najned Cuheran. 
He did not know what woman was, 
Nor what he ought to do. 
Directly he came to bed. 
He lay on his face and went to sleep. 180 

Argentille was in great thought, 
Why he lay so on his face. 
And wondered much 
That he never turned towards her 
And would not approach her, 185 

As a man should do to his wife. 
The niece complained to the king; 
Often she chid her uncle 
That he had so disinherited her. 
And given her to such a man; 190 


Until it happened on a night, 

That they for the first time took their pleasure 

After that thej fell asleep 
Much they loved each other and rejoiced. 

The king's daughter, in her sleep 195 Argen- 

Dreamt that she was with Cuherant dream. 

Between the sea and a thicket, 
Haunted by a savage bear. 
Towards the sea she saw come 

Figs and boars, eager to attack 200 

This great bear, which was so fierce^ 
That it wanted to devour Cuheran. 
"With the bear were many foxes, 
Who had been in danger since day. 
For the boars attacked them ; 205 

Destroyed and killed many of them. 
When the foxes were destroyed, 
A single boar, fierce and bold. 
Attacked this bear, who was making such noise. 
Alone, body to body, 210 

And stiTick it with its tusk 
So that he cut its heart in two. 

When the bear found himself wounded to death 
It gave a cry, then lay still, 

And the foxes came running 215 

From all sides towards Cuherant ; 
Their tails between their legs 
Their heads bowed, and on their knees, 
They made show of begging mercy 
Of Cuheran on whom they had made war. 220 

When he had made them all rise. 
He wished to go towards the sea. 
The great trees that were in the wood. 
Saluted him on all sides. 
The sea rose and the waves came. 225 


So that he could not keep in the wood. 

The wood fell, the sea came, 

Cuheran was in a great strait. 

Then came two lions. 

They fell upon their knees, 230 

But they killed many of the beasts 

In the wood, who were in their way. 

Cuherant, for fear which he had, 

Climbed on one of the great trees 

And the lions came on 235 

Towards the tree, kneeling. 

Through all the wood was such a great cry 

That the lady awoke, 

And, as she had had such a dream, 

Hugged her lord tight. .240^ 

She found him lying on his back. 

Between her arms she held him dose. 

For fear she opened her eyes. 

She saw a flame which issued 

Forth from her husband's mouth 245 

Who was still fast asleep. 

She marvelled at the sight, 

At her husband's mouth. 

And at the flame which she saw. 

Now hearken what she said: 260 

^*SiE," said she," you are on fire, 
*' Wake, if it please you 
'* From your mouth there comes a flame. 
I know not who put it there," 

So she embraced him and drew him to her, 255 

That he woke and said, '*Why, 
" Why have you woke me, sweet love, 
'* Why are you frightened " ? 
Much he prayed her, much he coaxed her 
That she told him all, declared to him 260 

About the flame, and the vision 
Which she had seen of her husband. 


Caberan replied, 

Of the vision which he heard from her, 

According to bis wit, he explained the dream, 265 

Though he said, all was deceit. 

'* Lady,** he said, "this will be well. 

^ Both for your good, and for mine. 

'* This then is my opinion, what this can be ; 

'* The king will hold his feast to-morrow; 270 

*^ Many of his barons will be there. 

** Stags, and roes, and vemson» 

'' And other meat there will be so much, 

** And in the kitchen so much will remain, 

'^ We will take eo much in serving, 276 

'^ I will make the squires plenty 

** Of good bacon and brawn, 

** From the barons' dishes. 

^' The squires are obliging to me 

" Both at evening and morning. 280 

" This is what the foxes mean, 

** Of which you dreamt; this is what they are. 

'* And the bear is dead; he was killed yesterday; 

'* He was taken wild in a wood. 

" Two bulls there are for the lions, 285 

*' And for the sea, we take the caldrons 

'' Where the water rises as a sea, 

'* Until cold makes it cease. 

" The flesh of bulls will be cooked in it. 

" Lady, the vision is told." 290 

Argentille, when she heard this, said 
" Yet tell me more. Sir. 
<* How that fire can be explained 
** Which I saw burning in your mouth?" 
** Lady," be said ''I know not wha€ it should be, 295 
'' But sleeping it escaped me. 
** While I sleep, it seizes my mouth. 

I feel nothing of the flame. 



i« Truly I am much ashamed of it, 
' ^ That it happens to me while I sleep." 300 

Said Argentine, ^'In my opinion^ 

** We are here in dishonour^ 
. " Better were we in exile 


'^ Amongst strangers^ and worse ofl; 

'' Than to dwell here in such shame. 305 

" Love, where is thy family?" 

Lady," he said, '' at Qrimsby. 

Thence I departed when I came here. 
" If I find not my kindred there, 
" Under Heaven I know not whence I was bom. 810 

, '*LoVE,' she said, '*then let us go thither, 
I *^ To see if we shall ever find them there. 
) " No man but I [ever] loved thee 
. " Or gave us better counsel." 

Said Ouheran, "My love, 316 

' ** Be it wisdom, or be it folly, 
V I will do what you wish. 

" I will take you there if you think fit." 

They lay all night, until clear day. 

On the morrow they go to their lord : 320 

They came to the king, they asked leave. 

When he heard it, he was glad, 

All laughing he gave it them, 

To all his men he joked about it. 

And said ^' If they are a little hungry, 325 

*' On the third day, or to-morrow, 

'* They will set themselves to return, 

" When they can do nothing better." 

Now they go to Grimsby. 

There they find a good Mend. 330 

A fisher he was, he lived there. 

He had for his wife the daughter of Qrim. 
When he recognised the three young men 

Cuheran and the two sons of Grim, 


And he knew about the king's daughter 335 

- - - - in the law 

- - - in his courage 

He said to his wife, who was very wise^ 

'« Wife/' said he, " what shall we do ? 

'* If you think fit, we will discover, 340 

'* To Haveloc, the king's son, 

'' Our counsel, and the secret. 

'' Let us tell him quite openly, 

** Of whom he was born and of what people/* 

Said the wife, " If he knew it, 345 

" I think he would discover it, 

« By his folly in such a place, 

'' That great harm would soon come to him from it. 

** He is not so wise 

*' As to know how to hide his ambition. 350 

** If he knew that he was sprung from kings 

'' For a short time would it be concealed, 

'' And still, let us call him nov^, 

'< Let us ask him of whom he is bom, 

** And let his wife come with him. 355 

'' We can well tell him I think, 

" Of whom he was bom, and of what country, 

" And how he was exiled by war,'* 

Thebeupon they called Haveloc, 
And Argentille came with him, 360 

And the good man and his wife 
Began to question him right well. 
'* Friend," they said, '* of whom were you bom, 
'' In what place are thy kinsfolk?" 
« Lady,** he said, " I left here 866 

'^ My kin, when I departed hence: 
'' Thou art my sister, I am thy brother, 
** Both by father and by mother. 
'' Qrim was my father, a fisherman, 
^ My mother was named Sebrug, his wife. 370 





When they died, I left this place^ 
** I took with me my two brothers. 
** Now we are grown up, we have come back, 
** But we do not recognise our kinsfolk, 
" Only thee, and thy husband, 375 

" I know well thou art our sister." 
Kelloc replied, ''All here is otherwise. 
Never did thy father sell salt, 
Nor was thy mother a Salter. 
^' Qrim sold salt, and was a fisherman. 380 

" For my brothers I thank thee much. 
** For having brought them up, I will repay you. 
Yesterday arrived beside the port 
A great ship good and strong. 
'' Bread and flesh she brought, and wine and com, 385 
** Of these they have great plenty. 
" Over the sea they mean to go, 
" If you will go with them 
*' I think they will go to the country 
Where your kin is and your friends, 390 

If you will go with them 
*' We can well commend them to you. 
*' Cloth we will give you to trade with. 
'' Also you shall take of our money, 
" And bread, and flesh, and good clear wine 395 

" To take at evening and morning. 
** Provision you shall have as much as you want, 
*' You shall take your two servants with you, 
" But keep well your secret. 

" You were the son of a good king. 400 

*' He had Denmark for his inheritance, 
*' So had his father and his ancestry. 
" Your father was named Gunter, 
'' He took to wife the daughter of king Gaifer, 

408. Neither Geoffrey of Monmouth nor Wace mentions each a name of 
a Danish king whom Arthur conquered. 


'' Alvive was her name: She reared me. 406 

" Well she cared for me while she lived. 

" She brought me up. So said my mother, 

" I was the daughter of Grim, a companion of hers. 

^ But it happened ia your land, 

'' That king Arthur came to conquer it^ 410 

*' For his tribute, which they withheld from him^ 

" With many men he came to the land, 

** To kmg Qunter he seemed an enemy, 

*' Near the sea he gave him battle, 

" Slain was king Qunter, 415 

'* And many knights on both sides. 

" The land gave what Arthur would. 

" But the queen, because of the war, 

'* Could not remain in the land, 

" So she fled with the right heir. 420 

" You are he, as I believe 

" Dan Haveloc, the king's son. 

" My father had a right good ship, 

" He took the queen quietly away, 

** Towards this country he brought her, 426 

" When it happened, as God willed, 

** That we were met by outlaws, 

*' Into the sea were hurled all 

" Our knights and our folk, 

*' And the Queen also. 480 

" No man was saved but my father, 

'* And no woman was saved but my mother. 

*' My father was known to them, 

*' Therefore the children were saved, 

** I, and you and my two brothers, 435 

** By my father's prayer. 

" When we came to this country, 

" We cut our great ship in two, 

" For it was all broken, and damaged, 

*' When the queen was killed. 440 


** Of our ship we made a house; 

** By a boat we got our living, 

'* In which our father went to fish. 

" Fish had we to eat. 

" Turbot, salmon and mullet, 445 

^ WhaJe^ porpoises and mackarel, 

*' In great plenty; and in abundance 

'* We had bread and good fish. 

'* The fish we exchanged for bread, 

'' Men brought us in plenty. 450 

** And when we had money, 

*' My father then became a Salter. 

" While he lived, he and my mother 

" Nourished you well, better than my brother. 

^' And I remained and took a husband. 455 

*^ He has kept me in great honour. 

*' He was a merchant, he knew how to cross the sea. 

" He knows well how to buy and sell. 

'^ In Denmark was he the other day, 

'• And heard many pray, 460 

*' That if he found you, you should come, 

'^ And claim the land. 

" Truly we counsel you to go. 

" Take your two lads with you, 

'* Let them be with you to serve you. 466 

" If good befal you, send us word, 

•* We will follow, if you will, 

" If Gtod gives you back your inheritance/' 

Said Haveloc and his wife. 
" We will give you a right good recompence, 470 
" We will do more than you ask, 
'' If Qod gives us back our inheritance, 
" And the lads we will take with us, 
« By God we will think well of it." 
The lady replied : '* Truly, 476 

" Here you will remain till you have a wind: 

THE HiarroBY of the ekulish. 16 

*' And if I can, before you go, 

^' You shall be clad in better clothes.'' 

Thej remained then, tarrying there, 

They were clothed honourably. 480 

They tarried thei*e ontil the wind came, 

And then they went on board the ship^ 

And Dan Alger^ the merchant^ 

Made the bargain for them. 

He gave them garments^ he and Eelloc. 485 

For Haveloc's crew 

He stowed away enough victual for them^ 

He would not have it fail for three months. 

Bread and wine and flesh and good fish, 

He put in their ship in great plenty. 490 

Directly the ship was afioat, 

The steersman was right busy. 

Two ships there were, in truth. 

ey spread their sails to the wind ; 
So far have they floated and steered^ 495 

That they have arrived in Denmark. 
In the country at which they landed, 
They went to a town, 
There they sought horses and carts, 
And caused their belongings to be carried thither. 500 
The merchants all returned. 
With their tackle, to the two ships. 
And Haveloc and his wife, 
Went to the town to lodge. 

Thebe dwelled a rich man, 505 

Sigar Estalre was his name. 
Steward was he to king Gunter, 
And justice of his land. 

But now it was so that he kept himself quiet. 
And he hated this rich king greatly, 510 

506. Steallere, A. S. for steward. 


Who then was a powerful king 

Over the other folk in this land. 

On account of his lord, who was dead, 

By the power of Arthur the strong ; 

Whom he had by treason sent for, 615 

And had given him this country. 

Because he was treacherous and cruel, 

Many took counsel together. 

That they should never hold with him, 

Nor take land of him, , 620 

Until they knew of the right heir, 

The truth about his life or death. 

This king who then was in the country, 

Was the brother of king Aschis 

Who met his death for Arthur 625 

Where Modred did him such wrong. 

His name was Odulf the king ; 

Much was he hated by his Danes. 

As God willed, and chance, 
God set his (Sigar's) thoughts on Haveloc, 530 

For the sake of his wife, who was so beautiful. 
The king's daughter dame Argentele, 

Six youths then attacked him, 

They took the lady, they struck him, 

And abused his servants much. 635 

And in many places broke their heads. 

When they were going off with his lady, 

Dan Haveloc was enraged, 

He took a right sharp axe, 

Which he found hanging in a house, /)40 

He caught in the lane the men 

Who were carrying off Dame Argentele. 

524. Geoflrej of Monmouth calls him Aschillius, kiog of Dacia. Book 
xi. cap. S. 


Three of them he struck down, two of them he killed^ 

And the sixth, he cut off his hand. 

He took his wife« he went to the inn. 545 

Behold^ a great ciy, of crime. 

He took his servants and his wife 

And entered a minster, 

He shut the doors, for fear. 

Then they went up into the tower. 560 

Then he had such a defence 

That he never would be taken without great trouble. 

For they defended themselves right well. 

Wounded were those who attacked them. 

When Dan Sigar came spurring. 555 

He saw how Dan Havelock kept throwing 

The stones, being very strong. 

He had killed the five rascals, 

Sigar saw it, and took counsel with himself. 

Then he remembered king Gunter. 560 

Directly he had recognised him, 

He no longer hated him for his men. 

He was so like his lord 

That when he saw him he took such pity on him 

That with great difficulty could he speak. 565 

He made all the assault to cease. 

Peace and truce he promised him, 

To his hall he led him. 

Him and his wife and his companions. 

The two lads whom I spoke of before. 570 

And when they were safe 

The great man asked him 

Who he was and what was his name, 

And whence were his companions. 

And of his lady he asked him, 575 

Whence she came and who gave her to him. 

" Sir,'* said he, "I know not who I am, 

" In this country I think I was born, 

U 51689. B 


'' A mariner whose name is Grim 

'' Brought me tiience a little lad. 580 

" To Lindsey he would go. 

** When we were on the high sea, 

** We were attacked by outlaws, 

" By whom I was so ill-treated. 

*' My mother was there, she was killed. 686 

" I was saved, I know not how, 

*' And the good man escaped, 

^* Who reared me and loved me much* 

'' He and his wife reared me, 

" And well they reared and cherished me. 690 

" When they were dead, I departed. 

*' I served a king, where I went, 

** And two lads were with me, • 

" As long as I was with Ihe king. 

** I was long with him in my youth, 596 

'' And this lady was one of his kin. 

'^ As it pleased him he gave her to me, 

*' And we were married. 

" Then I came to this country, 

" And I know none of my friends, 600 

'' And I do not know in truth 

" If I have one single kinsman. 

" But by the advice of a merchant 

" (He lives at Grimesby, 

" A right good man he is, his name is Alger) 606 

" He advised me, and his wife, 

" To come here and seek my friends, 

" And my kinsfolk in this land. 

" But I cannot name one, 

" Nor do I know how I can find them." 610 

Said the good man : " What is thy name ?" 

" Sir, I know not," replied he, 

" But when I was in the great court, 

^' They called me Cuherant, 


• " -' 

" And although I was a seryant 615 

/* I know well that Haveloc was my name. 

" At Grimesby the other day 

'' Alger called me Haveloc. 

" Now I am here, which you wish 

'' Of these two names you shall call me by." 620 

SiGAB stood, and listened, 
Well he remembered the king's son, 
And this name of which he spoke. 
The son of Gunter had the same name. 
Then he remembered another way, 625 

That he saw long ago, by means of the nurse, 
Of the flame which issued 
From his mouth when he was sleeping. 
That night he had him well watched 
Where he lay by his wife, 680 

Because he was very weary 
With the fight, and the thoughts 
Which he had had the day before, 
He fell asleep, and asked no one's [leave]. 
Directly he was asleep 635 

From his mouth came forth the flame, 
And the servants who watched him 
Soon told their master. 
And the goodman rose from his bed. 
When he came there, he saw the flame, 64iO 

Then knew he well that it was true^ 
That he had thought of him. 
But so dear he had this thought 
He never would tell it to his wife. 
Until the morrow, when he rose. 646 

Then he sent for his men. 
He ordered his knights, 
His footmen and pioneers, 
From aU sides many came. 
When he had assembled many of them, 650 



Then he went to speak to Ebiveloc. 
He had him bathed and fed. 
With new raiment he clothed him. 
Into the hall he made him oome. 

When he had entered the hall 655 

Where he saw so many men assembled. 
Great fear had he that this folk 
Would do evil justice on him : 
For the five men he had killed, 

He thought they had assembled. 660 

He went to take an axe 
Which a young man there held. 
He tried to seize it to defend himself. 
Sigar saw him and caused him to be taken. 
As they held him on all sides 665 

Sigar said to him, "Fear not, 
" Have no care, my friend, 
" Truly 1 swear to you, I declare to you, 
" That I love you now more than I did yesterday, 
" When I placed you at my table." 670 

Then he gave him a seat by his side. 
He had the horn of the king brought. 
This was the horn of King Gunter; 
Under heaven was no knight 

Who could sound that horn, 675 

No hunter, no youth, 

So that any one could ever hear the horn sound. 
Unless the king or his rightful heir did it. 
The rightful heir of Denmark 

Could sound it well, truly, 680 

But no other man ever sounded it; 
All to no purpose laboured at it 
This horn had Sigar kept, 
King Gunter had entrusted it to him. 
When he had it, he could not sound it. 685 

He caused it to be given to a knight, 


*' Let him blow it, so that it sounds, 

*' >So that I know, hearing it, 

*• I win gire him a good ring, 

" Which at need is worth a castle; 690 

" He who hath it on his finger, 

" K he fall in the sea, shall not drown ; 

'' No fire can hurt him at all, 

" Nor can any weapon wound him ; 

" Such as I say is this ring." 695 

Then the company came to blow the horn, 

The knights and the servants; 

It would not sound at all^ 

Never for any of them would it sound. 

Then they gave it to the youth, 700 

Whom they called the prisoner, 

Whose name was Haveloc. 

When he held it, he looked at it, 
And said that he had never blown a horn. 
He said to the lord, '*! will let it be, 705 

'' As no other man can sound it, 
*' I give up all claim to your ring, 
" As so many youths have tried it." 
Sigar answered, " No, you will do it ; 
" Put it to your mouth." 710 

** Sir," said he, " I do not refuse this to you ; 
'* By me it shall be now tried." 
Then he took the horn, and crossed it, 
At his mouth he tried it ; 

Directly it touched his mouth 715 

The horn sounded, as properly 
As ever his father was erst heard [to sound it] ; 
No man could blow a horn so well. 

SiGAB heard it; he leapt to his feet. 
With his arms he embraced him. - 720 

708. ThiB is tfao reading of D. 


Then he cried: "God be praised, 

" Now have I found my rightful lord, 

" Now have I him whom I desired, 

S'. For whom I will wage war. 

'* This is the rightful heir, and the person 725 

** Who ought henceforth to wear the crown." 

He then sdnt for aU his people ; 

Then they did fealty. 

He himself kneeled down 

And promised to keep faith with him. 730 

Then he sent for the barons 

With whom this king had strife. 

All became his men 

And received him as their lord. 

When they had done this, they assembled men ; 735 
In four days they had many hundreds, 
And on the fifth day, of knights 
They had well thirty thousand. 
Then they defied King Edulf ; 

In a plain they encountered. 740 

Many great strokes were struqk; 
King Edulf was then conquered. 
For Haveloc bore himself so 
That he alone killed more than twenty. 
There were two princes in the coimtry, 745 

Who once were his enemies, 
And held with Edulf; 
Now they came to his mercy. 
The small folk of the country 

Came for mercy likewise, 750 

And Haveloc gave them pardon 
By the advice of his barons. 
All swore fealty to him. 
The knights of the kingdom, 

And tJi^e goodmeu and the burgesses, 755 

Made him their lord and king. 


They held great feast and rejoicing, 
As the true history tells us. 

Aftebwabds he called together all his ships^ 
All the power of his kingdom. 760 

With his great host he passed the sea, 
Then he defied King EdelsL 
He sent him word that he defied him 
Unless he gave up to him his lady's right. 
King Edelsi replied to him 765 

That he would fight against him. 
They fought in a plain 
From morn till eve. 
Many men were disabled 

On both sides, and stnick dead, 770 

When black night separated them 
Until the morrow, when day broke. 
But by coimsel of the queeA, 
Who taught him a tricky 

By which he recovered the loss of the battle, 776 
He gained his kingdom without more opposition. 
AH night he had stakes fixed in the earth, 
Bigger and higher than barrels ; 
The dead men were fixed upon them. 
And all night they set them up. 780 

Two companies they made of them. 
Who truly looked 

As if they were fighting men, and alive. 
The day before they had been killed^. 
Men who looked at them afar ofi*, 785^ 

All their flesh shuddered. 
Both from far and near 
Hideous appeared these unshriven corpses. 

780. A similar expedient is mentioned by Saxo Grammaticufl as prac- 
tised by Fridlevns, king of Denmark. Lib. IV. (St.) 


The next day they prepared acrain, 
And set themselves in order for battle; 790 

The scouts went in front 
To see Dan Cuherant's men ; 
When they saw that he had so many, 
All their flesh shuddered at it; 

For against one man that they had, 795 

They saw seven on the other side ; 
Back they came to tell the king, 
''It is no use fighting, 
" Give up to the lady her right, 
'* And make peace before it be worse." 800 

The king could not help it, 
Therefore he determined to grant this. 
For so the barons advised him. 
All the kingdom was given up to him (Haveloc), 
From Holland to Colchester, 805 

There King Haveloc held his feast. 
The homage of his barons 
He received through all his countries. 
Then after this, not fifteen days, 
Did king Edelsis live. 810 

He had no such rightful heir 
As Haveloc and his wife. 
He had children but they were dead. 
The barons willingly granted 

That Haveloc and his fxiends 815 

Shoald have king Edelsi's land. 
So then he had it. Twenty years was he king. 
Much he conquered by means of the Danes. 

Then from the nativity [of Christ] 
Nearly full five hundred years had passed, 820 

809. quim is given as meaning five in Roquefort, but cmc is used bj 
Gaimar for fire. See yv. 558, 659, 820, 821. 


And there were but five years to teU. 

The other Cerdic with his ship 

Arrived at Charford, 

A momid which is still visible. 

There arrived he and his son, 825 

Whom the English called Cynric. 

Horsa and Hengist were their ancestor. 

As the true chronicle tella 

He was the son of Elessinc the king. 

This Cerdic, so he was English, 830 

And Elessinc was the son of Elese^ 

And Elese was the son of Esling, 

Esling, the son of Eslage, son of Wising, 

Son of Qewis, son of Wigening, 835 

Son of Wilte, brother to Winsing, 

Son of Fretewine, son of Freodagaring, 

Son of Freodegar, son of Brendiug, 

Son of Brand, son of Beldeging, 

Son of Beldeg, bom Wrohing. 840 

Beldeg was of the lineage of Woden, 

Of whose lineage Horsa and Hengist were born. 

Of their lineage were bom 

Those who were called 

The West Saxons and the South Saxons, 845 

And the East Saxons and the Middle Saxons. 

SSS. The fint Cerdic is mentioned in y. 10. 

828. Cerdioesora in A.S. Chr. tub anno 495. 

826. The names are thronghoat given in the translation either in the 
ordinary forms used in modem English, or as they occur in Thorpe's 
translation of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle ; but this grenealogy is so in- 
correct, that it is left here as in Gaimar's yersion, and that in the AS. 
Chr. appended for oompaiison : " Cerdic Elesing, Elesa Esling, Esla 
*' Gtwising, Giwis Wiging, Wig Freawining, Freawine Freothogaring 
*' Freothogar Branding, Brand Bseldseging, Bmldng Wodening.'' AS. 
Chr. s.a. 558. It will be noticed that Gaimar does not understand the 
meaning of the suffix ing. 



Death of 


But because Hengist and Hona 

And CerdiCy who after their death 

Game to the land. 

And often made war there, 850 

Were of this royal lineage. 

Those of their nobles, 

Bom in the conntry called Ange (England), 

Men called them all English. 

TwENTT-FOUB years lasted the war 855 

Before Cerdic could conquer 
Much from the Britons. 
Then was Cirencester besieged^ 
But by the negligence of the Britons 
It was set on fire by sparrows^ 860 

Which carried fire and sulphur into the town. 
And set light to many houses. 
And the besiegers who were outside 
Made an assault with great courage. 
Then was this city conquered, 865 

And Gloucester was taken. 
As far as the Severn they conquered all. 
They killed all the best Britons. 
And from the sea, to which they came. 
As far as the Severn, they took to themselves 870 
All the country and the kingdom, 
And they drove out the Britons. 

Fifteen years did Cerdic reign. 
After his death reigned Cynric, 

He was Cerdic's son; much he warred, 875 

And great countries he took to himself • 
The Britons hated him much. 
And often showed their enmity. 
The other English spread themselves. 
And in many places seized kingdoms. * 880 

858. AS. Chr. 577. 


As the Britons had done before, 
Each made himself called king. 
From over sea came Saxons, 
When they landed they took everything. 
And the Britons^ in consequence of the war with 
them, 885 

Determined to leave the good land. 
Towards Wales in the west. 
Where their other kindred were, 
They journeyed and thither they fled. 
They defended this country well, 890 

And often assembled a host. 
Across the Severn they led their men; 
Thus they fought with the English, 
With Cynric and the other kings ; 
Very often they fought together, 895 

And right dear they sold their land. 

The Danes were in Norfolk 
From the time that Haveloc was king. 
Thus they defended this country, 
And that which had belonged to king Edelsis. 900 
But Wasing was of their lineage, 
Who often made forays upon them, 
For no man would he bend. 
Every day he did wrong without redress; 
Never would he redress wrong. 905 

He warred often against two kings. 
One was named king Burgard, 
The other was named Qeine the Coward, 
Who for fear forsook his land. 

The war between them lasted a short time. 910 

Then Cynric, the Englishman, came. 
Wasing, the king, warred with him; 

900-10. "No tiace of these early Danish kings occurs in any history 
anterior to the time of Gaimar." (SteTenson.) 


Both he and his son named Chehulinz. 

Long was the strife between them» 

Until Wasing was killed. 915 

Cynric, his enemy, killed him ; 

Eang Burghard aided them^ 

And brought in two kings of the Saxons. 

II and Lowine of Oloucester, 

Wasling was dead, it could no other be, 920 

There were only two kings of the Saxons. 

Thirty years they reigned, then they died. 

At Salisbury twice 
Fought Cynric, the king, 

He and Ceawlin with the Britons, 926 

For daily there was strife between them, 
And in their time, when they reigned, 
Two quite clear days were benighted, 
And after these benighted nights 
Ida gained Northumberland. 930 

Know that he was the first king 
Of the English line wlio held it. 
This Ida reigned twelve years, 
And restored Bamborough. 

It was much decayed and ruined 935 

Since Ebrauc built it long ago. 
Ida ^as the son of Cobba, a tyrant. 
Who never served God. 

919. This apparent! J is a confused reference to Ceawlin of the West 
Saxons, and ^lle of Northumbria, who each reigned 30 years (A.S. 
Chr. 560) ; but ^Ue succeeded Ida, whom Graimar mentions in y. 930. 

925. At Old Samm and Banbury, AS. Chr. 552, 556. 

928. The AS. Chr. mentions eclipses of the sun, 15 February 538, and 
20 June 540. They are included in the list given in L'Art de Verifier 
les Dates. 

984. AS. Chr. 547. Geoffrey of Monmouth ascribes the buildinfi; of Eaer 
Ebrauc (York), Alclud (Dumbarton), and Mount Agned (Edinburgh), 
to Ebrauc, but does not mention Bamborough. Lib. II., cap. Tii. 

937. Cobba"] Eoppa. AS. Chr. 547. 


In the time of Ida, still 

Northumberland had its name, 940 

It was called Deira on the east of the Foss^ 

And Bemicia on the other side. 

This king then fought 

Against the Britons whom he hated well. 

So fiercely he warred against them 945 

That he conquered his land from them. 

Greatly was he feared throughout Britain ; 

For daily his following grew. 

/FA\e and Ida reigned, 

One after the other, thirty years. 95^ 

Since the birth of our Saviour 
Dan Jesus Christ our Lord 
Five hundred and sixty-five years, 
As the chronicles assert, 

^thelberht was made king of Kent, 955 

And of Surrey likewise; 
Fifty-three years he held the kingdom, 
Christianity and true baptism 
The Pope sent him. 

He asked it of St. Gregory. • 960 

Dan Columba baptised him ; 
He was a priest whom God loved. 
Afterwards he wect to the north and dwelled there. 
With the Picts he then lived; 

The island of lona was given to him, 965 

And afterwards he was abbot there. 
Ninian had formerly baptised 
The other Picts of the kingdom; 
These are the Westmariugiens 
Who then were Picts. 970 

949. AS. Chr. 660. . 

965. The pnnetuatioii of the MS. from which the text if printed is wrong, 

the date 665 refen to ^thelberht. 
961. Colnmbanof is mentioned in the AS. Chr. here, hat only as going to 

tibe Picti. 

30 TEX msroBT of the ENOLISH.: 

At Whiteme lies St. Ninian ; 
He came long before Columba. 

Five hundred years and sixty-eight .. . 
Had passed on that night 

When Outha and Ceawlin, the kings, 975 

Put to flight the Eentishmen. 
King iEthelberht was discomfited ; 
His two barons were killed. 
Dead were his two barons, 

Oslaf and Cnebba were their names; 980 

This Cutha was the brother of Ceawlin ; 
He conquered the Britons one morning 
At Bedford, there he conquered them. 
Three good fortresses then he took from them: 
Aylesbury and Bensington, 985 

And then the city of Luitune. 
Between Ceawlin and Cutha, his brother, 
They wrought misfortunes on the Britons. 
At Scorham they killed three kings. 
As the ancient books said, 990 

Qommail and Condidan, 
And Farinmail, a powerful king. 
Then they conquered Gloucester, 
Also they took Bath and Cirencester. 
Ceawlin and Cutha went forward 995 

And sought the Britons where they found them. 
They came up with them in the country 
Which is called Fethanleag. 
The Britons kiUed Cutha there. 

But afterwards they suffered great loss; 1000 

They were destroyed and discomfited; 
King Ceawlin seized everything, 

978. AS. Chr. 568. 

988. AS. Ohr. 671. 

986. LuUvne] Lugeanbarh (Lenbury ?), AS. Cbr. 571. 

989. Scorham] Deorbam (Derbam), AS. Cbr. 577. 

998. Fethan leag] Thorpe suggests Fretbem, A.S. Cbi. 584. 


Their harness and their cattle, 

And their treasure and their manor& 

Then died the king of York. 1 005 

So they made iEthehic king; 

^thekie was king and valiant. 

iEthelrie was king only five years. 

^thelferth was of the lineage of Ida ; 

But Dan Ceawlin, Cwichehn, and Crida 1010 

Had left this life. 

A king of Scots made a crafty attack 

(His name was JSgthan) on uSlthelferth. 

With aU his host he fought. 

They met at Dawston ; 1015 

But the Scots were scattered^ 

And the brother of king uiBthelferth, 

Theodbald was his name; he was kOled. 

Hering was the name of him who led them (the Scots) ; 

The people of Scotland fell there. 1020 

Then had the ages lasted 
From the birth of Jesus 
Six hundred and five years, as we read. 
Then Gregory sent 

St. Augustin to this land; 1025 

He made peace, destroyed war. 
Paulinus came thither, as his companion, 
With Dan Justus and Mellitus. 
They furthered Christianity much ; 
In many places they baptised folk. 1030 

1005. JSUe, AS. Chr. 588. 

1009. ^thelfrith, AS. Chr. 598. 

1010. AS. Chr. 598. 
1018. AS. Chr. 603. 

1028. AS. Chr. 604. Bede, Lib. I., cap. 29. Justus was bishop of 
Bochester 604-624, and Mellitus, bishop ofLondon from 604 till be was 
expelled in 616, by the sons of Sseberht, who relapsed into Paganism. 
(Le Nere). 


Then was Ceolwulf king of Winchester, 

And of Wessex and of Gloucester. 

This king loved disputes and strife. 

He hasted to make war daUy 

Either with the English, or the Saxons, 1035 

Or the Scotch, or the Britons. 

Eing Eadwine was then king; 

He accepted the Christian law. 

He was of York. This we know 

That he established religion, 1040 

And rebuilt a minster 

And dedicated it to St. Peter. 

This king was of the lineage of JEUa, 

Who built a chapel to St. Peter. 

A bishop baptised him; 1045 

Paiilinus wa3 his name. God loved him much. 

He brought the pallium 

From Rome to Augustine the noble. 

To the archbishop Augustine 

Was this Paulinus sent 1050 

With him came many companions 

To preach. 

In many places throughout the kingdom. 

Men right soon accepted Christianity, 

But it was a long time 1055 

Before this was commonly done. 

And some of those who accepted it 

Often took it up and abandoned it. 

Saint Augustine, the good roan. 
Gave his blessing. 1060 

lOSl. AS. Chr. 597. 

1087. Eadwine, King of Northnmbria, conyerted A.D. 601. AS. Chr. 

1045. Eadwine bnilt at York a church dedicated to St. Peter, and after- 
wardfl rebuilt it in stone. AS. Chr. 627. 

1046. Panlinns was consecrated Bishop bj Jostns, 21 July 625, and be- 
came bishop of York when Eadwine founded that see on his baptism. 
Easter, 627. (Le Neve.) 


He ordained two bishops 

And properly consecrated these two ; 

Mellitos one was named, 

The other Justus, bis companion. 

To Mellitus he gave his see. 1065 

At London he had his bishopric. 

And as to Justus, at Rochester 

He was master of Christendom. 

Mellitus then at first 

Went to preach in Essex. 1070 

He preached so well to king Saeberht King 

That he asked for baptism. Sajberht. 

This was a nephew of king iEthelberht, 

His sister's son. Openly 

He loved God and served Him well. 1075 

Bicole was the name of her who bore him, 

Sister of the king who held Kent, 

Blessed by Qod, as we know. 

And through that king who then held Kent. 

St. Augustine came to this country. 1080 

^THELFBITH was noblc and powerful ; 
Also he was king of Northumberland. 
He led a great host to Leicester. 
Many Britons he found there^ 

Then he fought with them. 1085 

Many he killed^ all he conquered. 
Two hxmdred priests came to pray, 
They wished to bury the dead. 
These also remained dead on the fields 
Not one went away alive. 1090 

This king was named Brocmail, 
His fifty companions 
Fled, like broken men. 

1071. AS. Chr. 504. 

1088. Letcegter] Legercyestre, AS. Chr. 606 (605), but Mr. Thorpe 
translates it Chester. 

U 51689- r. 


Who remained was killed. 

St. Augustine, by prophecy, 1095 

As it is written in his life, 

Had said this, and truly foretold: 

'* All the Britons of this country, 

" Who will break the truce, 

*' Shall perish by the hands of the Saxons." 1100 

Thus was his prophecy 

Accomplished and fuldUed. 

Then died the king of Kent, 

Which was loss to many people. 

His son reigned, Eadbald, 1105 

He quite forsook Christianity. 

Fifty three years had reigned 

^thelberht, that precious king. 

He had a wife, his son took her. 

And the archbishop forbade it. 1110 

Laurentius was his name. He wished to flee, 

The archbishop, for he had no desire 

To consent to the king thus erring, 

Or committing such adultery. 

St. Peter came and spoke to him, 1115 

He commanded him to go to the king, 
That he should leave this heresy. 
And live well and amend his life. 
He turned back happy and joyful; 
He talked and preached so well, 1120 

That the king took Christianity, 
And loved wisdom and honesty. 
And when the king was reformed, 

1099. ** Gif Wealas nella'S sibbe witS us, hi sciilan eet Seaxana handa for 
wiu+an." AS. Chr. 606. 

'* Quia si pacem cum fratribuB accipere nollent, bellum ab hostibus forent 
accepturi ; et si nationi ADglorum noluissent viam yits prsedicaie, per 
horom manus ultionem essent mortis passuri.'^ Bede, Lib. ii., cap. 2. 

1103. ^thelberht, king of Kent, died A.D. 616. AS. Chr. 

1111. AS. Chr. 616. Bede, Lib. ii., caps. 5, 6. 


The archbishop was rejoiced at it. 

The good Laurentius did not tarry long 1125 

Before he died. 

Near the tomb of St. Augustine, 

They placed him then, as he had commanded, 

As he had formerly loved him in life 

Then he would keep him company again. 1130 

Then was Mellitus sent for ; 
They consecrated him as archbishop. 
When the people of London lost him. 
They forsook Christianity. 

[After archbishop Mellitus 1135 

Then was Justus chosen.] 
The bishop of Rochester 
They made master at Canterbury, 
And to Romanus they gave the see 
Of Rochester and the bishopric 1140 

King iSthelfirith at this time 
Was killed, as I believe. 

Raedwald killed him, the king of East Anglia. 
Norfolk, Suffolk and Essex he had together. 
This was the kingdom which he held. 1145 

This Raedwald, he had taken it. 
And when king .^thelfrith was dead^ 
Eadwine, the son of iElla, seized it all. 
Then he conquered all Britain. 

Some he drove away, some he killed, 1150 

Of the noblemen of the land. 
As a man who meant to conquer. 
But those of Kent kept their right. 
And made war with great success. 

^thelfrith was of the lineage of Ida, 1155 

So his children had much help. 
No man had such right in the land : 

1141. AS. Chr. 617. 
1148. AS. Chr. 617. 

G 2 


They lost it, they made war for it 

Now I will tell you how were named 

The sons of the noble iEthelfrith. 1160 

The eldest of all was named Eanfrith, 

The second Oswald, a man beloved, 

The third they called Oswiu, 

The fourth Oswudu^ so I tell you^ 

The fifth was called Oslaf, 1165 

The sixth Offa, this was his name. 

These joined with the others, 

And fought against king Eadwine. 

Cwichelm, the king, fought against him. 

He tried hard to betray him; 1170 

He sent a traitor 

To kill him, this he thought to do. 

Eomer was the name of this traitor. 

Hear how he committed this great dishonour : 

Thus did this man of villany. 1175 

By night he came into Eadwine's chamber. 

With a knife this evil felon 

Killed there two noble barons. 

And badly wounded king Eadwine. 

He afterwards escaped^ 1180 

Forthhere and Lilla were killed ; 

They were honourably buried. 

A daughter of Eadwine was bom that night. 

The king promised that she should be brought [to 

According to the covenant which he had made with 

God, 1185 

1 161. AS. Chr. 617. There should be seven ; Qaimar has omitted Oslac, 

the fourth son. 
1168. According to rule <*reis'' should be nominatiye, but the MSS. do 

not always observe grammatical rules. 
1171. AS. Chr. 626 (627). 
1 184. Bede, Lib. ii., cap. 9. " t he wolde his dohter gesyllan Gode." AS. 

Chr. 626 (627). 


If he had vengeance on his enemies. 
Who sent this felon against him, 
And his friends prayed God for it. 

And then when he had promised this, 
He led a host against his enemies, 1190 

And met with them in Wessex. 
He gave battle to them fiercely; 
Five kings met their death there, 
Of those who had done him wrong. 
Then he gave his daughter to God. 1195 

Her parents named her Eanfied. 
They brought eleven other children with her, 
As the king had commanded. 
This was done at Pentecost. 

Paulinus was master of this ceremony, 1200 

And after this, at Easter, 
The fonts were blessed. 
The king was then baptised, 
And confirmed, and crossed. 

And with him all those of the country. 1205 

This was done at York, 
There, where he had formerly given 
The place to the rule of St. Peter. 
This bishopric belonged to St. Paulinus, 
As archbishop he held the see. 1210 

Ejnq Penda then received as his kingdom 
AU the realm of Mercia. 

1197. "twelfa sum." AS. Chr. 626 (627). <<cum undecim aliis de 
familia ^ns." Bede, Lib. ii., cap. 9. 

1202. The blessing of the font is mentioned in the Mort d' Arthur in the 
account of the conversion of Palamides the Saracen, by Tristram. " Then 
" the suffragan (of Carlisle) let fill a great yessel with water. And when he 
« had hallowed it, he then confessed clean Sir Palamides, and Sir Tristram 
** and Sir Galleron were his Godfathers." Book zii., cap. 14. 

1204. primsme]. To make the sign of the cross. Burguy IIT., 341. 
Stevenson (p. 743), translates it ** instructed.'* 

1211. AS. Chr. 626 (627). 


He fought against two kings 

For years and days and several months. 

These were Cwichelm and Cynegils. 1215 

Many men they drove into exile. 

Then it happened that at Cirencester 

A battle was to be fought between them. 

But then it fell out pleasantly. 

For a treaty was made. 1220 

After which they did not delay 

To assemble all their men ; 

Their men and their friends, 

And all they could in the country, 

Marched against Eadwine. 1225 

They met him at Hedfelde. 

On all sides were many men killed. 

And cut to pieces and made prisoners. 

It would be bad for me to tell all 

How one was eager to kill tlie other. 1230 

But the strokes between them did not cerise 

Until king Eadwine was dead. 

Ceadwalla was the name of him who killed him. 

King Penda took his head. 

Osfrith his son was left dead. 1235 

The men of the North fled, 

They pursued them with many men. 

They laid waste all Northumberland. 

Paulinus, who was archbishop, 
Heard that wrong had vanquished right. 1240 

Much it grieved him that the heathen 
Had destroyed the Christians. 
Thereupon it followed that he fled. 
He went to sea to save himself, 

1217. AS. Chr. 628. 

1226. HelSfelda. AS. Cbr. 633. Hecthfeltb. Bede, Lib. ii., cap. 20. 

Identified with hesitation by both Thorpe and the Editor of the Mon. 

Brit, as Hatfitli Chase. 


He took the queen with him, 1245 

Who waa wife of king Eadwine. 

uEthelburh was her name truly. 

They went by sea as far as Kentb 

Eadbald the king received them well. 

He honoured Faulinus much and rejoiced. 1250 

As he could no longer be archbishop. 

He made him bishop at Rochester. 

All his life he dwelt there, 

And God loved the queen. 

Then afterwards the people of Bemicia, 1255 

Who were very wealthy, 

Made a noble man their king. 

The son of ^thelfrith, Eanfrith was his name. 

And at this time, the men of York 

Made Osric their king, 1260 

And the barons of Northumberland 

Made the good Oswald their king; 

At this time, who will tell the truth, 

Cynegik received baptism. 

He was the king who held Wessex. 1265 

Another king then had it. 

At Dorchester he was brought to the font ; 

A bishop confirmed him. 

Birinus was the name of him who baptised him. 

Eiug Oswald received him. 1270 

And before the year was passed^ 

Owichelm was brought to the font. 

1252. PaulinaB was bishop of Rochester, A.D. 633-644 (Le Neve). 
1254. Stevenson translates this v., '* The Queen loved God," but Deus 

should be nominatiye. In w. 1075, 1409, and 1472, Dcub is used for 

the objective case. 
1258. AS. Chr. 584. 
1260. AS. Chr. 564. 
1264. AS. Chr. 635. 

1270. " Oswold his onfeng." AS. Chr. 635. 
1272. Also at Dorchester. AS. Chr. 636. 



Eadbaxd, king of Kent died. 
Twenty-four years he held the land. 
Ercenberht was the name of one of his sons. 
Him then they chose as king. 
He first fasted in Lent. 
No English king before observed it thus. 
He first observed Easter. 
No Englishman before would begin. 
He took a wife, Sexburh was her name, 
Daughter of king Anna, a noble man. 
Ercenberht had a daughter. 
She was marvellous beautiful. 
Ercongota men called her. 
Well she upheld religion. 
In this time while these lived, 
And well upheld the holy law. 
Then was killed a valiant king, 
Oswald, who held Northumberland. 
At Maserfeld Fenda slew him 
While he was king in his ninth year. 
Bardney. He was carried to Bardney ; 

His body was honourably buried there. 

His head lies on Si Cuthbert, 

At Durham, that is, so says the book. 

His hand is entire at Burg. 

He who keeps it holds it very dear. 








1278. AS. Chr. 640. 

1274. Two MSS. of the AS. Chr., Bodl. I^ud., 636, and Domit. A. Tiij. 
read zxiiij. and three others xxv. The former appears, says Thorpe, 
to have belonged to Peterborough Abbey, and may have been the copy 
used by Gaimar. 

1290. AS. Chr. 642 (641). Thorpe suggests Mirfield as the modem 
name of Maserfeld. 

1297. Bebbanburh, AS. Chr. 642 (641). Bede says the same, " Denique 
** in Urbe Begia qua) a Begina quondam vocabulo Bebba cognomfnatur, 
« (manus cum brachio) loculo inclusse argenteo in Ecclpsia S. Petri 
*< servantur," Lib. iii., cap. 6. It was there in the time of Simeon of 
Durham, wrapped in a cloak and nndccayed (Uist. Begum, s.a. 774), but 


At this time, of which I tell you, 

Kenwealh was chosen king. 1300 

The men of Wessex made bim king 

Thirty-one years over the English. 

He began by being a good man. 

He built the Minster at Winchester. 

Cynegilsing was his surname. 1305 

He was of that nobleman's lineage. 

After Oswald, Oswiu was king. 
He reigned over the Northumbrians 
Eight and twenty yeara, he reigned no less. 
He established the laws, he loved peace^ 1310 

He was brother of Oswald, the king. 
Well the Northumbrians supported him. 
By him was killed king Oswine, 
The son of the uncle of king Eadwine. 
He was brother of king Osric. 1315 

Their father was named king Edelris. 
Oswine was only king seven years. 
Then he died, and Aidan, 
A very valiant bishop. 

Was translated after him. 1320 

Between them there was only twelve days. 
By the virtue of his holy corpse, the deaf hear. 

according to Capgrave, whom Steyenson quoted, the ann was stolen by 
a monk of Peterborough, and deposited in that Abbey. (Nova 
Legenda Anglie, f 255. b.) The head is minutely described by 
Simeon in the Vita S. Oswald!, cap. 51. 

1300. AS. Chr. 643 (642). 

1307. AS. Chr. 642 (641). 

1311. reW], though not usually employed as the genitive case, is so some- 
times. See w. 829, 1017, 1073, 1315. 

1313. AS. Chr. 650. 

1315. According to AS. Chr. 634, Oswine was son of Osric, son of 
.£l£ric, Eadwine's paternal uncle. Edelris is not a correct form for 
^Ifric. Graimar was perhaps misled by seeing ^thelfryth in the next 
line of the Chr. 

1318. AS. Chr. 651 (650). 

1322. Bedc does not mention this miracle. 


HL Aid$n help lui. 

And Hi, Oiwidd, of whom I have written. 

OiSWiV, the king, a year after 1325 

Killed Penda at Wingfield ; 
With him were killed thirty-three 
Noble men, all king's sons ; 
And some kings were killed there. 
One there was of great renown ; 1330 

lie was of East Anglia, brother of the March lord 
Who then held the country. 

At this time were numbered. 
As many ages as were gone. 

Five thousand eight hundred and fifty years. 1335 
Then Peada received worthy honour. 
The men of Merda made him king. 
For he was of the sons of Penda. 
Fifty-six years as we reckon, 

And six hundred years with measure, 1340 

From the incarnation of Jesus, 
Until the day that Peada was slain. 
They made Wulfhere, son of Peada, king. 
And he reigned over the Mercians. 
Then was the great battle 1345 

At Pen, with hard fighting. 
Wulfhere chased the Britons; then 
He pursued them as far as Petherton. 
This was after he came from East Anglia. 
And three years he was kept in exile. 1350 

King Ponda had driven him out, 
Disinherited him, and taken his fief, 

1325. AS. Chr. 65fi (654). 

1381. ^tholhere,brotherof Anna, king of the East Angles. AS. Chr. 654. 

1386. AS. Chr. 655 (664). 

1938. Wentingeis^t an error for Pentingeit, the F being mistaken for an 

AS. W., as was pointed out by Wright and Stevenson. 
1343. AS. Chr. 657 (656). 
1347. Wufffiere'], a mistake for Kcnwealh. See AS. Chr. 658. 


Because he had forsaken his sister. 

He lost his heritage for three years. 

Then he fought this other battle, 1355 

Near Chester, with king Kenweulh. 

This was at Pontesbury, 

Where he took much from Wulfhere. 

All Ashdown then he took possession of; 

He took this country from Wulfhere. 1360 

The king Cuthred was of the lineage 

Of king Cwichelm ; he was wise. 

Between him and king Ooenbyhrt 

They held the whole Isle of Wight. 

After the island had been so harried, 13C5 

King Wulfhere gave it 

To iEthelwald, to his godson. 

He was king of the South Saxons ; 

And he had the men of Wight baptised. 

By him it began first. 1370 

Then the daj' returned to night. 

Also there was a great death. 

Such never was before or since that time. 

Tuda, the bishop, in my belief. 

Died then; this I know for certain 1375 

That he was buried at Faggle, 

And Ercenberht, king of Kent, 

Died then also. 

Ecgbriht, his son, took possession of the kingdom. 

1356. Trof de Cestre] . This is an erroneous translation of " on Eastron," 
atEaster, AS. Chr. 661. 

1357. AS. Chr. 661. Eenwealh's battle was with the Britons, not Wulfhere. 
1358-60. Gaimar continues his mistake. The AS. Chr. states that 

Wulfhere ravaged as far as Ashdown. 
1367. AS. Chr. 661. 
1371. An eclipse of the sun, 5 non. Mai. 664 according to the AS. Chr., 

but L'Axt de Verifier gives the date as 1 May. 
1376. Wagele, AS. Chr. 664. Thorpe suggests the place is Wayleigh, 

Bede (lib. iij., c. 27) says Tuda was buried at Pa^nalaech, perhaps 

Fincanheale, now Finchale in Durham. (Mon. Brit.) Tuda was bishop 

of Lindisfarne. 


Then the archbishop held his synod; 1380 

And Colman and his companions 

Departed to their possessions. 

And Ceadda was then blessed 

To be bishop, he and Wilfrith. 

This year an archbishop died ; 1385 

His name was Deus-dedit. 

And VitalianuB, the pope, 

Made Theodore archbishop. 

King Ecgbriht gave to Bass, the priest, 

Reculver, but he would not stay there. 1390 

Then died Oswiu, the good king. 
The Northumbrians made great moan. 
They gave the honour to his son Ecgferth. 
They made him king and rightful lord. 
Theodore then made bishop 1395 

The clerk Hlothere, over all Wesse^:. 
DCLXI. Six hundred years and sixty-one 
There were, since the Incarnation. 
Then the birds fought 

In the valleys and the hills, 1400 

So many died and were killed, 
That it was said tliere were none alive. 
King Kenwealh a year after 
Died. His time was no longer. 
And then again, in the next year, 1405 

1380. The synod of Whitby or Streanaeshalch. Keither Bcde (Lib. iii., 
c. 25), nor Florence of Worcester, mention the presence of arch- 
bishop Deusdedit. Archbishop Theodore held a synod at Hertford, 
A.D. 673 (AS, Chr.)> to which, perhaps, Gaimar ref^ here. 

1381. AS. Chr. 664. Colman, bishop of landisfame, 662-5. 

1383. Ceadda, bishop of Lichfield, 669-672. 

1384. Wilfirith was ordained bishop at Compicgne, A.D. G64, (Bcde, Lib. 
iii., c. 28). 

1390. AS. Chr. 669. 

1391. AS. Chr. 670. 
1397. A.D. 671, AS. Chr. 
1403. AS. Chr. 672. 


Seaxburb died^ tbe daughter of Anna. 

Tbe tbml year Ecgbribt died ; 

And bis aunt, St iEtbeldrytb. 

Sbe was a nun, sbe loved God. 

In Ely> near there, is their place. 141 

At this time tbe West Saxons chose 

MaGwine, whose name was Cenf using. 

He was heu:, so they made him king. 

Wulfbere, with all bis Mercians, 

Fought with him, he and bis people, 1415 

At Biedanheafod truly. 

Men enough were killed. 

King Wulfbere bad tbe worse; 

He lost more than be gained. 

He bad evil counsel when be undertook it. 1420 

He did not live more than a year, 

And no one followed bis orders. 

Then tbe Mercians made 
iBtbelred king, with great honour. 
He was a wise man, so they chose him, 1425 

And there never was such great trouble ; 
But in this year that be was made kiug, 
With a great host he came into Kent. 
Through the country be slew men. 
He burnt and spoiled and took great preys. 1430 

And in this year died iEscwine; 
And Centwine seized all Wessex. 
Then appeared a comet. 


1407. AS. Chr. 673. It vas another Seiixburhi wife of Ercenbehrt, king 

of Kent, who was daughter of Anna. 
1412. Son of Cenfiu, AS. Chr. 674. 
1414. AS. Chr. 675. 

1416. Biedanheqfod], lliorpe suggests Bedwin. 
1428. AS. Chr. 676. 1431. AS. Chr. 676. 

1438. AS. Cbr. 678. The date of this comet, which has been yarionsly 

given as 676, 677, and 678, is discussed in Fingr^'s Com^tographie, 

I., 382-3. Beijing on certain Chinese observationf«, he considers it 

must have appeared in August or September, 676. 

V.','j^?t ^^ <>a',nr% >-<^ ibu'.nr wiL 
T';i^^ ^x/; r,»,iC^ ii^ ^^ «*x.. 
7''-** V.i* r^^'/-'* ^^^^7 xii,'v 

^/f *.. i,* *yx:.::Juur::i^iLr^,i 1440 

n,M lJ*<rjr ojyj>r*ftA ti»^;r fcerfs wi*h an^cr, 
TiM i'.Hy ihL\ m all Mh\ doling. 
^V)t*^^orh tbi* it'^ wa^ hhovn. 1445 

1*1/ r^j ffi/jjtt}ui t\t<iy TAW it elear and bright 
7*brougfa all Britam it wais seen; 
It HirisU:h*'A imi like a Kunbeam. 
Wli^^n Jt stretched it^i longent n,j 
WJIfrkh, It came ntraight over St Wil£ntb. 1450 

Whu;li«vcr way the archbiBbop went. 
With him tijc comet turned. 
King Ec'gfcrth had driven him away. 
And i>laced two bi^hopft in his see. 
IJoHai he «ct over Dcira, 1455 

And Kuta over liernicia, 
And Ht. Wilfrith went to Rome. 
I^hnro ho lived as a holy man. 
A third hivhop they ordained. 

LlndMc^y thuy gave to him, 1460 

lltHK^n wan his name^ never before 
Did the KugliHh there have a bishop. 

At that time was killed a nobleman 
Oil Iho Trt^nt, yKlfwino was his name. 

U^O, *V\\U ciivunutuuoQ m not to be ftxiud in tho AS. Chr., nor Bede. 
\K\\\. //»iw| 1v«a)uHl, AS, rhr. 678, BihIo (lab. iv., c. 5) mentions 

A\H*oH «»'« ««w\vi»t^li»>; )\iKi in tho bishopric of tlie Kast Angles in A«D. 

\y : X \ Umuv pel hwjvn 0\o em^r 1 4 64. AS, Chr. 679. 


At the battle of two kings, 1465 

One was Ecgferth of the Northumbrians^ 

The other was named ^theked^ 

^ercia was his kingdom. 

St. iEtheldryth then died. 

At that time Coldingham was burnt, 1470 

Fire from heaven lighted it, 

As it pleased God, it fell there. 

Two years aft^r St. Hilda died. 

She was abbess of Streanaeshalch (Whitby). 

And in that yeai was the battle 1475 

Between the lords of Cornwall 

And the Britons^ whom Centwine 

Made flee to the sea. 

Two years after, Ecgferth the king 

Sent a host against the Scotch. 1480 

They destroyed everything cruelly. 

Before them no minster was safe, 

They burnt minsters and chapels, 

Wives they dishonoured, and maidens. 

Five years after, king Ecgferth 1485 

Made St. Cuthbert a bishop. 

The archbishop Theodore 

Blessed this lord 

At York. There he consecrated him 

To Hexham, thither he sent him, 1490 

For there was the chief see 

Of all the archbishopric, at that time. 

And Trumbyhrt was deposed, 

1473. AS. Chr. 680. 1474. A.D. 680. Bede, Lib. t., c. 24. 

1475. AS. Chr. 682 (683). 

1479. AS. Chr. 684. 

1480. Scotch], i^., the Irish, ^'gentem innoziam et nationi Aoglornm 
semper amicissimani," Bede, Lib. iv., c. 26. 

1485. One year, AS. Chr. 685. Bede gives the same date. Lib. iv., c. 27. 
1493. Trutnbyhri], D. and L. read Tennibert, evidently a mistake for 
Tnimbyhrt. Wilfrith'H deposition, which happened in A.D. 678, had 


Who had been archbishop. 

King Ecgferth in this year 1495 

Was slain by the men of Orkney ; 

And very many people died there 

Beyond the sea towards the north. 

Ecgferth reigned fifteen years in truth. 

Afternrards his brother Ealdferth was king. 1500 

At this time Eata departed 

At Hexham, where they chose 
Ht. John. John. He held the archbishopric 

Until Wilfiith returned. 

He (Wilfrith) was received as primate ; 1505 

And St. John went to Chester. 

Bosa, the bishop, was dead. 

They sought and chose Jolin. 

There was great peace. Then he departed 

And left his priest Wilfrith there. 1510 

Ho was consecrated bishop. 

And St. John departed 
BoTorley. To his minster at Beverley. 

He served God well, whom he loved much ; 

And in his time Oeadwalla waged 1515 

A right evil war for his kingdom. 

And in that year that he made war 

King Hlothere departed. 

nothing to do with Cuthbert's consecration to Hexham, bnt Trumbjhrt, 
the previous bishop of Hexham, had been deprived by the Ficts, who 
had revolted from England. AS. Chr. 685. 

1490. By the North Sea, AS. Chr. *'in angustias inaccesBorum mon- 
** tium," while on a campaign against the Picts. Bede., Lib. iv., c. 26. 
Simoon of Durham says, '^apud Nechtanesmere, quod est stagnnm 
** Neohtani, die xiij. kal. Jun. anno regni sui xv.*' Hist. Dunelm : 
Kcol. Lib. ]., cap. ix. Mr. Arnold, the latest editor of Simeon, appends a 
note to this passage that " Dnnnichen Hill, near Forfiar, and the valley 
** and the lake to the north of it, are supposed to have been the scene of 
" this batUe." 

1506. Ccasti«, in the AS. Chr. 685. This means York. 

1515. AS. Chr. 686. 

1518. AS. Chr. 6(»5. 


He was a wise man and a noble king: 

He ruled all his dajs over the Kentish men. 1520 

After his death Mul and Ceadwalla 
Waged right evil war in Kent. 
They burnt, plundered and robbed ; 
They harried all the Isle of Wight. 
After this, in the same year, 1525 

The Kentish men caught fiful. 
Him and eleven companions 
They burnt with fire, as felons. 
Ceadwalla was very wroth. 

The same year he plundered Kent. 1530 

Afterwards he went to Rome, 
And the Pope made him a good man. 
In a font he baptised him well. 
Peter then was he called ; 

Nor eight days after did he live. 1535 

He was buried in the minster. 
This was eleven days before May. 
Of another king I will speak. 
Ine was his name, as I have heard say. 
The West Saxons made him their lord. 1540 

Thirty-seven years this king reigned, 
And then went to Rome. 
There he remained all his days, 
Until the day of his death. 

The archbishop Theodoinis 1545 

Departed this year, no longer did he live. 
And the abbot of Reculver, 
Brihtwold, was put in his place. 
There were then two kings in Kent. 

1527. This is ivhat Qaimar's French must mean. The AS. Chr. says, 

*' zii. men mid him." Anno 687. 
1531. AS. Chr. 688. 
1545. AS. Chr. 690. 
1 548. Brihtwold] . Gaimar writes Bruthpat, he or his scribe mistaking 

the Saxon " w " for a " p." AS. Chr. 692. 

U 51689. D 


One was named Wihtred, 1550 

The other's name was Swebheard. 

Then departed the bishop Gef mund ; 

And Tobias received his see. 

Dryhthelm died, he thanked God. 

And the Kentish men gave - 1555 

Thirty thousand ounces of weighed gold 

For the burning they made of MuL 

They paid all this to king Ine ; 

And the Kentish men, according to law, 

Made Wihtred their king. 1560 

Thirty years he reigned and held the land ; 

Well he fought his wars. 

DCCnil. Then it was from the Incarnation, 

Seven hundred and four years, as we read, 

iEthelred, king of Mercia, 1565 

Took the habit of a monk. But Cenred 

Reigned after him and held [rule]. 

Then it fared ill with king Ealdferth. 

He was lord of the Northumbrians. 

At Driffield this king died. 1570 

Osred, his son, reigned after him. 

As his father had devised. 

A year after the men of Wessex 

Made a bishop of the good Aldhelm. 

1552. Bishop of Rochester. AS. Chr. 693. 

1554. AS. Chr. 693. Dryhthelm was a Northumbrian layman, who 
apparently died, but reviying, recounted a vision of purgatory, hell, and 
heayen. He afterwards became a monk at Mailroiie, and as part of his 
austerities consisted in sitting in the water in the winter and letting his 
clothes freeze on him, no wonder that, as Oaimar says, " Deu gracied," 
when he died. Bede, Lib. t., c. 12. 

1555. AS. Chr. 694. 

1561. Thirty-three.* AS. Chr. 694. 
1565. AS. Chr. 704. 
1570. 14 December. A8. Chr. 705. 

1574. The date of Aldhlem being made bishop is derived from Bede, 
Lib. v., c. 18. He died 709. AS. Chr. 


Two bishoprics they made of one, 1575 

All by counsel of the people. 

Daniel had one bishopric. 

The other had Aldhelm, who was very good. 

After AJdhelm came Forthhere. 

With great honour he held the bishopric. 1580 

Forthhere held in the west, 

And Daniel in the east. 

Woods were between them and great forests ; 

But both were rich. 

One is the bishopric of Winchester, 1585 

The other should be at Salisbury. 

Before this happened, 

From beyond the Humber, towards the south. 

Game those who slew 

Queen Ostrythe ; and her cousin, 1590 

King iEtheked, was her husband. 

Ecgferth was her brother, she his sister. 

Beorht was killed by the Picts. 

Cenred reigned over the Southhumbrians. 

That is Lindsey and Holmedene, 1595 

Kesteven and Holland, and Hestdene ; 

From the Humber to Rutland 

Extended this kingdom and beyond. 

At many times it was diyideA 

Such places there were right to the Thames. 1600 

The capital of the kingdom used to be 

At the city of Dorchester, 

And Huntingdon and the county 

Used to belong to this kingdom. 

1577. Daniel, bishop of Winchester, A.D. 705-744. 
1590. AS. Chr. 697. 

1593. AS. Chr. 699. Beorht was commander of the expedition to Ire- 
land in 684. See v. 1480. 

1594. Aa Chr. 702. 

1595. ** The description of the Sonthhumbrian kingdom, which is not to 
** be found in the Chronicle, seems to show the writer's local knowledge 

of Lincolnshire." (Mon. Brit, p. 788.) 

j> 2 





Death of 

Also the cifcy of Grantchester 1605 

Once belonged to it, and ought to do so. 
One king could well protect it, 
If he could bold it in peace. 

At this time the Mercians 
Made Ceolred lord and king. 1610 

King Cenred went to Borne, 
And Offa with him, a noble man. 
Cenred remained there till the end of his life. 
Then he departed by the fate of God. 
In this year, know well and see, 1615 

St. Wilfrith died at Oundle. 
His body was taken to Ripon. 
There religion was well observed. 
Forty-five years before, as it is written. 
He was elected bishop. 1620 

This good man, this Wilfiith, 
Ecgferth, the king, drove out, 
And after him, Acca, his priest 
Took his place, to be bishop. 

In this year Dan Beorhtfiith 1625 

Fought with the Picts, 
Between two waters, Heugh and Caraw, 
A great and cruel battle. 
And Ine and Nunna, his kinsman, 
Offered battle to Geraint. 1630 

He was a powerful king of Wales. 
Of all his right they deprived him. 
And Sigbald was killed this year. 
He was a rich man of the country. 

At this time Quthlac lived, 1635 

A man who served the Lord God. 

1610. AS. Chr. 709. 

1623. AS. Chr. 710 (709). 

1627. Heugh and Caraw are suggested by Thorpe. 

1635. His death is mentioned here in the AS. Chr. 714 (713). 


Who will look at his life 

Will find many wonders in it. 

It is well I should touch upon it, but I cannot tell 

Ine and Ceolred made slaughter 1640 

At Wansborough in a battle. 
A year afterwards, which I say without doubt. 
Then was Osred, the king, slain. 
Who reigned over the Northumbrians, 
In the march towards the South. 1645 

He was king seven years^ as I think. 
Then they made Cenred king. 
Two years and half a month he held the kingdom. 
Then Osric held it eleven years. 

Ceolred, the valiant king of Mercia, 1660 

Died this year, as it is related. 
At Lichfield was he buried. 
And king iEthelred, son of Penda, 
The Mercians carried away. 

They buried him at Bardney. 1655 

They gave Mercia to iEthelbald. 
He reigned forty-one years. 
He had war enough and great trouble. 
A rich man, Ecgberht was his name, 
At this time, by good exhortation, 1660 

Betook himself to God and to St. Peter, 
In orisons and prayer 
He continued daily till his death. 
He was buried at Mirmartin. 

1637. Perhaps the life by Felix, Monk of Jarrow, printed in Acta Sanc- 
torum, ii., 38 (April 11), and elsewhere. (Hardy's Desc. Cat. i., 405.) 

1640. AS. Chr. 715 (714). 

1642. AS. Chr. 716. 

1646. One MS. of the AS. Chr. (Tib. B. iv.) has viij. but the date of his 
accession is given as A.D. 705, so that eleven is the correct number. 

1660. AS. Chr. 716. 

1664. Mirmartin is perhaps another form of Miniiantun, or Cair Segont, 
where, according to Nennius (c. 25), Constantius, the father of Con- 


Another noble brother of the king, 1665 

Ingild was his name, died, as I believe. 

He was brother of the good king Ine. 

Cuthburh, their sister, was queen. 

During her life she founded Wimbome, 

And built there a beautiful abbey, 1670 

And king Ealdferth married her. 

In their life she was separated 

From the king, who held Northumberland. 

She left him while they were both living; 

She valued her chastity so much 1675 

That she left all her riches. 

Cwenburh was the name of the other sister. 

She exerted herself so to do right. 

That never in the country. 

Where she lived, was any one so loved. 1680 

It was then seven hundred and twenty-one years, 
As the ancients count. 
From the nativity of Christ* 
So many ages had then passed, 

When Daniel went to Rome, 1685 

The bishop whom God loved. 
Cynewulf was killed this year, 
A king's son (iEtheling), of great worth. 

Joh^of ^^ S^^ •^^^^ *^^^ ^®^* 

Bererley. He who lies at Beverley, 1690 

And .^thelburh rased the work 

Which king Ine had built; 

At Taunton he had had it built. 

stantine the Great vas buried, and where he sowed three seeds, of gold, 
silver, and brass, that no poor person might be found in it. The Editors 
of the Monumenta Biitannica identify this place as Silchester, others as 
near Carnarvon, but one MS. of Nennios adds, <*id est Urbs Eboraca." 
According to the AS. Chr. 729, Ecgberht died in lona. 

1666. AS. Chr. 718 (717). 

1685. AS. Chr. 721 (720). 

1687. By Ine. AS. Chr. 721 (720). 

1691. AS. Chr. 722 (721). 


She caused the work to be thrown down. 

In the foUowing year 1695 

Were many savage wars. 

King Wihtred, who held Kent, 

Died, as Ood willed. 

Thirty-four years this king reigned. 

Well he ruled, he loved his people. 1700 

And Ine, king of Wessex, 

Warred in Surrey and Sussex, 

And killed Ealdbriht, a king's son^ 

Whom he had driven from his own. 

Once he quite disinherited him, 1705 

Now he killed him, Und put him to death. 

And he took many of the South Saxons. 

Some he plundered, some he killed. 

Then after he had rested a while 

To Bome king Ine went; 1710 

And ^thelheard^ his kinsman, 

Received the kingdom of the West Saxons. 

Fourteen years he held it very wisely. 

He was beloved among his people. 

Then after two years had passed 1715 

Two comets showed themselves. Comet 

The stars shed rays, 

Some said that for peace, 

1697. AS. Chr. 726. 
1704. AS. Chr. 722 (721). 
1710. AS. Chp. 728 (726). 

1716. In Jan. 72{. AS. Chr. 729. It is conjectnied that this oomet 
is the same as that of 1677. Fingr^, I. 835. 

1717. Stevenson translates "foretold the fall of Kings," but the trans- 
lation above seems the more likely to be correct. The warning given 
by comets is specified also by Honorins of Anton. " Cometie sunt stellsB 
flammis crinitie in Lactea Zona versos Aqoilonem apparentes, regni 
motationem aot pestilentiam, ant bella vel ventos, lestos vel siccitatem 
portendentes. Cemontor aotem septem diebos, si diotios octogiota ** (De 
Imagine Mondi, Lib. I., c. 137. Migne's Patrol. Corsos, v. 172, p. 146). 
One copy (R. MS. 13 A. XXI., f. 21), reads ** ©stos vel oriundas lites." 


Some said that for war; 

That it foretells banishment from the land. 1720 

But "whatever they said, right or wrong, 

Why this was none knew. 

Osric, the king, then died. 

Eleven years he reigned. He was full strong. 

And St. Ecgberht died then, 1725 

Who had lived a good life. 

Ceolwulf held the kingdom eight years afterwards. 

Then Oswald the etheling died. 

The day came, then it grew dark. 

-ffithelbald harried Wessex. * 1730 

He took and seized Somerton. 

He conquered much while he lived. 

Bishop Acca was then driven 
From Hexham, from his see. 

Then the moon appeared 1735 

Red; it was bloody as it seemed 
To all those who saw it. 
It was bloody every one said. 
The archbishop then died, 

Tatwine, he served God well. 1740 

They chose Ecgberht to his see. 
He ruled the archbishopric well. 
Bede, the priest, then died 
At Wearmouth. There they buried him. 
King Ceolwulf became a monk. 1745 

A kinsman of his took the kingdom. 

1723. AS. Chr. 729. 
1725. See y. 1664. 
1728. AS. Chr. 730. 

1728. An eclipse of the sun on 14 August. AS. Chr. 733. (L'Ait de 

1738. AS. Chr. 733. 
1735. AS. Chr. 734. 

1739. Tatwine, archbishop of Canterbury. AS. Chr. 734. 
1743. AS. Chr. 734. Bede, in fact, died the followtng year, 785. 
1745. King of Northnmbria. AS. Chr. 787. 


Eadberht was his name. Twenty-one years 

He held the kingdom, with great trouble. 

For iEthelbald warred against him. 

This year he harried Northumberland. 1750 

Eadberht, the son of Eata, 

Eata, the son of Leodwald. 

This was the name of the powerful king 

Who reigned over the Northumbrians. 

His brother was named Ecgberht, the son of Eata. 1755 

He was an archbisliop, of noble race. 

Both lie side by side 

At York, in the porch. 

Then after a short time 
A king of the West Saxons died, 1760 

King iEthelheard. His kinsman, 
Cuthred, reigned after his death. 
Sixteen years, they say, he held the land. 
King iSthelbald made great war on him. 
^thelbald was king of Mercia. 1765 

Cuthred upheld his West Saxons. 
Saint Cutbbyrht held the archbishopric, 
For the archbishop was exiled. 
Cuthred and king ^thelbald 

Fought against the Welsb. 1770 

They made truce, for the battle. 
They quite discomfited the gathering 
Which the Welsh had made. 
Who could, as soon as he could, fled. 
A year after the men of Winchester, 1775 

When Daniel was no longer, 

1751. AS.Chr. 738. 

1761. AS. Chr. 741 (740). 

1767. Cnthbyrht, archbishop of Canterbury, was elected od the death, not 

banifhment, of Nothhelm. AS. Chr. 741 (740). 
1749. AS. Chr. 74S. 
1776. Daniel resigned the bishopric of Winchester 744, and died the 

following year. AS. Chr. 744 (745). 


Made Hunferth their bishop. 

[He was a right good master of the clergy, 

A wiser could not be.] 

The stars of heaven rose, 1780 

And moved in appearance : 

The people said they were falling. 

Then departed the other Wilfrith, 

On the third day within the month of April. 

He was bishop thirty years, 1785 

As the ancients tell us. 

Then was king Selred slain. 

Then king Eadbryht departed^; 

And Dan Oynric of Wessex, 

A king's son, was killed. 1790 

In that time and season, 

Between Cuthred and ^thelhun. 

They held battle and made war. 

He was an ealdorman of the land. 

The one was king, the other ealdorman. 1795 

Well this -ffithelhun held his own. 

When Cuthred had reigned twelve years 
He fought against ^thelbald. 
The king of Mercia took to flight, 
He [Cuthred] killed many of his men. 1800 

At Burford was the battle; 
The Mercians had the overthrow. 
Two years after, king Cuthred 
Fought against the Welsh. 

1780. And steoiran foron swy'Se scotjgende. AS. Chr. 744. 
1788. Bishop of York, died, 8 kal. Mai. AS. Chr. 744. 
1786. As we read, D. 

1786. Selied was king of the East Saxons. AS. Chr. 746. 
1788. King of Kent. AS. Chr. 748. 
1791. AS. Chr. 760. 
1798. AS. Chr. 752. 

1804. AS. Chr. 753. The Chr. does not state the result of the battle, nor 
is it mentioned either in the Annales Cambrise or Brut y Tywysogion. 


He was defeated ; but escaped, 1805 

And lost little of his own. 

Two years after he came to his end. 

Then they made his kinsman king. 

Who was named Sigebryht. 

He held the kingdom no more than a year. 1810 

Seven hundred and sixty, less five years, 

There were at that dav and that time, 

From the nativity of Jesus, 

Until that day, as was reckoned, 

When Cynewulf disinherited 1815 

Sigebiyht. He drove out his kinsman 

And the lords of the country. 

For treasons which they had committed. 

He held the county of Hampton, 

And all Wessex and Wilton. 1820 

Cynewulf long time held the land. 
Till a lord took it from him by war. 
Much he warred against him and well he held himself. 
Until the last ill befel him. 

He fought a battle against Cynewulf; 1825 

All his men were killed, 
And he escaped wounded. 
He hid himself in Andredesweald, 
Until a swineherd struck him dead 
In a thicket, where he was found. 1830 

Cynewulf was then holder [of the kingdom] 
Till he had reigned more than twenty years. 
This Sigebryht whom he had driven out 
Was his kinsman, but by the instigation 
And advice of his lords, 1835 

1807. One year. AS. Chr. 754. 

1815. AS. Chr. 755. 

1817. For anryhtum dsedum. AS. Chr. 755. 

1825. The passage is confused. ** He " must mean Sigehryht, whom 

Cynewulf drove into Andred, and who was stahhed by a herdsman 

at Pryfetesflod (Privet). AS. Chr. 755. 


Who were foolish and wicked. 

The king was angered against him. 

This Sigebryht had a brother. 

Whose name was Cyneheard. 

He took a mad revenge. 1840 

By spies he watched, 

When the king entered a chamber 

Where he came privately 

To a lady without his people. 

At this chamber he attacked him, 1845 

Until the king came oat. 

With an axe, which he wielded, 

He (Cynewulf ) ran at him directly he saw him. 

With the axe he gave him such a stroke 

Upon the head, when he struck him, 1850 

That he clove him to the shoulders. 

He killed him who attacked him, 

But the others rushed on him ; 

He was slain in ver}^ little time. 

And when Siebrant heard it, 1855 

He and his men came to the cry. 

They killed all they found, 

And took and robbed and plundered. 

But as soon as he had gone thence. 

The household came to the cry, 1800 

Who had been with the king, 

And whom he had cherished and loved. 

When they saw their lord dead, 
They had great grief in their hearts ; 
Nothing would make them desist 1865 

1840. Cynewulf 8 death is recoanted iu A8. Chr. 755, and again men- 
tioned under its true date, 784. 

1850. According to the AS. Chr. 755, Cynewulf wounded, but did not kill 

1855. There is an error in the name here. Sigebryht had already been 
killed. See T. 1825 note. 


From going to avenge their lord. 

They attacked them and struck him (Cyneheard). 

They waited for them valiantly. 

He (Cyneheard) promised much and spoke them well, 

And reasoned yrith the thanes, 1870 

** Lords" he said^ " attack me not 

*' for I have rightfully avenged myself. 

** You know well, I believe, 

'^ That I am the son of Sigebryht. 

" I oughts in justice, 1875 

" To hold the kingdom^ to lead the people. 

" When this uncle of mine made war on me 

^' I could not stay in the land. 

" If I have avenged myself on him for it, 

" You do wrong to marvel. 1880 

" Lords, make great rejoicing, 

'' And give me my rank again, 

'* By the agreement which I will make 

" I will give back to each of you his honour, 

" And will give you great increase ; 1885 

" The poorest T will make rich." 

They replied: "We will not make peace, 

" We defy you as a traitor, 

" You have killed our lord, 

" Let us strike, no delay." 1890 

Then they struck valiantly. 

The others struck back likewise. 

What shall I say ? Great was the shock. 

Sigebryht (C3meheard) was killed that day. 

He and all his companions, 1895 

Except only one lad. 

He was the king's godson« 

1 868. They, i.e., Cyneheazd's party. 
1874. Brother. AS. Chr. 755. 
1887. D. reads'* Fait neferum." 

1897. The godson of Osric, the ealdormaD, who was with Cynewulf s 
thanes. AS. Chr. 755. 


^Sr'ftT '€ TWE 

ZTim, ii'ii^ vmI was in. lie j&:!pi 


tie 3as. wi>3 

e»i ia i« wood. 


t A 

vb^ci I spoke before. 

Tijifj ikrTVi-i '" r± to Winchester, 

^^tii jT'rftS bid :cr tl*T loried him there. 

Azil L-f -tti-t-b^?' wl: w*re killed. 

Tie rtlrr il-rv int«frr=d At DefiureL 

Kir^ -tilel-THkl-l the Mercijin. 

As Kept.: a ihey b:3ried h^.m 

F.-c h's sake they hoa^-ared the place for i 




slun bj Sigcbfyht, AS. Clir. 755. 

r^ the Angio-Saxon, iden the ikcts men- 

txNa<a iB th^ aext twx) liaes to CvMbn. instep of Sigebiyht. 

I?:4. TVnx-os>e T«Kn. AS. Chr. 755, bat the dates giren by the 

Ohiwi:.:* fcr the len^ of his ragn are, 755 to 784. XXXI is a 

Jik^NT error for axiT 

!!»]*. CVneheanl vas buried at Axminster, AS. Chr. 755, but the burial 
of another •iheling at Defiirel is not mentioiied there nor in any other 

IWK AS. Chr. 755. 


Forty-one years was he king. 1925 

After him the Mercians made 
BeomraBd king» by such tenure. 
This year was he driven out of the kingdom. 
King Offa drove him out. 

Thirty nine years he (Offa) held the land and 
reigned. 1930 

And after him the Mercians 
Made Ecgferth king of the realm. 
He was the son of Offa, who held it before him. 
He reigned enough, good befell him. 
A hundred and forty-one days 1935 

He held the kingdom like a righteous man. 
Eadberht was lord in Northumberland. 
Once he began often to say 
That he wished to serve God, 

To become a monk or canon. 1940 

Then he departed and forsook all. 
Oswulf, his son, then occupied 
Northumberland, Mercia, and Deira. 
And Bemicia was given up to him. 
One year he lived, then he was killed. 1945 

This his wicked servants did, 
Who afterwards were all destroyed. 
Hanged, and all cruelly made away with. 

At this time, so says the history, 
Seven hundred and fifty-nine remembrances 1950 

Our ancestors had made. 
From the coming of God to this day. 
So many years there were when died 
The good Cuthbyrht, whom God loved, 
And Moll iEthelwald was made king. 1955 

This did the Northumbrians. 

1937. AS. Chr. 757. 

1954. Archbishop of Canterbury, AS. Chr. 758. 

1955. AS. Chr. 759. 


Two years was he king and ruled the land well. 

But he loved peace much less than war. 

In the second year that he reigned 

It was a hard winter, it rained and snowed, 1960 

And froze, and was so cold 

That scarcely anything could protect 

Men or people, or cattle or beasts, 

From the hard winter and the weather. 

It was said that this signified 1965 

The death of king Moll, who then reigned. 

Who was slain on a mountain ; 

Eadwine's Cliff they call it. 

There Anche and Oswine killed him. 

The country favoured Alchred, 1970 

He lived and held the kingdom nine years. 

But the lords altogether 

Forsook him for the right heir (iEthelred). 

They caused him to have his kingdom. 

They received him at York. 1975 

King Alchred was driven away. 

iSthelred was son of king Moll. 

To him the Northumbrians did homage. 

He only reigned four years. 

Then was a sign seen, 1980 

From heaven to earth it stretched, 

In likeness of a cross. 

It was after sunset 

That this sign was seen. 

And then died king Eadberht. 1985 

The English called him Eating (son of Eata). 

1957. He nigned six yean in all. AS. Cbr. 759. 

1960. AS. Chr. 761. 

1967. Mol vas not killed at Eadwinc's ClifP, but killed OBiiine there. 

AS. Chr. 761. 
1970. Alchred, king of Nortbumbria. AS. Cbr. 765. 
1980. AS. Cbr. 773 (774). 
1985. Eadbebrt, king of Northnmbria. (See v. 1937.) AS. Cbr. 768. 


In this year two kings, 

The kings of Mercia and Kent, 

Fought a great battle at Otford, 

Where many a valiant man was slain. 1990 

Then were seen serpents 

Such as no one had ever seen before. 

They appeared in Sussex. 

Those who had seen them said 

That they were black and white, 1995 

That they became red and green. 

Then that they changed into many colours, 

Seven or eight times in the day. 

And when it came towards night 

They sang with such delight, 2000 

That under heaven was no instrument 

Which men would so gladly hear. 

And when anyone hunted them, 

The wretch who tried to catch them 

Was soon bound by the legs 2500 

So that he could not move his feet. 

At that time was dispute and great strife 

Between two kings for Bensington. 

King Offa took it; 

And Cynewulf was very wroth. 2010 

A YEAR after were killed 
Three high -reeves of the country. 
This did Heardberht and iEthelbald. 
By them was the attack begun, 

Ealdulf, Cynewulf, and Ecga, 2015 

At King's Cliff and at Helathyrn. 
And Alfwold seized the kingdom. 
He drove out king iEthelred. 
Ten years this king reigned. 

1988. AS. Chr. 77S (774). 
1991. AS. Chr. 773 (774). 
2011. AS. Chr. 778. 

2016. Elelmman], Helathyrn (AS. Chr.). Thorpe suggests Ellerton. 
U 51689. jj 



At this time such was the law, 2020 

That, whoever was strong, made war. 

And took his neighbour's land. 

Then was a battle 

Between the Saxons and the host 

Which had come from Saxony. 2025 

This was at Portsmouth* Haven, 

When they thought to land, 

They encountered the Saxons, 

Who were defending the land from them. 

They were outlaws, therefore they did it. 2030 

This year at Seletuu (Silton) 

Dan Beorn, a rich lord, was burned. 

The Northumbrians hated him so 

That they burned him in a great fire. 

At this time, sus folk know, 2035 

From the coming of Jesus, 
There were seven hundred and eighty years 
And two more, I warrant you ; 
For Werburh then died, 

A sainted queen. 2040 

Ceolred, the king, had her to wife. 
She lies at Chester in a worthy place, 
And every year is seen there 
That God does great works through her. 
Two years after her death 2045 

Two kings were making war. 
One was named Cyneheard. 

2024. Eald Seaxe and Francon. AS. Chr. 779 (780). The Chronicle does 
not mention the place where the battle wan fought. 

2034. On December 24 or 25. AS. Chr. 779 (780). 

2042. Gaimar confiiseB Werborh, wife of Ceolred, king of Mercia, with 
Werburh, daughter of Wnlfhere, king of Mercia, who was buried at 
Hanbury in 699, and remove d to Chester in 875. According to Simeon 
of Durham, the wife df Ceolred was also an abbess, but he does not 
say of what monastery. (Hist Begum., vol. II., p. 50, Rolls Bd.) 

2045. AS. Chr. 784. 


He killed Cynewulf openly, 

Also eighty-four men 

Did Cyneheard slay there. 2050 

At this time king Beorhtric held 

Wessex sixteen years, as it is written. 

He was buried at Wareham. 

He was one of the descendants of Cerdic. 

Then was Ecgferth raised to be king, 2055 

And the crosier given to Higebryht. 

Messengers came from Rome, 

From Adrian, a holy man. 

To renew the holy law. 

As erst, I trow, did 2060 

St. Augustin and St. Qregory, 

So did this pope. 

And king Offa then gave 

His daughter, whom he largely dowered. 

To king Beorhtric; he gave him his daughter 2065 

Eadburg, who was fair and gentle. 

And at this time the Danes came 

To war upon the English. 

They killed the king's reeve. 

They seized the land and took it. 2070 

Much evil they did through the country. 

Though they had only three ships. 

Then they returned to their country. 

They collected their friends. 

They would come to Britain; 2075 

They would take it from the English. 

For among themselves they reasoned. 

And said that it was their heritage. 

2056. AS. Chr. 785. According to Florence of Worcester, Higebiyht 
succeeded Berthnn, bishop of Dorchester, in 785, and on the division 
of the archbishopric of Canterboiy by Ofb and archbishop Janbryht, he 
became archbishop of Lichfield, and died 786. W. Malms, de Gestis 
Regum, p. 119. (Le Neve.) 

2068. AS. Chr. 787. 

£ 2 


And that many men of their race 

Had inherited the kingdom. 2080 

Before the English entered it, 

Or any man of Saxony dwelt there, 

King Dane ruled the kingdom, 

Who was born in Denmark. 

Thus did Ailbrith and Haveloc, 2085 

And others they named with them. 

Wherefore they said with truth, 

Britain was their just.inheritance. 

What matters? They rested much on this; 

At this time they did not depart. 2090 

From Guenelinge^ from a country, 

Their enemies (the Danes) attacked them. 

Because of this war 

They (the English) had to defend their country. 

At this time of which I speak 2095 

Then was king Alfwold slain. 
He held Northumberland. 
He was a right holy man, wise and valiant. 
King Penda warred against him. 

Sicga beheaded his king. 2100 

Tn Mescesfeld was he slain. 
The place will be for ever dear. 
For brightness and a great heavenly fire 

2083. The other MSS. read, " the Danish King,'- but the allusion in 

evidently to the King Dane whom Canute claimed as his ancestor. 

(See V. 4S20.) 
2085. For Ailbrith, the other MSS. read Ecbrict and Edbright, forms of 

Egbert. See the list of kings in the Arundel MS., of which an extract is 

giyen at p. zzxij. of the Preface. 
2091. The AS. Chr. says the Danes came from Hserethaland. Guenelinge 

looks like a French form of Wendel. 
2096. AS. Chr. 789. Gaimar has miscopied this name from the 

Chronicle, Osewald, and the insertion of Fenda and Mescesfeld here, 

is due to this mistake. See v. 1290. The Chr. says Alfwold was 

slaiu 24 September, and buried at Hexham. 


Often have clerk and priest seen there. 

But his holy body was taken thence, 2105 

And carried far into the countiy. 

With piety and care 

It was carried thence to Bardney. 

There they would bury him, 

Love the place, keep the body. 2110 

And in the chronicles it is written 

That he was buried there. 

To Nostell, some say, 

His friends carried him. 

At Hexham many say 2116 

That they have relics of their lord. 

And at Coldesdeburch^ iu the south, 

There is his arm, by which God works wonders. 

It is entire, God be praised. 

His head is placed entire 8120 

On the breast of St. Cuthbert. 

It rewards him who keeps it. 

And after this the Northumbrians 
Made his nephe\v their king. 

Osred was his name, he was son of Alchred. 2125 
A short time his pride lasted. 
He was driven from his kingdom. 
To ^thelred then was it given. 
He was son of ^thelwold. 

In war he was strong and bold. 2180 

He bad before held the land, 

2110. This description of the relics refers to Oswald. 

2117. << ColesdehuTch el Sath," though in all the MSS. is no doubt 
wrong. Perhaps it should he " I'eglise de Burch,*' i.e. Peterborough. 
In Y. 1297, Gaimar sajs that Oswald's hand is at " Burg," which is 
explained in the margin as <*Burg Sen Pere/' perhaps a mistaken 
Tersion of Bede's statement that the holy relic is at St. Peter's Church, 
Bebbanburh. But on the other hand, the list of saints in the Breriate 
of Domesday Book states, that ^ li Moigne de Burc " say that they 
possess Oswald's hand. See Preface, yol. I., p. x1. 

2128. AS. Chr. 789. 2127. AS. Chr. 790. 


But had lost it through his mea. 

King Offa hated him sore, 

For his nephew whom he had dispossessed. 

Then Osred returned from exile, 2135 

Who had been king before, and was very gracious. 

But they killed him cruelly, 

Those who had disinherited him. 

At Tynemouth lies his body. 

And -fflthelred then took a wife, 2140 

Ml&Bdd was her name. This queen 

Was much attached to her lord. 

She tried hard to serve him, 

And therefore he loved her much. 

At the time I tell you of 2145 

Signs were shown to the country; 
Red [signs] appeared 
Such as no man living ever saw before. 
Like scarlet they spread. 

They appeared near the earth. 2150 

Then came great whirlwinds, 
Then fiery dragons flew. 
And the lightnings which men saw. 
What they boded, none knew. 

Some said, in their mind, 2155 

That it was for a time of dearth. 
Nor did they say very wrong. 
This sign did not seem a dream. 
It was over Northumberland 

That these signs were shown. ' 2160 

After these signs, verily. 
The heathen people came. 
They landed at the haven of Humber. 

2185. AS. Chr. 792. 
2145. AS. Chr. 798. 

2156. ''Cher tens" is Gaimar's translation of '' mycel hunger." (AS. 
Chr. 793.) 


They harried Lindsey. 

No minster remained unsacked 2165 

In any place they came to. 

Then died king Sicga. 

He had formerly killed Alfwold. 

And king Ofla then sent word 

To the heathen that he would fight, 2170 

And the heathen fought. 

They had too many men, therefore they conquered. 

And the traitors, the Northumbrians, 

Killed iEtheb-ed their king. 

And after Offa Ecgferth reigned. 2175 

Mercia he held and kept. 

When he thought to keep it better, 

He died, he could not escape that. 

The very year that he took possession 

It befell that he lost his life. 2180 

EIadberht was then made king in Kent. 
He had another private name. 
The heathen did not tarry. 
When they had wasted Lindsey, 

Up the Humber they sailed 2185 

As far as the Ouse ; then they went 
To the mouth of the Don. It is said, 
And in the chronicles it was written. 
That there was much folk gathered 
To defend their country. 2190 

2164. landfley w an error for Lindisfame. (See AS. Chr. 798.) 

2167. Sicga died on 22 February, 79}. (AS. Chr. 793.) 

2168. Gfaimar here again writes Osewald for Alfwold. 
2174. AS. Chr. 794. 

2181. His other name was Prsen. (AS. Chr. 794.) 

2187. The 'AS. Chr. states that the heathens plundered Eegferth's 
(Ecgfrid) Minster " set donemu'Se." This monastery was at 
Wearmouth. (Bede, lY. 1 8.) The Editor of the Mon. Brit suggests 
that the correct reading in the Chr. should be ** st iSone mn'Ke." 
Gaimarhas taken '* done," as the name of the River Don. 


They killed more than thirty men. 

There was a great storm on the water. 

One of their (the heathen) leaders was slain. 

In an ill hour he entered this country. 

Some of their ships were destroyed ; 2195 

Some of their men were drowned. 

Nevertheless they did not depart. 

But wasted great part of the country. 

Then the archbishop Eanbald, 

And a bishop, St. Higbald, 2200 

Placed Eardwulf on the tlirone 

At York, the bishopric. 

Northumberland belonged to him. 

These two hallowed him for king, 

And king Offa then died, 2205 

Who reigned 40 years, as I think. 

Cenwulf obtained Mercia. 

A warrior king, a strong tyrant. 

He went to Kent and harried it. 

He took Eadberht and led him away. 2210 

He was lord of the men of Kent, 

This king took him to Mercia. 

Beorhtric, king of Wessex, 

Left the world in this month ; 

And Ecgbryht reigned after him. 2215 

All Wessex he held, I trow. 

Then at this time came the Welsh 

To waste this king's land, 

Straight to Kempsford. 

There were the Welsh slain. 2220 

2199. AS. Chr. 795. 

2205. AS. Chr. 796. 

2207. AS. Chr. 796. 

2213. AS. Chr. 800. 

2217. The Hwiccas, from Worcestershire, accordiDg to the AS. Chr. 

^thelmand was their leader, not of the Wiltshire men, who were 

led by Weohstan. 


For iEthelinund with WUtshire 
Made great slaughter of the Welsh. 

Then died king Cuthred. 
He reigned in Kent and Thanet. 
And the Northumbrians drove Eardwulf, 2225 

Their king, from Northumberland. 
Eight years after Carle died, 
Who had held Cumberland. 
He lived forty-five years. 

Northumberland was obedient to him. 2230 

This countiy he held all his reign. 
Never I think was anyone so great. 

In this year, as the history says. 
The true historv of Winchester, 

King Ecgbryht harried Wales. 2235 

He wasted all the west country, 
And then in the east, on his return. 
He took all the booty he could find. 
Seven years after Cenwulf of Mercia 
Died in Basewerce. 2240 

And Ceolwulf reigned after him. 
Two years he held the land with much weariness. 
At the end of two years he lost it. 
He was not beloved, therefore be fled. 
Such deeds had he done, that all hated him. 2245 
Many wished to kill him. 
We will leave him ; and speak of him 
Of a brave king of another kingdom, 
Wessex. Ecgbryht was his name. 
Beomwulf raised great strife against him. 2250 

2238. AS. Chr. 805 (804). 

2225. AS. Chr. 806. 

2227. This means Charles the Great. The reference to Comherland and 

Northomberland is of course a mistake, dae to misapprehension. 
2285. AS. Chr. 813 (812, 815). 
2238. AS. Chr. 819 (822). 
2242. AS. Chr. 821. 
2250. AS. Chr. 823. 


He was king of Mercia. At Ellendane 

It was shown which was the better. 

On both sides there was great slaughter 

At the battle which they fought, 

In the end, so says the history, 2255 

King Ecgbryht had the victory* 

King Ecgbryht had a son 

Who was named j3Ethelwulf. 

Him and bishop Ealbstan, 

And Wulfheard, he ordered 2260 

To take many of his folk, 

And go to conquer, in Kent. 

And those who went, with a great host, 

Soon drove out king Baldred. 

They conquered the land. 2265 

The king fled over the Thames; 

And tlie men of Kent granted 

That Ecgbryht should have all the kingdom. 

And in Sussex and in Surrey 

His rule went everywhere. 2270 

And the men of Essex for their fiefs 

Sent him hostages. 

This folk received him, 

Because sonye of his old kinsfolk 

Had once held the land 2275 

And lost it by war. 

And for fear of the Mercians 

They received Ecgbryht as king ; 

And those of East Anglia also. 

For the fear of the same folk. 2280 

At this time there were two kings 
In the land of the Mercians. 
One was Beomwulf, much pride he showed. 
The other was named Ludecan. 

2251. Thorpe suggests ADington as the modern niune of EUendune. 


Among them were seveu princes. 2285 

These two were chief of all. 

And likewise in other kingdoms 

Everywhere there were such lords. 

As soon as one could rise a little 

He had himself called king. 2290 

This Ludecan, of whom I first spoke, 

He was killed by the Welsh, 

[And Wiglaf received the kingdom 

Where Ludecan had been]. 

At this time Ecgbryht, the king, 2295 

Conquered this country and took it for himself. 

And all south of the Humber, 

Men held of him, by reckoning and by number. 

Once there were eight kings in the kingdom. 

Of whom the others held their fiefs. 2300 

He was one of them, I think. 

But before him, in the old time. 

There was a valiant king in Sussex, 

Who afterwards conquered Northumberland, 

^la was his name, all his life. 2305 

The third was called -fflthelbryht. 

He was king of Kent, a bold king he was. 

And the fourth was named Raedwald. 

In East Anglia this king reigned, 

A right wise man and well he ended. 2310 

The fifth king was named Eadwine; 

He held the kingdom beyond Tyne, 

And the other kingdom of York^ 

And all Wessex was his fief. 

The sixth Oswald, the seventh Oswiu. 2315 

But the land did not go thus. 

2291. AS. Cbr. 825. 

2295. AS. Chr. 827. 

2805. Gaimar here confuses ^lla, king of the South Saxons, the first 
Bryten-walda, who came to Britain in 477, with the two kings of Korth- 
nmbria named ^lla, who died in 588 and 867 respectiyely. 


So that no man, except by war, 

Knew how went the land. 

Nor at that time did anyone know 

Who belonged to each king. 2320 

But monks and canons of abbeys, 

"Who wrote the lives of kings. 

Each applied to his companion 

To show the ti-ue account 

Of the kings ;^ how long each reigned, 2325 

How he was called ; how he died ; 

Who was killed, and who deceased. 

Who are preserved, and who decayed. 

And of the bishops also 

The clerks kept record. 2330 

Chronicles, it is called, a big book. 

The English went about collecting it. 

Now it is thus authenticated ; 

So that at Winchester, in the cathedral. 

There is the true history of the kings, 2335 

And their lives and their memorials. 

King Alfred had it in his possession, 

And had it bound with a chain. 

Who wished to read, might well see it, 

But not remove it from its place. 2340 

The eighth king was named Ceawlin. 

He had the West Saxons with him. 

He was king of one part. 

In this kingdom was his lordship. 

Of the other part Ecgbryht was king, 2345 

Who afterwards reigned over the Southhumbrians. 
And when he had conquered so far, 
He led his host beyond Humber. 
At Dore was he received. 

2849. Stevenson suggests that Dorewit or Dorewik (D.L. H.)< and 
Evervik (B.)) are a misunderstanding of the phrase in the AS. Chr., 
" Kcgbriht Isedde f jrde to Dore wi* Noi^anhambra." 


Then was he king of North and South. 2350 

Wiglaf recovered the kingdom. 

He wafl king again over Mercia. 

In this year king Ecgbryht 

Gained to himself the North Welsh. 

All with their ^ood will 2355 

Ecgbryht gained them over. 

Two years after, truly, 

Then came the heathen folk. 

They harried all Sheppey. 

They cared for no man. 2360 

The next year after, Ecgbryht went 

And led his host against the heathen. 

With the heathen he fought a great battle. 

Many men died there without fail. 

The battle was at Charmouth. 2365 

Many good lords died there, 

But the heathen were the stronger ; 

They drove back Ecgbryht with loss. 

Then came another fleet. 
In West Wales they held council. 2370 

They talked over the West Welsh, 
So that they held with the Danes. 
Together they went fighting, 
Doing much evil thi'ough the country. 
Then they met king Ecgbryht, 2376 

And entered his land. 
Hengestdown (Hengston) is the hill called 
Where they gave him battle. 

2351. AS. Chr. 828. 
2359. AS. Chr. 832. 
2361. AS. Chr. 833 (834). 

2370. Cancire, cunaire, translated council, is not conaeil altered for the 
sake of rhyme, of which instances occur with other words, but a noun 
formed from cfmnrer^cfmsiderer. 

2371. AS. Chr. 835. 


There he made havoc of them. 

Conquered were the cruel heatheu. 2380 

Then bad the age lasted. 

From the nativity of Christ, 

Eight hundred and thirty-seven years, 

As clerks who read say. 

At that time, at that place, 2385 

Died Ecgbryht who possessed so much. 

This was he who chased Offa. 

Thirty-seven years and one month he reigned. 

Then ^thelwulf, his son, reigned. 

And iEthelstan, a noble king. 2390 

One had Wessex, the other Kent ; 

Surrey and Sussex also. 

And they wished to claim 

To rule all that their father had. 

Then came a right strong fleet. 2396 

It landed at the port of Hampton. 
There were thirty-three ships. 
I think God hated them much, 
Because by Wulfheard, a brave ealdorman, 
Qreat havoc was made of them. 2400 

He fought with them. 
Many he killed^ and overcame. 
The same year the man died. 
If he could have lived longer^ 

As ancient people say, 2405 

He would have done much damage to the heathen ; 
But the heathen joined together, 
And did evil and warred. 
Their folk came, cruel Danes, 

And killed many lords. 2410 

Then they killed iEthelhelm. 

2886. AS. Chr. 836. 
2896. AS. Chr. 887. 
2411. AS. Chr. 887. 


He gave them battle. 

He was so brave and valiant, 

And so migbty in battle^ 

That when the English had lost him, 241. '3 

No such good shield remained to them. 

To London straightway went 

The Danes to give battle. 

There they did their pleasure. 

Many then they put to death. 2420 

Thence they went to Rochester. 

There they fought a battle in the field. 

Many peasants they killed. 

But most fled. 

He who could enter the city 2425 

Was saved and well cared for ; 

And he who could not, was not saved, 

Unless he fled to some other part. 

Thence they went to Sandwich, 
But were not welcomed. 2430 

AU the men of Kent were aasembled. 
In an open field they met them. 
Fiercely they fought; 
But yet the Danes conquered. 

If it had not been for the town, which was shut up. 
Many Kentish men would have been slain; 2436 

But by means of the town many escaped ; 
The rest aU perished. 
King JEthelwulf then reigned. 

He went through the country against them ; 2440 
And the Danes from all parts 
Came in their ships. 

2417. AS. Chr. 889. 

2429. The Tarioos MSS. of AS. Chr. read Cwantawic, Cantwic, and 

Cantwarabirig. This battle at Sandwich is mentioned in the Chronicle 

under the year 851 (858). 
2442. AS. Chr. 840. 


At Charmouth king ^thelwulf 

Fought with the Danes; 

But the Danes had the victory, 2445 

So the king of glory permitted. 

A.D. 845. Then there were eight hundred and forty-five years 
Since Christ came into the world. 
In this year fought 

Eanulf, the ealdorman, and defeated the Danes. 2450 
Another ealdorman, his name was Osric, 
Was with him as captain. 
One led the men of Dorset, 
The other the men of Somerset. 
At the mouth of the Parret 2455 

The Danes were beaten this year. 
Ceorl, the ealdorman pursued them; 
He never stopped till he came to Thanet. 
The lords of Devonshire 

Helped him in the pursuit. 2460 

They began at Wembury (?). 
They drove them as far as Thanet. 
There they were all the winter time. 
Other ships returning 

Came thither, against the summer. 2465 

To Canterbury they went. 
They broke iato and spoiled the city; 
They defeated King Beohrtwulf ; 
They put to flight the king of Mercia, 
As far as the city of Luie. 2470 

And the heathen went into Smrey. 
This was force and craft ; 

2450. AS. Chr. 845. 

2457. Different versions of the AS. Chr. put the battle of Wicganbeorh six 

or eight years later, 851 and 853. 
2466. AS. Chr. 851 (853). 
2470. No place is mentioned in the AS. Chr. in connexion with 

Beohrtwolf's flight, but London (Lundenburg) is said to have been 

stormed as well as Canterbury. " Luie " may perhaps be due to a 

mistaken reading of Lundenburg. 


For ifithelwulfy the chief king, 

And his son ^thelbald, I trow, 

Fought at Ockley. 2475 

The West Saxons did so well 

That they defeated all the Danes; 

Many a man lost his life there. 

This same year, at Sandwich, 

The Danes were again defeated, 2480 

By i£thelstan and by Ealchere. 

^thelstan was the king s brother. 

The one was brother to king iSthelwulf. 

He alone was chief king of East Anglia. 

Ealchere was an ealdorman holding of him. 2485 

He slew more than twenty Danes, 

And from their ships, which they had brought 

Into the Thames, wherever they found them 

They took men and their goods. 

They had none of them spared. 2490 

Whatever harm a man can do 

He ought to wreak on his enemy. 

When these Danes were here, 
Burhred was king of Mercia. 

By help of the noble iBthelwulf, 2495 

He made the North Welsh obey him. 
In the same year that this happened, 
Ealchere, the king who then held Kent, 
With the men of Kent, and with the ealdorman Huda, 
Who had the men of Surrey to aid, 2500 

Went against the Danes 
In the Isle of Thanet. 
They fought with the heathen. 
Little they gained, lives they lost. 
Huda and Ealchere were killed. 2505 

2479. AS. Chr. 851 (853). 

2493. ** The king " is a gratuitoas addition of Qaimar. The AS. Chr. 
onlj says " mid Cantwamm." 

2494. AS. Chr. 853 (854). 

17 51689. F 


They could not escape better. 

Then Burhred of Mercia took 

The daughter of iEthelwulf to wife. 

A year after the Danes came 

To Sheppey, with their troops. 2510 

With their troops and ships 

They spent the winter there till March. 

In the year of which I have spoken 

Kiug i£thelwulf divided his land. 

All his land he divided, 2515 

And gave it to the honour of Qod. 

Then after he had had his heir acknowledged 

He went straight to Rome. 

With great honour he went to Rome^ 

And tarried there a whole year. 2520 

Then on his return he married 

The daughter of Charles, who gave her to him. 

This was the daughter of the king of France. 

Always he strove to do honour. 

Two years after this he died. 2525 

Nineteen years this king reigned^ 
As the old story tells. 
He was buried at Winchester. 
He was son of King Ecghryht^ 

Who made the kingdom submit to him. 2530 

His two sons received his kingdom 
Whom he had by his first wife, 
.^thelbald had all Wessex, 
And iSthelbryht, Kent and Sussex, 
And Essex and Surrey. 2535 

Powerful kings were they in their life. 
Five years reigned king ^thelbald, 
Then he departed, life failed him. 
They laid his body at Sherborne. 

2509. AS. Chr. 855 (856). 

2526. Eighteen years and a half. AS. Chr. 855 (856). 

2537. AS. Chr. 860 (861). 


He made the Danes grieve in bis time. 2540 

King iEthelbryhfc was his brother. 

He took Wessex, as was right. 

Six years he reigned in these kingdoms. 

Then he departed. They carried him 

To Sherborne, after his brother. 2545 

Then fell the master of the English. 

With the two kings they had lost. 

They had often conquered the Danes. 

In the time that these reigned, 
A heathen horde wasted 2550 

The country of Winchester ; 
But two ealdormen, who ruled there, 
Kept for the king the country. 
Which is called Hampshire. 

Osric and ^Sthelwulf were their names. 2565 

Both were powerful lords. 
Osric had the men of Hampshire, 
And iEthelwulf those of Berkshire. 
So they fought on the spot. 

They had the victory over the Danes. 2560 

Then came the Danes to Thanet, 
Who had the Kentish men for servants. 
They took truce with this folk ; 
Then they harried all the east. 

But a king who reigned then 2565 

Warred against them right willingly, 
.^thelred, the brother of the two kings 
Who had reigned before. 
At this time came the great fleet. 
No man ever saw a fleet who did not see this. 2570 

2544. Fiye jean according to the AS. Chr. 

2550. AS. Chr. 860 (861). 

2561. AS. Chr. 865 (866). 

2564. AS. Chr. 866 (867). 

2570. D.L. H. read : — ^No man frho wears clothes ever saw the like. 

F 2 


In East Anglia they landed. 

All the winter they stayed there. 

In March^ in mockery, 

They granted a truce to this folk. 

Then they took horses, 2675 

The best of their men, 

And most of them went in ships 

As far as Humber, sails set. 

More than twenty thousand went on foot. 

Soon you will hear of great marvels. 2580 

These Danes returned. 

At Grimsby they passed the Humber, 

And those on foot likewise. 

Great plenty they had of men ; 

And those who were with the ships 2585 

All went to York. 

Both by water and by land, 

They waged great war at York. 

Those who came by water 
Sailed as far as the Ouse; 2590 

But directly the sun was hidden 
The tide turned, 

And they then quartered themselves there; 
Some on the water, some in tents; 
But the chief men, the lords, 2595 

Went into houses in the town. 
There dwelled a noble man, 
Beom Butsecarl was his name. 
He lodged all the lords 

Very richly, with great honour. 2600 

He had brought them thus together. 
And summoned them from Denmark 
On account of the shame of his wife. 
Which he desired eagerly to avenge. 

2577. AS. Chr. 867 (868). 


A GREAT shame was done to her. 2605 

Osbryht held Northumberland. 
He dwelt at York. 
One day he went to the forest 
He went to hunt in the Vale of Ouse. 
Privily he went to eat 2610 

At the house of this thane. 
Who was named Beom the Butaecarl. 
The goodman was then at sea. 
For outlaws he was wont to watch. 
And the lady, who was veiy fair, 2615 

Of whom the king had heard a report, 
Was at the house^ as was right; 
She had no liking for eviL 
Now behold the king come ; 

With great honour was he received. 2620 

When he had eaten as much as he would. 
Then he spake the folly which he thought 
" Lady, I wish to speidL with yon, 
" Let the room be cleared." 

All went out of the chamber 2625 

Except two who kept the doors. 
These were the king's companions. 
They well knew his secrets. 
The lady did not perceive 

Why the king did thus. 2630 

When he took her, against her will^ 
He did his will with her. 
Then he departed, left her weeping. 
To York he spurred. 

And when he was with his iavourites 2685 

Often he joked about it 

The lady mourned much, 
For the shame he had done her. 

36dl. SteyeDson translates esire son grt^ to do bis pleasure, but es^e is 
the French for extra^ and the phrase means *< bejoiwi her desire.*' 


She lost all her colour 

From the sorrow he had caused her. 2640 

Then behold Beorn was grieved, 

Who was very noble and gentle. 

Among all the seafaring men 

There was no braver man on land. 

Nor in the kingdom where he was bom 2645 

Was there any man with better kindred. 

When he saw his wife pale, 

And saw her weak and thin. 

And found her quite changed 

From what she was when he left her, 2650 

Then he asked what this should be, 

What it meant, and what was the matter with her. 

She said to him, " I will tell you, 

" I will accuse myself, 

** Then do to me such justice 2655 

** As if I was taken in theft." 

He replied, ** What has happened T 

*' Lately the king lay with me. 

" By force he did his wickedness. 

" Now it is right that I should lose my life. 2660 

" Though this was done secretly 

** I wish to die openly. 

" Rather would I die than live longer." 

Fainting she fell at his feet. 

And he replied, "Rise up, my love, 2665 

*' For this you shall not be hated. 

" Weakness cannot resist strength. 

" In you are many good signs. 

" As you have first confessed this to me, 

** I will have much pity on you. 2670 

" But if you had hidden it from me 

" Till another showed it to me, 

" Never would my heart have loved you, 

•< Nor my mouth have kissed you* 

" As this felon did his felony, 2675 


" I will seek that he lose his life." 

Night fell. But at mom 

To York he took his way. 

He found the king amoog his people. 

Beom had there many good kinsfolk. 2680 

The king saw him. He called him. 

Beom at once defied him. 

*' I defy thee, and give thee back all. 

" I will hold nothing of thee, 

" Never will I hold aught of thee, 2685 

" Thy homage I return to thee." 

Then he left the house. 

With him came out many good lords. 

Then he took counsel of his kin. 
He complained to them of the shame ; 2690 

How the king had treated him ; 
He told and related the whole to them. 
Then he told them that he would go away. 
If he could, he would bring the Danes. 
Never would his mind be at rest 2695 

Till he was avenged of the king. 
And his kinsfolk promised 
That they would drive him (the king) out of the 

So they did. For this misdeed 

They immediately left the king. 2700 

So they made king of the country 
A knight whose name was JSlla. 

Then it happened, as you hear, 
That he brought in the Danes. 

At Cawood were lodged 2705 

Those who came on board the ships, 
But most of the Danes 
Came through the midst of Holdemess, 

2700. A8. Chr. 867 (868). JEUa was not of royal blood, according to 
the Chronicle. 


T;l: trj^TT vere inear the mr, 2710 

Tf.^ kirxg vLo tbtm hdi ^ht cmmity 

WaA t^J^it da J ;;:jiie mio the forttt, 

Wh*« th^y CkUje U> th« dty. 

But the <A}ier kin^ ranain^ 2715 

He who was deprived of the keys^ 

l^lien the I>an€9» attacked 

A little while they defended tbeoisdves. 

Hut a sljort ««pace lasted Uieir defence. 

Then the Dan€» gained the battle. 2720 

Soon then wa.s the dty taken. 

Tliere was great fJaaghter of men« 

OMbfyht, the king, was killed. 

Beom his enemy was avenged. 

King JElla was in the wood, 2725 

Four hinds he had then taken. 
He was seated ai his dinner. 
He heard a man ring a bell. 
In his hand he held a little belL 
It rang as clear as an eschdMe^ 2730 

The king desired that he should come forward; 
That he should have something to eat ; for he asked 

for it. 
As the king sat at his meat, 
He said to a knight 

" We have done very well to-day. 2735 

*' We have killed what we hunted. 

2728. Ufu ham should be nominative, but tlie above appean to be tbe 

2730. " Dans le latin du mojren-ftge tintinnfUmlum signifiuit Bouvent 
une esp^cc d'instrument tomposd de plurieurs clocbettes de divers 
calibrcH Kuspenduei en file ^ nne barre de bois on de fer et donuaat des 
KonH diffvrents quand on les frappait I'une apr^8 Tantre en cadence. Ce 
tiHliftHabulum paralt avoir ^t^ traduit par egcbeiettes^^* — Burguy, Gram- 
miiiro de la langue d'oil, iii., 138* 


" Four hinds and siz roes. 

" Often have we hunted worse,'* 

The blind man heard him> sitting far off; 

Then he spake a word of truth: 2740 

*' Though you taken so much in the forest, 

** You have lost all this country. 

" The Danes have done better, 

" Who have taken York, 

'' And killed many thanes there. 2745 

** Osbryht's enemies have killed bim/' 

The king replied "How know you this?" 

'' My wit has shown it me. 

'' For a sign, if you do not believe me, 

*' Your sister's son, whom you see there, 2750 

" Oriiim^ will be the first killed 

" In the battle at York. 

There will be a great battle. 

If you believe me you will not go forward 

And yet it cannot be otherwise. 2755 

A king must lose his head there." 
The king replied: ^'Thou hast lied. 
" Thou shalt be taken and evilly intreated. 
" If this be not tine, thou shalt lose thy life. 
" Thou must pay for thy sonsery," 2760 

The blind man replied, *'I agree to this. 
" If this be untrue, kill me." 
The king had him led with him. 
He ordered him to be well guarded. 
In a high tower 2765 

He placed his nephew, that he might stay there. 
Then he gave him a task 
And promised to send for him. 
The folk of the land gathered, 
And went with the king to York. 2770 



27674 Or perbape:— Then he naid, that if he snrrived, he promised to 
seud for him. 


They met wounded men enough, 

And runaways, who told them 

All that the fortuneteller had said. 

Not one word had he lied. 

And king Mlla with many folk 2775 

Rode on fiercely. 

But his nephew did great folly 

Whom he had left in the tower. 

He took two shields which he found. 

He went to the window. 2780 

In the shields he put his two arms ; 

He thought to fly, but a great crash 

He came against the earth, when he fell. 

But yet he escaped. 

So that he was none the worse for it. 2785 

He saw a horse, he straightway took it. 

A youth was there 

Who held the hoi-se by the rein. 

Three javelins had he in his hand. 

Orrum was no coward. 2790 

He seized the javelins straightway. 

The horse also he took at oDce. 

Then he moimted. He rode oflF at once. 

The host was already near York. 

And he spurred so that he came to the front. 2795 

The hosts were assembling. 

He thought, as a lighthearted man, 

That he would strike the first blow. 

At the squadi*on, which met him. 

He threw the javelin which he held. 2800 

He struck a horseman 

So that it entered his mouth. 

Behind his neck it came out. 

He could not stand on his feet, the body 

Fell dead. It could not be otherwise. 2806 

He was a heathen. He needed not a priest. 


Orrum held another dart, 
Which he threw to the other side. 
He struck a wicked Dane with it. 
He aimed well at him, he did not miss. 2810 

Under the nipple it entered. 
It went to his heart. It struck him dead. 
But when he (Orrum) would turn back. 
An archer let fly a dart. 

It struck him under the chest, 2815 

»So that mortal tidings reached his heart. 
His soul fled, his body Ml, 
As the blind man had declared. 
King ^lla when he knew this. 

Never before had such grief in his heart. 2820 

Hardily he shouted. 
He pierced through two squadrons; 
But he did this like a mad man 
Who had lost all self-control. 

Danes were on all sides. 2825 

King iElla was slain. 
He was killed in the field, 
Few of his men escaped. 
The place where he was struck dead 
Is now called EUecroft. 2830 

Towards the west there is a cross. 
It is in the middle of England. 
The English call it EUecross. 
The Danes never rested 

Until they had conquered all 2835 

This country to the north of Humber. 

But then they besieged the city. 
They did their will everywhere. 
When they had put a garrison there 
They went to Mercia; in one country 2840 

2840. AS» Chr. 866 (869). 

,::^«r iHfi T-'Ji. r-*nt .usr ^ai^- 

5:.* "vaM » *^-rc \^i t r'«>i 

£>-.-t '.lot I>iZi*ft -jrii: '»■«» wiv.fn 

A . Tr*r% r^ wict ti^y tfi»:i a 
A/v-nraH* togr v«.t 'o tLexr w»j, 

Made a fea-$, eacL by tisseX 2860 

Tnrs \}.*:j went back to York. 
Tm; folk of the laod assembltrd ; 
TlM;y cyerDt f^r the Morniis. 
Tbey went in the aimy with Uie Dane). 
T>jr5y came, and the fdk of the North, 2866 

With the Dane8 a8 far as Thetford. 
They had abeady made a trace. 
Ho they thought themselves safe 
[The Danes] broke peace and tmee^ 
Tfi<5y harried all the ooontiy. 2870 

Tlii^y found a king in this land, 
A gorxl Christian and a friend of Ood. 

9942. A8. Chr. S70 (871). 
2845. AS. Chr. 868 (869). 
2861. AS. Chr. 869 (870). 
2866. AS. Chr. 870 (871)< 


EadmuDd was his name, a holy man. Edmond 

He held all East Anglia. 

With aU the men he had, 2876 

He fought; he could not conquer, 

Because of the many men the Danes had. 

Very fiercely they fought, 

The victory of the field was theirs. 

O QodI What a loss was the lord, 2880 

The king Eadmund, who waa driven 

To a castle where his seat was. 

And the heathen pursued him. 

Eadmund came out to meet them. 

The first who met him 2885 

Took him and then asked, 

" Where is Eadmund ? tell us." 

"Willingly, and at once. 

'* When I was in flight 

'' Eadmund was there and I with him. 2890 

" When I turned to flee, he turned, 

" I know not if he will escape you." 

" Now the end of the king rests with God, 

" And with Jesus, whom he obeys." 

Those who took him kept him 2895 

Until Ingvar and Ubba came. 

Many of their folk came with them 

Who recognised Saint Eadmund, 

And when they knew him, these unbelievers 

Cruelly bade him 2900 

Renounce Qod's law. 

And Christ who was born of the Virgin. 

The king told them he would not do it. 

But would firmly believe in Him. 

What then did these enemies ? 2905 

They tied him to a tree, 

Then they told him and swore hard, 

That he should be tormented with a strange death. 

Then they sent for their archers. 


The7 Hhot at the king widi longbovsi 2910 

»So have ibey 8hot him and so pieroed him 

Thai his body was stnek ns foU 

Of the darto which these wretches shot 

As is the skin of an archin 

Thick with prickly spines 2915 

When he steals apples from the garden. 

Till now, I trow, they might have shot at him 

Before the king would have done anything 

Of what these wretches wished. 

Who so treated his holy body. 2920 

Then they called a wretch 

Whose name was Coran Colbe. 

lie cat off the saint's head. 

Thus was Eadmund martyred. 

But if Qaimar had leisure^ 2925 

He would say more of the holy martyr. 

Because his life is elsewhere, 

And the reading, and the story^ 

Ho has left it this time 

For the history which he had begun. 2930 

These cruel kings, TTbba and Ingrar, 
Did thus with his holy body. 
When they had done this, they departed thence. 
Straight to Reading they went. 
But slowly they marched, 2935 

Towns they destroyed and cities. 
They killed Christians as they went. 
And destroyed their churches. 
When they were come to Reading, 
The West Saxons went out. 2940 

They went to meet their king, 
Where he had assembled his host. 
And the Danes remained two days. 
Always they wrought evil whithersoever they turned. 

2989. AS. Chr. 871 (872). 


At the third day they made ready. 2945 

Two earls who had ridden thither 

Went to Englefield. 

They found iEthelwulf there. 

He was a great lord of the country. 

He had assembled his friendn, 2950 

His men and his forces, 

Who killed many of the Danes, 

And one of the earls was killed, 

Sidroc, who was cruel and warlike. 

The fourth day after king iEthelred 2955 

Came, and his brother Alfred, 
To Reading, with a great host, 
And the Danes soon sallied out. 
In an open field they fought a battle 
Which did not cease all day. 2960 

There was iEthelwulf slain, 
The great man of whom I just spoke, 
And iEthelred and Alfred 
Were driven to Wiscelet. 

This 18 a ford towards Windsor, 2965 

Near a lake in a marsh. 
Thither the one host came pursuing, 
And did not know the ford over the river. 
Twyford has ever been the name of the ford, 
At which the Danes turned back, 2970 

And the EInglish escaped. 
But many were killed and wounded. 
Here were the Danes victore. 
But, after this, right on the fourth day. 
On Ashdown met 2975 

These folk, who loved not each other. 
These were Danes and English, 

2964. The Editor of the Mod. Brit, sagge&ts that Wiscelet is TVhistley Park, 

near Twyford. The ford is over the LoddoD, not the Thames. 
2975. AS. Chr. 871 (872). 


Who had ere this fought together. 
There they made their folk divide 
Into two battles, to attack. S980 

For pridQ the Danes did this. 
In one battle were th^ir two kings. 
Bags89c and Healfdene were their names. 
With them were many good champions. 
In the other battle were earls. 2985 

Sidroc the old, who knew how to strike, 
And with him the }'oung Sidroc^ 
Who was of the kin of king Uaveloc, 
And earl Asbiorn and earl Freena, 
Earl Harald, nephew of Healfdene. 2990 

With them were many lords, 
And good and tried knights. 
And the English on the other side 
Divided themselves, nor made delay. 
King i£thelred, against the kings, 2995 

Fought with his EjigHsh. 
And iElfred against the earls. 
This day the Danes were shamed, 
For the English drove them off, 

Conquered them on the field, and put them to the 
sword. 3000 

Many thousands of them were killed. 
Ill was it for them they came into the country. 
Bagssec, the king, was slain there. 
Earl Sidroc, the tall, the strong, 
And the earls I have told you of, 3005 

Eleven of them were killed on the field. 

And a fortnight after this 
The cruel people gathered again. 
At Basing they fought. 
Those who [before] conquered were driven off. 3010 

2990. Half dene is the reading of D. and H. Tbe scribe of R. perhaps was 
led by the mention of Haveloc to think of the mythical king Dane. 


A month after at Merton, 

The men of Saxony were vanquished. 

Heahmand, the bishop, was killed 

Who ruled at Winchester. 

Then came a Dane, a tyrant, 3015 

Whose name was Sumerlede the Great 

He came to Reading with his host. 

Whatever he found he straightway destroyed. 

King ifithelred wished to fight him, 

But he died. He lies in his place. 3020 

At Wimbome this king is buried, 

Who onlj- held the kingdom five years. 

Then reigned king iElfred. 
^thelwulfing was he called. 

And the Danes gathered then. 3025 

They went to seek him in Wessex. 
They found him at Wilton, 
With a few folk whom he had gathered. 
He fought, it was in vain. 

They drove him to the wood from the plain, 3030 
And in the year that he was made king 
Nine battles fought he with the Danes, 
Besides eDcoimters and frays. 
Which were between them many days. 
And in that year were slain 3035 

Nine powerful earls. 
They were from Denmark, 

3013. Heahmnnd was bishop of Sherborne, succeeding Ahlstan, who died 
iu 867. Le Neve, iii., 592. 

8016. "Sumerlede le grant" is a misconception of the meaning of a 
sentence in the AS. Chr. 871 (872), " sefter >isum gefeohte com mycel 
sumerlida to Beadingom." As Thorpe has pointed out, .^thelweiffd's 
(cap. iii.) phrase astivus txercitu9 is probably the correct translation 
of the AS. word. Bochanan (Bemm Scot Lib. vii.) mentions a powerful 
Scotch thane, named Snmerled, who raised an insurrection in Aigyle 
and was finally defeated about 1163. ITis name may have been familiar 
to Graimar, and hence the mistake. 

8027. AS. Chr. 871 (872). 

U 51689: G 


With them seven thousand men^ 

And king Bagsaec, their lord. 

-Alfred had the victory over them. 3040 

And in this year all the Danes 

Took truce from JElfred the king. 

Then they left Reading. 

They spent the winter at London. 

And in the summer the Mercians 3045 

Took truce with the Danes. 

The winter after the hated race 

Stayed at Torksey, 

The third winter at Repton. 

Burhred was the king, and the right possessor. 3050 

Mercia wa.s his kingdom. 

By force they drove him out. 

Twenty-two years he had held it 

When he was driven &om the kingdom. 

The king went to Biome. 3055 

That very year he departed. 

In the minster of St. Mary, 

In the English school, he lost his life. 

There was this lord 

Buried with great honour. 3060 

Then the Danes procured that they delivered 
Mercia to the Child Ceolwulf. 
He gave them hostages 
That he would serve them faithfully. 
Then they departed different ways. 3065 

Ingvar stayed in London, 
And Healfdene, the other king, 
Went to war against the Picts, 
And on Stredued, king of GaJloway. 

8043. AS. Chr. 872 (878). 
8048. AS. Chr. 878 (874). 
3049. AS. Chr. 874 (875). 

3069. " Streclaed reU de Oeleweie " is a mistranslation of *' Stnecled 
Wealas," the Welsh of Strathclyde. AS. Chr. 876 (876). 


Often he put them in evil case. 3070 

Kings Guthorm and Oskytel, 

And Amund^ took council. 

That they should go to Cambridge 

And besiege the city. 

Thus they did. With their great host 3075 

They came full soon from Eeptou. 

For a whole year they maintained the siege. 

At the eud, like fools^ they departed. 

Much they lost there, little they gained there. 

Secretly then they rode 3080 

Straight to Wareham and besieged it. 

In one day they took the town. 

King ^Elfred then went thither, 
And led the host of Wessex. 

He brought so many men of his own kingdom 085 
And of other folk whom he had summoned, 
That the Danes fled. 
They held a parley at his wish. 
This the three kings swore to him, 
And the best of the Danes, 3090 

And gave good hostages. 
Such as the English demanded. 
That they would depart without delay. 
And would in no way do him wrong. 
With this truce they departed. 3095 

Now hear what the Danes did: 
In the night and in secret 
They went to Exeter. 

Those on horseback took the city by surprise. 
The others went in ships. 3100 

They wished to go to the city. 
There they were to meet. 
But then a hindrance befel them. 

8081. AS. Chr. 876 (877). 

G 2 


They were in danger at sea, 

A hundred and forty ships 3105 

Went to the devils; 

And king iElfred, when he heard it, 

Sent for his men and his people. 

Then it happened (it could no other be) 

He laid siege to Exeter, 3110 

And the heathen who were settled there 

Had suffered for want of their friends 

Whom they had lost in the fleet, 

And of their good company. 

Therefore, when they could hold out no longer, 3116 

They held a parley to save themselves. 

They gave such hostages 

As the English asked. 

Then they swore to keep the peace ; 

They would always serve the king. 3120 

When they had done this, they went to Mercia. 

Between them they divided that kiugdom. 

They gave Ceolwulf a share, 

Who had been king of all. 

Then, at Christmas, the cruel Danes, 3125 

Who had before sworn peace, 
Broke the peace, the faithless men. 
Into Wessex they went again. 
At Chippenham they established themselves. 
WUlingly they did evil. 3130 

Churches they destroyed and houses, 
Chapels and monks. 

They drove the people out of the country. 
Many they put in prison. 

King iSlfred, who was their lord, 3135 

Knew not what to do nor say. 
From all parts he sent for men. 

3105. 120 ships. AS. Chr. 877 (878). 

8125 On Twelfth night. AS. Chr. 878 (879). 


But could gather very few. 

When he saw that he was so beset, 

And so evil bandied by his enemies^ 3140 

He kept to the woods and deserts. 

To escape their bloody hands. 

And nevertheless^ when he could, 

With all the men he had, 

He met them twice. 3145 

Often he slew some of them. 

A brother of Ingvar and Healidene 

Was killed in Penwood. 

Ubba was his name, an evil doer. 

Over him the Danes made 3150 

A great mound, when they found him. 

They called it Ubbelawe. 

The mound is in Devonshire. 

There was great slaughter of folk. 

Eight hundred and forty died there. 3155 

What matter? felons, perjurers, they were. 

Taken was the war flag 

Of Ubba, called the Raven. 

After Easter this year. 
With few folk, with great trouble, 3160 

Good king iElfred built 
A fort at Athelney. 
He had a stronghold made there, 
By which he gave the Danes trouble. 
Four weeks after Easter 3165 

He rode to Ecbryht's stone, 
Which is to the east of Selwood. 
Ceolmer met him and Chude 

3148. Asser, in the De Gestia JElfredif «.a., 878, states that this battle 
was ante areem Cynuit in Bevonihire, now called Kenny (Kinuith) 
Castle on the Taw, near Appledore. 

3158. The Raven was embroidered by Ubba's three sisters. Asser, loc, 

3166. Ecbryhtes stane is generally taken to be Brixton Deverill, Wilts. 


With the thanes of Somerset, 

Of Wiltshire and Dorset. 3170 

From Hampshire came Chilman, 

Who had summoned the thanes. 

And those came who had remained 

This side of the sea, who had not fled. 

And when they saw their lord, 3175 

Greatly they praised the Creator, 

Because they had found him alive. 

For he had been long lost, 

And they thought in their hearts 

That the Danes had killed him. 3180 

They took great comfort of their king, 

That he was alive and not dead. 

Then they took counsel, 

King iElfred and his faithful ones. 

That they rode all night, 3185 

And the next day, as far as they could. 

Then they went that night' 

Till they arrived at Iley. 

And the next day at the hour of nones 

They came to Edington. 3190 

There they found the Danes. 

King MKred fought. 

But I cannot say by, guess 

Of whom was the greater number killed ; 

Whether of the Danes or the English; 3195 

But this I know well, that there the good king 

-ffilfiped then had the victory. 

And his thanes, with great honour. 

Afterwards he often rode against them. 

And made many attacks on them. 3200 

3188. JEcglea, Asser de Gestis ^Ifredi loc, cit. Iglea, .ffiglea, AS. Chr. 
878 (879). Thorpe gives Iley as the modern name, but I can find no 
such place between Brixton Dcverill and Edington or Heddington. 

3190. Edington, near Westbury, not far from which place (on Bratton 
Hill) is a white horse said to be in memory of this battle. 


In fifteen days he so daunted them, 

These Danes I tell you of. 

That they had a parley ; they agreed together, 

And gave good hostages. 

And swore, however many they were, 3205 

That they would never desert him. 

And still more they promised him, 

And asked him for Christianity. 

And the king said, when he heard this, 

That he would do it willingly. 3210 

He gave them a day to return, 

Twenty-eight days, a whole month. 

They came on that day. 

They brought their lord ; 

King Guthorm, they brought him. 3215 

And the nearest of his kin 

Came with him to baptism. 

Thirty were there when he was signed with the cross. 

The king presented them^ 

Gave them names and good angels. 3220 

At the font, king Guthorm 

Was then called ^thelstan. 

And the thirty his companions 

Each for himself changed names. 

At AUer they were baptised, 3225 

Made Christians and crossed. 

It is near Athelney 

That this assembly was held. 

At Wedmore was the chrism loosing. 

And twelve days they tarried there 3230 

With JElfred the noble king, 

Who honourably entertained them. 

And he and his good companions 

3218. primsener. See v. 1204. 

8229. The original reading for doHs abez (desabez, D.) was perhaps desUez, 
a translation of crism Using in the AS. Chr. 878 (879). 


Gave them many rich gifts. 

Then had from the Nativity 3235 

The ages lasted eight hundred years 

And nineteen years more, 

As is testified in the books 

From which the wise men have knowledge, 

Who know true history. 3240 

At this time, thus saith my master, 
King Gurmund came to Cirencester. 
Then he sent for the host 
From Chippenham, which soon came. 
And they came, they did not tarry. 3245 

All the winter they sojourned there. 
Then in the summer, in the month of April, 
They sent many wretches into exile. 
From Cirencester they departed* 

They went into East Anglia. 3250 

King Gurmund, by his counsel, 
Placed rulers in that land. 
After this, he sent an order 
For the host which was at Fulhaui. 
They met him by the sea. 3255 

Everywhere he ordered throughout his empire 
That he who would not come 
Should die an ill death. 
He gathered more than a hundred kings, 
With their great host, with their armour, 3260 

At Yarmouth they went to sea. 

8237. Nineteen shoold be seventy-nine. 

8242. It is not clear whom Gaimar means by mi meistre. The AS. Chr. 
879 (880), 880 (881) mentions the army (i.e. the Danes) going from 
Cirencester to East Anglia, and s. a., 890 (891), the death of Gathorm 
who had occupied East Anglia. See y. 3381. Bat Gormond is the 
name of a Dane who ravaged Normandy, and was killed in 882. (Dom 
Boaqnet, viij., 278-4.) The account of the French raid does not 
follow the chronology of the AS. Chr. 

3254. AS. Chr. 880 (881). 


And arrived at Chezy. 

They hauled their ships on land ; 

They thought to have no more need of them. 

Then they wasted all that country 3265 

To the land of Si Valery. 

On they went, they entered Ponthieu. 

The country people mourned. 

Then they desecrated St. Riquier : 

They broke the crucifixes, 3270 

They spread over the whole country. 

Many lords and many men they killed there. 

Because this country was fertile, 

Gurmund sojourned there long. 

But his great host went forward. 3275 

They did not stop till they came to Ghent. 

There they were all the winter time. 

Much evil they did in every way. 

And the French gathered slowly. 

They sought Gurmund till they found him. 3280 

There they fought with him; 

He was slain, the French conquered. 

And the host, which had gone forward^ 

And had sojourned at Ghent, 

Turned back thence and came to France. 3285 

I think the French will fight, 

So they did. But they had few men. 

And too much rashness. 

All without their king, they fought. 

They lost much of their gear. 3290 

King Louis was wounded; 

Therefore they were discomfited. 

And by the wound which he received 

3262. According to the AS. Chr. the Danes went up the Maese in 882, 

and up to the Marne to Chexy in 887. 
3276. AS. Chr. 880 (881). 
3282. A.D. 882, Hariulfds. Dom Bouquet, vi^., 273. 


He long languished and then died. 

The heathen went forward. 3295 

^Chey found France without protection. 

But most of the French 

Had made Carloman their lord; 

And some would oppose him. 

Of two counsels they took the worse. 3300 

For if they had held together 

They would soon have destroyed the heathen folk. 

Because they made war against the king, 

And the Danes wasted the land, 

France was in evil plight, 3305 

Till the heathen made their entrance 

Into a country towards Brittany; 

Scantland was its name, now it is Le Maine. 

This people and the Bretons 

Fought with the felons. 3310 

There, thanks to God, the King of Glory, 

They had the victory over the Danes. 

There were the heathen destroyed, 

That all their pride and their fame 

Fell together in one day. 3315 

To France they never returned. 

Meanwhile, while the war 
Was such in that land, 
King iSlfred, in his kingdom. 

Defeated his enemies well. 3320 

Oft he fought on the sea, 
And slew many of the Danes. 
And he accomplished and procured 
So much by his goodness 

3294. 4 August, 882. 

8298. Craimar follows the AS. Chr. in writing Charles for Carloman. 

3308. The Editor of the Alon. Brit, alters Scantland to Scantlaud, and 
interprets it as St. Lo in the diocese of Couttinces. The AS. Chr. 890 
(891) reads Sunt Jjaudan, Sand Lot$^n, and Scantlaudan. 


That Marinus sent to him 3825 

Some of the cross on which Christ was slain. 

Marinus was then pope of Borne. 

He did him so much honour with good gifts. 

Such relics he sent him, 

That he would never die by arms. 3330 

And ^thelswith was his sister, 

She went to Rome with the honour 

With which .Alfred sent her. 

There she died. She could go no further. 

Her body lies at Pavia, 3335 

Where she was buried. 

Then it happened, and so much the worse. 

That a wild boar killed Carloman. 

The king died, but one of his brothers 

Died ako before their father. 3340 

Both were sons of Louis, 

Who had killed Qurmund. 

And Louis was son of Charles, 

Who gave his daughter to the noble 

King iEthelwulf [who] had her for queen. 3345 

No lady had better learning. 

Now I have told you this relationship ; 
Then a great loss befell Borne, 
Of Marinus, the good pope 

Who first enfranchised the English school. 3350 

By the procurement of king iElfred 
It was free, God be praised. 

3325. AS. Chr. 883 (884). 
3331. AS. Chr. 888 (889). 

3338. Charles in text and Karl in AS. Chr. 885 (886). He died 
6 December 884. 

3342. ThiB is a mistake of Gaimar's. It was Loois III., brother of 
Carloman, not Louis le B^gne, his father, who slew Goimund. 
(Hariulfas, loc, ct/.) 

3343. Charles the Bald, whose daughter Judith married ^thelwulf. 
3349. AS. Chr. 885 (886). 


At this time befel also 

Such adventures as I tell you. 

King iElfred warred much. 3355 

He went often against the heathen. 

These Danes who took truce 

In the end abused them much. 

And above all those of East Anglia 

Always began the noise. 3360 

They journeyed to London, 

Where heathen were dwelling. 

Danes held the city. 

What then did king jElfred? 

Everywhere he sent for horsemen, 3365 

And for footmen and archers. 

Thus he sent for his friends, 

And for the English far in the country. 

Far and near he sent for all. 

He gathered a very great force. 3370 

He came to London and besieged it. 

He stayed there till he took it. 

Then he established the city, 

Ab the thanes had advised. 

To iEthered, one of his thanes, 3375 

He gave the keeping thereof. 

And he guarded it faithfully. 

And defended it from the foreigners. 

This year died the king 

Whom uEIfred had formerly presented at the font. 3380 

The heathen called him Guthorm. 

Then he had uEthelstan for his name. 

His body lies at Thetford. 

There was this dead man buried. 

3373. AS. Chr. 886 (887). 
3381. AS. Chr. 890 (891). 

3384. According to Asser's Annals, he was buried ** in villa regia qus 
vocatur Headleaga apud Orientales Anglos." (Mon. Brit. 482 n.) 


Then was iBlfred much increased in power 3385 
When he had conquered this city. 
And the Danes who lived far off 
Feared him for his prowess. 
All the lands which he held 

At this time were at peace. 3390 

But there went about threatening greatly 
These Danes of Northumberland, 
And those of East Anglia and Mercia 
QIadly gave him trouble. 

But this king so overcame them 3395 

That he then held his kingdoms in peace. 
Then it came to pajss, at this time, 
That the heathen host returned 
Which had gone to France. 

They had wasted it all. 3400 

The other host which was separated from this 
Had left them in Le Maine. 
But this host was separated 
Until Ourmund arrived. 

It left him, went on, 3405 

Passed through all France, 
Back it went towards the west. 
Robbing and destroying the people. 
Now they had gathered enough, 
Gold and silver, horses of price. 3410 

At Cherbourg they put to sea; 
At Lympne they landed. 
This is a water on the head of Kent, 
On the east, which men call Orient; 
Andredesweald stretches away. 3415 

This water of Lympne is ve^ deep. 
This wood is reckoned in length 
Forty-two measured leagues. 

3892. AS. Chr. 894. 

3411. Bunan (Boulogne) in the AS. Chr. 898 (892). 


And thirty leagues in length. 

Lympne runs through it at ease. 3420 

Into this water the Danes came. 

This was in the time of king -^Elfred. 

Up the water they towed their ships. 

They went four leagues 

From the mouth of the Lympne. 3425 

All the country along the sea 

These enemies then destroyed. 

Very unlucky was their return. 

They had a hundred and sixty ships 

Their sojourn did much evil. 3430 

On the other side Hsesten returned 

Into Thames on a full flood. 

He did much of his will in Kent. 

At Milton he built a fort. 

He sent for the host which came from France. 3435 

At Appledore was their sojourn. 

When these two hosts were assembled 

They went about destroying Christendom. 

Then it happened^ as Qod pleased, 

i^fred died, who had fought against them. 3440 

DCCCCI. Then from the Nativity, 

From the day that God was bom, 

There were nine hundred years and one more 
Death of Till iElfred died there. 

He reigned full eight and twenty years. 3445 

Few such men are living. 

For wise he was and a good warrior. 

Well he knew to baffle his foes. 

No better clerk there was than he. 

For he had learnt in infismcy. 3450 

He caused to be written a book in Englisli 

Of adventures, and of laws; 

3429. 250 ships. AS. Chr. $93 (892). 
3444 Alfred died 26 October 901. AS. Chr. 



And of battles in the land^ 
And of kings who made war. 
Many books he had written, 
In which good clerks often read. 
God have mercy on his soul, 
And St. Mary, the sweet lady. 

Then reigned Eadward his son, 
The brave, the wise, the noble. 
Bat still there was much war 
In many places in England, 
For there were many kings. 
Thus the Danes warred, 
And their strength waxed daily 
By those who often came over sea. 
So in the sixth year that Eadward reigned, 
When he could not avoid it, 
He determined to make a truce 
And give peace to the Danes. 
And yet it did not last long : 
The Danes were of very evil nature. 
They warred so hard upon the English 
That king Eadward fought against them. 
With the English he had gathered 
He beat them at TettenhaU. 

At this time a king died; 
^thered, who reigned over the Mercians. 
This ^thered held London. 
King iSlfred had placed him there. 
He had it not as an inheritance. 
When about to die, he did what was wise. 
To king Eadward he gave up bis right. 
With all that belonged thereto. 
London he gave up before he was dead. 









8470. AS. Chr. 906. 

3476. 6 August 910. AS. Chr. 

3477. The AS. Chr. calls him ^* ealdorman on Myrcam." AS. Chr. 912. 


And the city of Oxford 

And the land and the counties 

Which belonged to the cities. 

In this year came a fleet 

Which made great slaughter in the coimtry. 3490 

From the Lidwiccas came this host. 

It spread along the Severn. 

King Eadward went against them. 

Many he killed. Then he returned. 

When he had reigned eighteen years 3495 

He received Mercia in fee. 

.^thelflsed, his sister, inherited it, 

As king iSlfred had commanded. 

As she had no children 

When she died^ she made him her heir. 3500 

Three years after king Sihtric, 

Who held the other part of Mercia, 

Foully slew his brother Niel. 

King Eadward avenged his death. 

He killed Sihtric with a sword. 3505 

Then was he king of the country. 

A year after, by the record, 

Ragnald won York. 

He was a half Danish king. 

By his mother he was English. 3510 

Eadward wished to go against him 

So he gathered a host. 
Death of But then he died; it could no other be. 
Badward. g^ ^^^ buried at Winchester. 

3489. AS. Chr. 915 (918). 

3491. Thorpe suggests (AS. Chr., p. 67, n) that Lidwiccas, the word 
-which Graimar translates Lidwiche, is derived from Llydaw, the British 
name of Brittany, especially as Florence of Worcester (s.a, 885) 
translates butan Lidwiccumy as absque Armoricano regno. 

3500. 12 June. AS. Chr. 918. 

3501. AS. Chr. 921. 

3504. The AS. Chr. 926 does not mention the cause of Sihtric's death. 
3508. AS. Chr. 923. 
3513. AS. Chr. 925. 


Then reigned his son iEthelstan. 3515 Kmg 

When he had reigned to the fourth year -«thel«tan. 

He fought a battle against the Danes, 
And defeated king Outhfirith. 
Then he assembled great force 

And put a great fleet to sea. 3520 

Straight to Scotland he went. 
He harried that country sorely. 
A year after, neither less nor more. 
At Brunanburh he had the better 
Of the Scots, the men of Cumberland, 3525 

The Welsh, and the Picts. 
There so many were killed 

I think it will ever be spoken of. Death of 

Afterwards he only lived three years. iEtheUtan. 

He had no son or other children. 3530 

His brother they then made king. King 

Eadmund was his name, a good man I trow. Eadmund. 

And the third year that he reigned 
He led his host beyond Humber. 
Two kings there were^ cruel Danes. 3535 

One was named King Anlaf (Olaf), 
The other was called Bagnald. 
He drove them out of the kingdom. 
When he had done this he went on. 
A great prey he took in Cumberland. 3540 

He held his land three years more; 

Then God did his will with him. Death of 

Eadred, his brother, reigned. Eadmund. 

He well revenged his brother Eadmund. EaSrod. 

He avenged him on his enemies 3545 

8517. AS. Chi. 927. 

8531. AS. Ghr. 988. 

8524. AS. Chr. 937 (988). 

8529. ^thelBtan died 27 October. AS. Chr. 940. 

8534. AS. Chr. 948. 

8542. Eadmund died 26 May. AS. Chr. 946. 

U 51689. 



Death of 


Death of 


Who had slain him by murder. 
Then he seized Northumberland, 
And the Scotch were subject to him. 

When he reigned the second year 
Then came Anlaf Cwiran (Olaf Kvaran). 3550 

He seized and took Northumberland. 
He found no one to defend it. 
Three years this Dane held it. 
Then the Northumbrians drove him out. 
They received Trie, Harald's son. 3555 

They promised to hold their fiefs of him. 
Two years he reigned in this kingdom. 
Then the third year they drove him out. 
Eladred then received it; 

But he died a year after. 3560 

Then it befel that in this kingdom 
The English made Eadwig their king. 
After Eadred, Eadwig was king. 
He was the son of Eadmund, an Englishman. 
His rule went everywhere. 3665 

He only lived three years. 
Afterwards Eadgar, his brother, reigned. 
He held the land as an emperor. 
In his time he bettered the land. 
He had peace everywhere, there was no war. 3570 
He alone ruled over all the kings, 
And over the Scotch and the Welsh. 
Never since Arthur departed 
Had any king such power. 

The king much loved Holy Church. 3575 

Of wrong and of right, he knew the manner. 
Therefore he set himself to do good ; 
For he was fi^e and courteous. 

3550. AS. Chr. 949. 
3554. AS. Chr. 952. 
3558. AS. Chr. 954. 
3562. AS. Chr. 955. 
3566. AS. Chr. 958. 


He raised good customs. 

All his neighbours were attached to him. 3580 

By fair love and by entreaty 

He bound them all to him. 

Never was anyone found to war with him, 

Nor any who entered his land for ill, 

Except Thored, who rebelled. 3585 

He seized Westmoreland from him. 

For this wrong he received death. 

Woe to him for beginning a wrongful war. 

This king was wise and valiant. 

By his queen he had many fair children. 3590 

One son he had of whom I can tell. 

This was Eadward of Shaftesbury; 

And his daughter was named St. Edith (Eadgith), 

The lady whom God blessed. 

Besides he had three other sons. 3595 

From three mothers they were bom. 

Three mothers had these three. 

The king was fond of women. 

When his wife died, 

He ruined his life through women. 3600 

A rich man lived in the kingdom^ Ordgar. 

His wife, I know^ was dead. 

God had given her one daughter. 

No other child was left to him. 

Ordgar was the name of this rich man. 3605 

From Exeter to Frome 

3585. Thored, Bon of Gmmer. AS. Chr. 966. 

S592. So called because lie iru buried there. See William of Malmesbury. 

Gksta Be^mn, lib. ii., c. 9. 
8601. AS. Chr. 965. This only states the fiust of Eadgar's maniage with 

.filfthryth. William of Malmesbary (Gesta Begom, Lib. ii., c. 8) 

gives the storjr, though not in such detail as Gi^mar. Florence of 

Worcester puts it in 964. 
3605. A thighbone, said to be Ordgar's, measuring 21 inches, an unusual 

length, used to be fhown at TaTistock. Gent. Mag. Ixv. 1081, and 

Gent. Mag. Library, Archeology, p. 160 n. 

n 2 


Was no town nor city 

In which Ordgar had not possessions. 

But he was a marvellous old man. 

What bis daughter counselled him, 3610 

What she did or what she commanded to do, 

No man was found who dared dissuade him from. 

iElflbhryth was the name of this maiden. 

None under heaven was so fair, I trow. 

For her beauty through the country, 3615 

Qreat was her renown. 

And as they talked of her there. 

Those of the court went thither. 

And the courtiers who saw her 

Spoke much of her beauty. 3620 

King Eadgar had listened 
How men spoke of her beauty. 
Often he had heard her praised; 
Of her beauty he heard so much said 
That he thought, and said in himself 3625 

" Although here I am king, 
** And she is daughter of a thane, 
*' I see no difference. 
'' Her father was an earl's son, 

" Her moiher sprang from noble kings, 3630 

'^ She is of high birth enough, 
** I can take her without shame." 
Then he called a knight, 
He took him for his counsellor. 

He held him very dear, he had brought him up. 3635 
He opened to him whfit he thought. 
** iEthelwold^ brother," said the king, 
" I will tell you my secret. 

I love iSlflliryth, the daughter of Ordgar. 

By all people I have heard her so praised, 3640 
" And her beauty so valued, 
" That I would make her my wife. 
** If she were such, and I knew it, 



" And was assured of her beauty. 

" Therefore, I pray you, go and see her, 3645 

'* What you say of her, I will take as true. 

" I trust you well. Do my bidding. 

** Tarry not, but soon return." 

He went away to make ready. 
He did not stop, nor did he tarry, 3650 

TiU he came to Devonshire, 
To the house of lord Ordgar. 
On behalf of the king he saluted hira. 
On all sides was he welcomed. 

Obdoab was playing at chess, 3655 

A game which he learnt from the Danes. 
With him played -fflfthryth the fair. 
Under heaven was no such damsel. 
The whole day he stayed there ; 

And i£thelwoId observed her much. 3660 

He looked so often at her face and complexion, 
Her body, and hands, the &ir flower. 
That he deemed well she was a fairy ; 
That she was not bom of woman. 
And when he saw her of such beauty 3665 

He was so inflamed by passion 
That he thought in his heart. 
Whether it turned to gain or loss. 
He would say nothing to his lord 
Of the truth, this traitor. 3670 

So he would say that she was not so £Edr. 
Far [from the truth] he descril^ed the noble damsel^ 
Which came back to him three years after, 
For he died all unconfessed. 

Thence he returned, went to the king, 3675 

To a council which he held. 
Earls there were, thanes, and franklins^ 
Archbishops, bishops^ and abbots. 
Listen what this deceiver did. 
He came to the king after dinner; 3680 


Well was he greeted and welcomed ; 

But he before had spoken 

To those who were well with the king. 

And who knew this secret. 

He begged them to help him, 3685 

And that they would ask for him the daughter of 

And well he made them all believe 
That she was misshapen, ugly, and dark. 
Before the king he kneeled. 

Privily he showed him: 3690 

" King, of the lady to whom I went, 
" I will tell you the truth. 
** Whoever has lied, T will speak truth. 
** You ought not to have such a wife, 
" An appearance and a look she has 3695 

" Whidi ill become her. 
" Other faults I saw enough, 
** Where I marked no beauties. 
" To a man of my rank 

" It would not be great damage 3700 

** If he took her and kept her honour, 
** And did her father much honour." 
On all sides they said to the king — 
'* What he says has been said to me. 
'' It is not well that you should take her, 3705 

" Give her to a bachelor." 

Thb king was merry, he had drunk too much. 
Lightly they deceived him. 
To ^thelwold he began to speak ; 
He trusted quite that he had told him the truth. 3710 
" Friend," said he, "I believe you quite, 
** As she is such that I ought not to have her 
" I give her you with all the honour. 

8701. I take honvr here to mean JEifOurytWe inheritance. See w. 3713, 


*^ Make her father thy lord, 

*' Care for him well, as a father-in-law. 3715 

^' Marry her, then oome back to me." 

The king was holding a wand. 

He held it out to him and made the grant. 

And he swore fealty to him. 

In this place he perjured himself. 3720 

A man who betrays has no law. 

Nor should any one trust in his faith. 

This traitor turned from the king; 

Like a felon he had duped him. 

He came to Ordgar, he betrayed him, 3726 

Took his daughter, seized the honour. 

In this country he tarried so long. 

That the lady was pregnant with a son. 

But the &ir lady, if she could 

Would never have been pregnant by iGthelwold. 3730 

She did not love him. It had been told her 

How the king had been deceived. 

He himself, all indiscreetly. 

Had discovered this to iElfthryth. 

At the right time the infant was bom. 3735 

Hear what this faithless man did. 

Because he still feared 

The king, who was very gay. 

He came to him and begged him 

To hold this child at the font. 3740 

When he had done this she was his sister, 

Then he had no fear of the king. 

The king was free and gentle. 
He did not see through this. 

Of the wicked felon he did not beware, 3745 

He had nourished him, therefore he loved him. 
Till it happened at a supper. 
The king heard the woman spoken of. 
On every side they praised her much. 



These knights who spoke of her, 3750 

And said in their tale 

That in the whole world there was none so fair, 

And if she had still been a maid, 

She was well worthy to be queen. 

Then they spoke of her wit, 3755 

And that which she understood; 

That she was both fair and wise, 

And of free courage in speaking ; 

That never any man envy, 

Nor mockery, nor villany, 3760 

Could find at all in her; 

She was wise to restrain herself. 

The king marvelled exceedingly. 

He heard this ofttimes said, 

He said to himself in his heart 3765 

" This iEthelwold has fooled me, I trow.*' 

For ^Ifbhryth he was very pensive. 

Henceforth he would go from bad to worse. 

King Eadgar determined 
That he would go to Devonshire. 3770 

To hunt stags he said that he would go, 
But he intended quite otherwise in his heart. 
He was not far from that country. 
Many a man makes a longer day's journey. 
.^Hfbhryth was at a manor, 3775 

Where the king arrived the evening of the next day. 
It was near the wood where he would hunt. 
At night he went there to lodge, 
And when it was time that he should sup. 
Still shone dear the sun. 3780 

Then he asked for his commire, 

d781. There is no English word to express the affinity between the parent 
and the godfather or godmother of the child. 


Where she was, where her father was. 

^thelwold said, '' In this upper room, 

'' You have fadted too long, king, come and eat." 

The king heard, he perceived 3785 

That if iEthelwold could, he should not see her. 

Then he took a knight by the hand, 

And went into the upper room. 

Ladies, maids, many he found there. 

To none of them he spoke. 3790 

He knew -^Slfthryth by her beauty. 

And she welcomed the king. 

She was veiled in a wimple. 

The king drew it from her head. 

Then he smiled and looked at her, 3795 

And then kissed his commere. 

From this kiss sprang love. 

iSlfthryth was the flower of the others. 

The king in play and jest 

Raised the fold of her mantle. 3800 

Then he saw her figure so slender. 

For a little he was amazed 

By the beauty he saw there. 

To the hall he led her ; 

Together they sat at meat. 3805 

They drank healths at the removes. 

And the custom was such 

That great was his worth who drank well. 

With cups of gold, with mazers, 

With oxhoms full of wine, 3810 

Was the wassail and the drinkhail, 

TiU Eadgar fell asleep. 

And when the lady drank with him 

He kissed her, as was the custom. 

She kissed him innocently. 3815 

But the king was inflamed. 

If he had not her love in another way» 


He would take a further device ; 

The further device he took 

Of one who takes a woman from her parent. 3820 

That night the king lay in peace. 
Such a woman he never saw before. 
In his heart he thinks if he does not have her, 
Then he will die, never will he be healed. 
Then he seeks a plan, and an evil thought, 3825 

That he could often speak with her. 
On his love he is bent. 
Now he seeks a plan, as he had decided. 
In that country he hunted in the woods. 
He sent her some of the stags he took, 3830 

Other presents he made her in plenty. 
Three times he went to her. 
When he departed from the country, 
He left her inflamed. 

She had heard and understood well 3835 

That the king meant to take her. 
He stayed only eight days. 
At Salisbury was the court. 
Many great thanes met there. 

Many thanes of high rank came 3840 

To protect the land. 
The king had summoned them. 
With the others came iEthelwold. 
The king did what he would with him. 
He sent him to York. 3845 

He entrusted to him the northern land. 
He should rule all beyond Humber, 
And they should do his commands. 
Hastily and without delay, 

He went to set the land in order. 3860 

He received such writs as he would. 
Then Dan iEthelwold departed. 
In this journey that he took 


I know not what folk he met. 

Outlaws they were and enemies. 3855 

Then and there was this felon killed. 

Some said that this company 

Was sent against him by king Eadgar, 

But none knew, who dared say, 

That they were so, who went to kill him. 3860 

To the king came the news. 
He could not then take vengeance^ 
For he found none to tell him 
Who had done this, or who had killed him. 
Then he sent to seize his fief. 3865 

He caused ^Elfthryth to come to court. 
She must come to court speedily. 
The king would tell her his will. 
She only tarried a month. 

At Gloucester was the king; 3870 

With him were the kings of Wales. 
Many knights he had in the halls. 
Then came iElfthryth and her company. 
Who were richly attired. 

All the thanes of Somerset, 3875 

Of Devonshire and of Dorset, 
And the earls of Cornwall, 
Came with her to the gathering. 
For this they did it, that it was their right. 
Ekich of them held a great fief of her. 3880 

They were tenants of her father's fief. 
Of her kin she brought many. 
What shall I say of her attire? 
She had a ring on her finger 

Which was worth more alone 3885 

Than all her dress. 
She wore a cape of black silk 

3856. William of Malmesbury says that Eadgar killed .^tlielwold with 
his own hand. 


Which trailed along the hall. 

Over this she wore a mantle, 

Within, grey fur, without, blue. 3890 

Of other such stuff was her robe. 

She was very fair. For this, what matters it? 

Ho, says Gaimar, I will not go about to speak 

Of her beauty, for delay. 

If I said all the truth 3895 

From mom one day till evening 

I should not have said nor related 

The third part of her beauty. 

The king rose, went to meet her. 
Took her by the hand. When he held it 3900 

He was very joyful ; he led her 
And lodged her in a chamber. 
He would not lodge her far off. 
Under heaven there was nothing he held so dear. 
The next day he made prepare 3905 

His household clerks in a minster 
Very early in the morning. 
Now he meant to bring the matter to an end. 
He had iSifthryth the fair brought there. 
He married her in the chapel. 3910 

Then he sent for his thanes, 
And summoned them by lawful ban. 
None there were who dared disregard it, 
And not be that day at his table. 
For the joy that he meant to have 3915 

The king had himself richly clothed. 
He put on his royal raiment. 
He loved .^Hfthryth much and was glad. 
For likewise he had her clothed. 
And crowned and well served. 3920 

The king wore a crown of gold. 

8898. Rois is probably firom the verb roer^rotare. (Bargaj III., 828.) 


He held a feast and gave great gifts. 

Two bishoprics, and three abbeys. 

Religious orders and lordships 

He founded that day. 3925 

To several disinherited men he restored their honours. 

To all the folk he so behaved 

That none hated him, all loved him. 

Thus he held feast in his halls. 

Much he honoured the kings of Wales. 3930 

They bore the three swords, 

As clerks erst had ordered. 

And had found writings, 

Thus they agreed. 

I cannot tell all the circumstances, 3935 

Nor the splendour of the feast. 

But so much I tell you, as tells the story. 

Splendour there was and great bravery. 

It was not more than a month after this 
That king Eadgar was in London. 3940 

In his bed he lay, he and the Queen. 
Around them was a curtain 
Delicately wrought of crimson cloth. 

Behold archbishop Dunstan Dfuutan. 

Very early came into the room. 3945 

.Against the bedpost inlaid with vermilion. 
The archbishop leaned. 
To the king he spoke in English. 
He asked who that was 

Who lay with him in his bed. 3950 

The king answered, " It is the queen 
*' Mfthryth, to whom this kingdom is attached' 
Said the archbishop, ''That is false. 
** Better it were that you were dead 

3940. This incident does not appear in any of the Lives of Dunstan edited 

by the bishop of Chester in the Bolls Series. 
8946. Lambre may be the French for lamina. 



" Than to lie thus in adultery, 3955 

" Tour souls will go to torment." 
When the queen heard this 
She was wroth with the archbishop. 
She became so sore his enemy 

That she never loved him more in her life. 3960 

He cared not, he would not 
That man did wrong and left the right. 
Oftentimes he warned them, 
And entreated them to separate. 
His preaching was no good ; 3965 

He loved her. She held him dear. 
He afterwards had a son by her. 
He called him .^thelred. 
On account of his ancestor, a great king, 
Who was named iEthelred. 3970 

But thus it befel when he was born 
St. Swithun died. 

And when the child was six years old 
D^th^of Then died the valiant Eadgar. 

Eadward, his son, reigned after him. 3975 

This was a king whom God loved. 
But in his time, on account of his youth, 
Foreign folk gave him trouble. 
Whom his father had brought 

Into his kingdom. He had done wrong. 3980 

And his stepmother, who was Uving, 
Who had the strength of the kingdom^ 
For the advancement of her line. 
Had a great outrage committed on the king; 

3968. Florence of Worcester («.a. 964) says that they had two sons, 
Eadmond and ^thelred. 

8972. St. Swithun died in 861, according to the AS. Chr. Gaimar has 
apparently mistaken the removal of his body from the churchyard to 
the interior of the Cathedral at Winchester, for his burial. This was 
in 970, according to Florence of Worcester. The AS. Chr, does not 
mention this translation. 

8974. Eadgar died 8 July 975. (AS. Chr.) 


And for ber son who was growing up, 3985 

Whom she wished to make king. 

King Edward reigned two years. 

Now I will tell you how he died. 

He was one day merry and gay. 

In Wiltshire he had dined. 3990 

He had a dwarf named Wolstanet 

Who could dance and play. 

He could leap and pipe, 

And play many other tricks. 

The king saw him, called him, 3993 

And ordered him to play. 

The dwarf said he would not, 

He would not play at his order. 

And when the king asked him more gently, 

And he railed against the king, 4000 

The king grew very wroth with him. 

WoLstanet then fled ; 

He took his horse, he found him ready. 

He went to iElfthryth's house. 

It was only one league olf. 4005 

This was very near Somerset. 

There was a thick and great wood. 

The dwarf went thither, pricking hard. 

The king mounted, and followed him 

On a horse which he found ready. 4010 

He never stopped galloping. 

He wished to see the dwarf play. 

To the house of -^Ifthryth he turned. 

He asked who had seen his dwarf. 

He found few people in the house; 4015 

None said to him either yea or nay. 

Except the Queen, who came forth 

From her chamber, and replied 

" Sii', he has never come here, 

8987. Duaze is perhaps a mistake for deux, as Eadward reigned less than 
three years, dying on 18 March 978. AS. Chr. 978 (979) 


" Stay with us, good king, dismount 4020 

*' If it please you, king, rest yourself, 

*' I will call your folk to come to me. 

'' I will send to seek Wolstanet. 

« I think verily I shall find him." 

The king replied, "Thanks to you, 4025 

*' I cannot dismount here." 

*' Sir," said she *' then drink 

" All on horseback, if you love me." 

** Gladly," replied the Idng 

*' But first you must drink to me." 4030 

The butler filled a horn 

Of good dear wine, then handed it to her. 

She drank the half of the full horn. 

She put it in king Eadward's hand. 

On giving her the horn, he should have kissed her. 4035 

Then came some foe, I know not who, 

With a great knife, ground sharp. 

To the heart he smote the king with it. 

The king fell down, uttered a cry. 

The horse started, 4040 

Thus bleeding, as he was. 

With saddle, with bridle, as God would. 

And Saint Eadward, towards Cirencester. 

There is the saddle, there it should be. 

And the holy body of this martyr 4045 

The Queen caused to be buried far off. 

To a moor it was carried 

Where no man had come. 

There was the king covered with reeds. 

But he rested not long there. 4050 

The king's company came following. 

Seeking him at iElflhryth's house. 

She hid from them, because it was said 

That the queen had murdered him. 

4043. Richard of Deyizes sajs the hone stopped at Shaftesbury, and the 
saddle was there. 



That night, as he lay in the moor, 4055 

A light from Heaven shone. 

Clear was the ray, no wonder, 

It was much ]ike the sun. 

On the holy body this ray came, 

And the other end was in Heaven. 4060 

Many sought what this could be. 

Then a wise priest saw it. 

He was parson of Donhead. 

He told them the truth straightway: 

" Now seek and go, 4065 

" You will find a holy martyr." 

The Holy Spirit had revealed this to him 

By a voice which he heard. 

Early in the morning in the country. 

Through many places the report went 4070 

That all should go thither. 

Where king Eadward was murdered. 

All the lame who came thither^ 

And the blind and the deaf, were made whole. 

To Shaflesbury was he carried. 4075 

There is he cherished and honoured. 

Now iElfthryth made iEthelred king King 

(The boy was only sixteen years old) JEthelred. 

By the power of her kin. 

Before the altar of St. Vincent 4080 

At Winchester they made him king. 
St. Dunstan died, I trow. 
The archbishop of Canterbury. 
He absolved iElfthryth from the great wrath. 
As he was dying, he pardoned her, 4085 

And enjoined her penance. 

4064. H. reads en eire. Eire is not a rare form of erre a way. En voire 

probably means ** in truth." 
4078. AS. Chr. 979 states that he was hallowed king at Kingston. 
4082. AS. Chr. 988. 

U 51689. T 


At Wherwell she did penance ; 

She served Grod well, and died there. 

There is the body, so says the story. 

The nuns do in her memory, 4090 

Masses, matins, and services, 

And prayers in many ways. 

Now may God do his pleasure with her, 

He has power to save her. 

During the time that ^Ethelred reigned 4095 

Dunstan departed, as God would. 
And after him iEthelgar was archbishop. 
To serve God he mortified his body. 
Then Sigeric was archbishop. 

When he departed iElfric was [archbishop]. 4100 

iElfric they received and elected. 
With great honour they placed him in the throne. 
These were the archbishops in this place 
When ^thelred was king. 

He had an elder brother, 4105 

Who was called Eadmund. 
He claimed the land. 
He desired to take it from him. 
The Welsh were his friends, 

For his wife was of their country. 4110 

She was daughter of a king of the land. 
With him they kept up the war. 
On the other side^ the kinsfolk 
From whom king Eadward was born. 
On the side of his mother, hated him, 4115 

4087. William of MalmeRbory speaks of her penitence at Wherwell. 

Lib. ii., c. 9. 
4097. AS. Ghr. 988. 

4099. AS. Chr. 990. 

4100. AS. Chr. 995. 

4106. Eadmund ^theling^s death is mentioned in the AS. Chr. as 
occurring in 972 (970), and it is not clear to what this passage in 
Gaimar refers. 


And waged great war against him. 

And the Scotch, and the Picts, 

The Welsh, and the Cambrians, 

Would not deign to hold of him, 

And had no care to serve him. 4120 

When the king saw that it fared so ill, 
He held a meeting of his Mends. 
He asked advice, need was great. 
They were taking away all his kingdom. 
Then these men advised 4125 

That he should cross the sea straightway, 
Ask for Emma, Eichard's sister. 
And bring her thence. 
If the Normans are his friends. 

He could easily subdue his enemies. 4130 

Earl Eichard would support him. 
He would subdue all his neighbours. 
He quite believed in their advice. 
He neither tarried nor rested 

Till he had married Emma. 4135 

Earl Eichard gave her to him, 
To England he led her. 
He gave her Winchester in dower, 
Eockingham, and Eutland, 

Which JElfthryth had had before. 4140 

All he gave her, dear he held her. 
At this time king Swegen (Svein) came 
To claim and to conquer. 
Those of the country received him. 
Earl Uhtred of Lindsey 4145 

Submitted to him and his fleet. 

4129. The AS. Chr. (1002) mentions ^tfaelred's marriage i!?ith Emma, 

but not his journey to Normandy. 
4142. According to the AS. Chr. Swegen first came to England in 994. 

He took Wilton in 1003, Norwich in 1004, and receiyed the submission 

of Earl Uhtred and the Northumbrians, and the people of Lindsey in 


I 2 


And those beyond Humber also. 

Thus did after all thfe folk 

Who then were in England. 

He found little war at any time; 4150 

All he seized and all he took, 

Never any man withstood him, 

For iEthelred had no aid. 

So he fled to Normandy, 

He and his wife and his two sons. 4155 

Eichard received them well. 

When King Swegen had conquered all 
And saw that the country was his. 
He went to Gainsborough, 

And for a while tarried there. 4160 

While tarrying there he departed. 
At York was he buried : 
But then after ten years or more 
The Danes took up his bones ; 

They were carried to Norway, 4165 

To Saint Olaf, there were they laid. 
In St. Peter's Minster he lay 
When the Danes took him away. 
King Cnut. And Cnut remained, who was Swegen's son, 

Well and at ease for a whole year. 4l70 

Then came a great host and a great fleet 

With iEthelred from Normandy; 

And the English and the Danes 

Eeceived him, and made him king. 

Cnut when he beard it, departed. 4175 

Straightway he crossed the sea. 

He assembled an host from many lands^ 

He cared not for peace, much he loved war. 

4154. AS. Chr. 1018. 

4159. Swegen's death, owiDg to a vision of St. Eadmnnd, is mentioned by 

Florence of Worcester, Anno 1014, and his burial at York by Simeon 

of Durham (Hist. Regum II., 146, Rolls Ed.). 
4172. AS. Chr. 1014. 


KiNQ iEthelred into Lindsey 
Went recovering his dominion. 4180 

He took preys, ravaged the land, 
And waged right cruel war. 
And Cnut returned with his fleet 
He meant to land in lindsey. 

When he heard that iEthelred was there, 4185 

He sailed straight for the Thames. 
He entered the mouth of the Frome : 
All that country he turned to himself. 
From all sides came the English ; 
They took Cnut for King. 4190 

King iEthelred came to London. 
He fortified it well, he held himself there. 
He had not wherewithal to fight 
Against Cnut, therefore he shunned him. 
There he said he would defend himself. 4195 

Then came Cnut and besieged him. 
So long he stayed and waited 
That King iEthelred died. 
At St. Paul's there he lies. 

He gave his treasure to the bishopric. 4200 

King iSthelred had a son. 
The other two were children. 
To Normandy they were carried, 
For there were their kinsfolk. 

Earl Richard was their uncle, 4205 

Who taught them and brought them up, 
And the queen was at Winchester. 
A fairer woman there could not be. 
And Cnut reigned, he had conquered 
On many sides the whole country. 4210 

But Eadmund the setheling vexed him. 
As much as he could he fought, 

4187. AS. Chr. 1015. 

4198. 23 April. AS. Chr. 1016. 


He and his uncle, the other Eadmund, 

Made a great war on Cnut. 

Ill befel the other Eadmund. 4215 

Disease took him and held him so long 

That he came to his end, and died. 

He was buried at Hereford. 

But this Eadmund gathered men, 

And fought manfully. 4220 

With him the Welsh held. 

He took [to wife] the sister of one of their kings. 

And all those beyond Severn, 

From Lancaster to Malvern, 

Followed his call and his command. 4225 

And he went on fighting often with Cnut 

Until all the Danes were gathered. 

With their host they came against him. 

Earl Thorkytel led that host. 

The king's son went against him. 4230 

Then they came to Sherstone, 

The morrow of St. John, 

Where they fought a hard battle. 

When some of the English failed 

Their lords who had brought them there. 4235 

They went over to the Danes 

By treason and felony. 

Many a noble man there lost his life. 

Eadric Streona deserted. 

And many others whom he had brought up, 4240 

4215. It is not clear whom Gaimar means by this Eadmmid. 

4222. Eadmund Ironside married in 1015, according to Ihe AS. Chr. 
Ealdgyth, the widow of Sigeferth, a thane of the Seven Burghs, t.e., 
York, Chester, Leicester, Lincoln, Nottingham, Stamford and Derby, 
the chief towns occupied by the Danes. Sigeferth was murdered by Badric. 

4231. AS. Chr. 1016. There is still an image on Sherstone Church 
which the people say is Old Buttlebones, one of the Danish Chiefs 
killed at this battle. It appears, however, to be the effigy of a man in 
civil dress, holding in his hand the model of some building, perhaps the 


King Eadward, son of iEthelred. 

And the Danes triumphed. 

To Assandun (Assingdon) repairing 

King Cnut led his host. 

And Eadmund fought with him, 4245 

With few folk, but no man, I trow, 

Struck better than he struck. 

Whether he would or not he left the field. 

By force the Welsh dragged him away. 

The Danes had the victory. 4250 

Thus lasted for several days, 

Between them two, war and strife. 

Till the land was desolate 

By their pride and their war. 

The lords then consulted, 4255 

They talked together till they agreed. 

At Deerhurst they met ; 
There it was agreed between them. 
They pledged themselves to a battle. 
By their two bodies it was granted. 4260 

It was discussed and devised 
How each should be armed. 
Hawberk and helm, shield and axe, 
Dagger, sword and good mace. 

Steel leg harness, each should have, 42G5 

When he came' to battle. 
Afterwards they said where this should be. 
It was agreed to be at Gloucester. 
Into mid Severn, in a ship 

They brought them, fair and soft. 4270 

And the ship should be well moored, 
Chained and fast bound 
On both sides, that it might be firm 
Right in the middle of the water. 
This was the true device between them, 4275 

Tlius they arranged the battle ; 
And their two liosts should be on either faidu. 



And they swore on both sides with solemnity, 

And gave hostages and sureties. 

So they agreed together, - 4280 

And the battle should be fought ; 

Whichever of the two conquered, 

AJl should join him, 

And permit him to reign over them. 

At the day all were assembled. 4285 

The two kings were brought into the ship ; 
And on both sides, on the bank, 
Were the two armies, to watch. 
All the ships of the city 

Were brought down the river. 4290 

Six leagues off they took them. 
As the lords ordered. 
They did not wish that any ruffian 
Should begin any strife there. 

But by them two it should be tried, 4295 

Which God chose to have the kingdom. 
At one end of the ship was Cnut^ 
Who was sprung from Danes. 
At the other end was Eadmund, 
Who belonged to the English. 4300 

They bowed in prayer ; 
They kneeled a long time. 
Then they stood up. 
Each girded on his arms. 

When they were ready 4305 

Each looked at the other. 
Then spoke Cnut, very wisely. 
And said, " Eadmund, stay a while, 
^' I am a Dane, and thou an Englishman, 
*' Our fathers both were kings, 4310 

" One held the land, and the other had it. 

4306. Henry of HimtingdoD says they began to fight. Hist. Angl. 
Lib. yi., cap. 13. 



" Each did with it what he pleased. 

" As long as they had it in their power, 

" Each did his will with it. 

" And know well, that long ago 4315 

" The Danes had it, my forefathers. 

" Nearly a thousand years ago Dane had it, 

" Before ever king Cerdic came there. 

" Cerdic, he was your forefather, 

" And king Dane was mine. 4320 

" Dane held it in chief from God. 

" Modret gave Cerdic his fief, 

" He never held it in chief. 

" From him came your kin. 

" Therefore I tell you, if you know it not, 4325 

" If you fight with me, 

" One of us has the greater wrong. 

" We do not know which will die. 

" Therefore I will make you an offer, 

" And will not go back from it. 4330 

" Let us divide the land right in two, 

" You take one part, 

" The other shall be left to me. 

" Let neither you nor me complain. 

" Then we will conquer that part, 4335 

" Of which neither I nor you hold any. 

*' As we conquer it 

" Let us divide it between us, 

" And let us be brothers in truth. 

I wUl swear to you, you swear to me, 4340 

To keep this brotherhood, 
*' As if we were bom of one mother, 
** As if we were both brothers, 
" Of one father and one mother ; 
" Also let there be hostages between us ; 4345 

" Trust me, and I will trust you." 
Eadmund stood on the other side. 
In boldness he was like a leopard. 



He heard the modesty and the justice 

With which good king Cnut spoke. 4350 

He gave him answer most wisely. 

<* Will you carry out this talk?" 

" Yes/' said Cnut, "in truth, 

" Let there be a pledge between us. 

'' Here I pledge you my faith, 4355 

" I will keep this covenant thus/' 

This" covenant was pledged. 

Behold all settled. 

On this covenant they embraced. 

These covenants were well kept. 4360 

On both sides all the lords 

Praised God, those who were wise. 

And the two kings called for boats. 

Two little boats brought 

Two fishermen, who lived there, 4365 

They were hidden in a ditch. 

The two kings came to their folk; 
The next day the treaty was made, 
For the land was divided 

By the advice of the lords. 4370 

As the water of Thames runs, 
They planned a just division. 
And from the spot where it rises. 
As far as the Foss. Thence it runs back, 
And goes quite straight as far as the road 4375 

Which king Belin made, 
Watling street. There straight, 
All the west was divided. 

When the lords had done this 
Neither of the two kings drew back. 4380 

4374. The Foss, according to Henry of Huntingdon, and the description of 
Britain appended to Gaimar, runs from Totuess to Caithness. It passed 
through Tlchester, Bath, Cirencester, and Lincoln. Watling Street ran 
from Dover to Chester. 


They made equal lots by right 

That there might never be contention. 

On the south Eadmund's share fell. 

There was his uncle Saint Eadward. 

And on the other side of Thames 4385 

King Cnut held right justice. 

He had London, there was his seat. 

York was in his kingdom. 

And Eadmund had Canterbury, 

And also Winchester and Salisbury, 4390 

And Gloucester and Dorchester, 

And Cirencester and Exeter. 

What shall I say of the two kingdoms ? 

Each was richly possessed. 

Now they reigned more equally, 4395 

Than brothers or kinsfolk do. 

And more they loved each other, I trow, 

Than brothers do, these two. 

When a traitor envied them, 
Then this felon wrought his felony. 4400 

He invited Eadmimd, and came to ask him. 
To come and tarry ^ith him. 
He was his man. So much he prayed him 
That King Eadmund tarried there. 
Provision there was in great plenty, 4405 

But it was dearly bought : 
He who gave it, spoiled it all. 
For like a felon he murdered the king. 
Eadric caused an engine to be made. 
The bow which would not miss, he knew how to 

draw. 4410 

4381. Caules is some sort of reut (Godefroy). It may be that ecaules 

is a form of eyed, 
4383. The AS, Chr. simply says that Cuut took Mercia and Eadmund 

4410. Henry of Huntingdon (Lib. vi.) says that Eadric's son stabbed 

the king at Oxford. Florence of Worcester says he died at London, 


If anything touched the string. 

Soon would one hear bad news. 

Even a bason (?), if it struck it, 

It would split it with the arrow. 

Where this bow was prepared 4415 

He had placed a new house. 

Privy house they called it. 

Men went there for that purpose. 

The king was taken there at night, 

As Eadric had commanded. 4420 

Directly he sat on the seat 

The arrow struck him in the fundament. 

It went up as far as the lungs. 

The feather never showed 

Of the arrow which was in his body, 4425 

And no blood came forth. 

The king cried a death cry, 

The soul fled from him, he was no more. 

There was no recovery. 

His folk carried him thence, 4430 

To a minster was he earned. 

Much they read and sang, 

And said matins and service. 

May God, if it please him, do justice 

On the evil felon, the traitor, 4435 

Who thus murdered his lord. 

The king was honourably buried, 

Interred and prayed for. 

But his Queen did not know it. 

She had two fair*boys by him, 4440 

which city is mentioned hy the AS. Chr. the line before, and has no 

doubt got into Florence's text through carelessness. The AS. Chr. 

states that his death was on St. Andrew's Day (30 November) 1016. 
4414. Stevenson translates ewet or ouet bason. The word does not occur 

in any dictionary I have consulted. 
4431. Glastonbury. 
4440. Eadmund and Eadward. 


And before ever she knew it, 

Or any man could tell her, 

The two boys were taken from her. 

To Cnut they were brought direct. 

This did Eadric, the traitor. 4445 

Thus he thought to increase his honour. 

To London went this wicked felon. 
King Cnut was there and many a thane. 
Before the king he kneeled ; 

In bis ear he told him 4450 

How he had wrought with Eadmund^ 
And of the children whom he had brought. 
When the king had heard it all, 
He was very sad and wroth. 

He sent for all his thanes; 4455 

He had the treason told them. 
When he had proved it in their hearing, 
He had him (Eadric) taken, then he was led 
To an ancient tower, situated so that 
When the tide rises, Thames beats it. 4460 

The king himself came after ; 
He sent for all the citizens. 
He had an axe brought, 

I know not if it had his equal under heaven. 
In the forelock of the traitor 4465 

He caused a rod to be twisted round. 
When the forelock was firmly held 
King Cnut came straightway. 
He gave him a quick stroke. 

From the body he severed the head. 4470 

He had the body thrown down, 
The tide came up outside. 

4460. The AS. Chr. and Florence put Eadric's death in the next year, 1017, 
instead of immediately following his murder of Eadmund. Florence 
indeed gives the indiction of the year in which Edmund was killed as 
XV., which suits 1017, though he puts the death among the events of 
the year 1016. 




He made them throw out the felon's head; 

Both went towards the deep sea. 

The living devil take them. 4475 

Thus ended Eadric Streona. 

And the king said to his household, 

So that many heard it, 

" This man slew my brother. 

" In him I have avenged all my friends: 4480 

" He was indeed my brother in truth, 

" I will never put another instead of him. 

As this has happened so 

May Beelzebub have the body of Eladric." 
The king went down thence, 4485 

And mounted a horse. 
He went to speak with the Queen, 
To seek counsel and ask 
For the two lads, the sons of Eadmund. 
Said the Queen. " Where are they ? " 4490 

Answered the king, "At Westminster, 
*' To the abbot I delivered them yesterday.'* 

"Sir," said she, *' believe me 
" You must take other steps. 

" These are the right heirs of the land, 4495 

" If they Kve, they will make war. 
" While you can have peace 
** If you take my advice. Cause it to be known 
" That they are taken to another land ; 
" Beware of their doing harm. 4500 

" Trust them to such a man 
" That they may be kept from evil." 
Then they called for a Dane, 
A noble man, a distant Marcher, 
A city he had and a great earldom, 4505 

He was called Walgar. 
They entrusted the two lads to liim, 
Who were king's sons, and noble. 


He received them, to nourish them well, 

To bring them up and keep them. 4510 

He thought indeed that if he lived. 

He would bring them up in great honour. 

What shall I say ? He departed, 

And went to Denmark. 

With the children he went. 4515 

One was called Eadgar, 

The other's name was ^Ethelred. 

This was the younger lad. 

Well were they kept and well nourished. 

When they were somewhat grown, 4520 

And had passed twelve years, 

They were very noble and pleasing. 

To England came the news 
That their right heirs were grown up. 
Greatly the English rejoiced, 4525 

For they did not love the Danes. 
They made ready ships, 
And would send thither. 
When this was told to the Queen, 
Whose name was Emeline (iElfgifu Emma), 4530 
King jEthelred had first married her, 
Now king Cnut had her; 
She had two sons by iEthelred, 
Eadward was one, the other iElfred. 
Earl Eichard of Normandy 4535 

Had his nephews in keeping. 
They were again the right heirs.. 
They would have England. 
Queen Emma was their mother. 
Whom king Cnut had after their father. 4540 

4516. Eadmand and Eadward, according to Florence of Worcester (5.a. 
1017). The latter died on his return to England in 1057, having 
married a lady named Agatha, niece of the Emperor Henry II., hy 
whom he was father of Eadgar ^theling, Margaret, wife of Malcolm, 
King of Scotland, and Christina, a nun at Romsey. 


For her two sons, whom she loved much, 

The two lads troubled her. 

And also for her lord's sake, . 

She wished them much ill. 

And when she heard that the English 4545 

Had a desire to make them kings, 

She devised an evil plan. 

To her lord she went, with bent head. 

" Sire," said she, " You know not 

*^ The sons of Eadmund will be sent for : 4550 

" The English say they are the right heirs ; 

" They wish to receive them instead of you." 

Cnut replied, "Can this be so?" 

" Yes, dear lord, at Porchester 

" Is a ship prepared 4555 

" Which will bring them with a great company." 

The king sent straightway. 

They found the ship ready. 

They took harness and rigging. 

They put the men in prison. • 4560 

They came back to tell the tidings to the king. 

When he heard all, he was full of wratlu 

Then he had his writs sealed. 
And sent beyond sea 

To his two sons, who were there 4565 

And held Denmark. 
He bade them, and his barons 
To take the lads. 
And maim them secretly. 

So they could never be cured. 4570 

There was one to hear this counsel. 
Who, if he could, would turn it another way. 

4542. I.e. Eadmund and Eadward. 

457 0. Florence says Cnut sent them to the king of Sweden to be killed. 
(<.a. 1017.) 


Hastily then he ordered 

Walgar who had charge of the children, 

If he held them dear at all, 4575 

He should send them away ; 

for if they were found there 

They would surely be maimed. 

The ^ood man did not delay. 

He left his land to his three sons. 4580 

With only three ships he put to sea. 

He so well accomplished his journey 

That in only five days he passed Russia, 

And came to the land of Hungary. 

The sixth day he arrived 4585 

Beneath the city of Gardimbre. 

The king was there and the queen^ 

To whom Hungary was subject. 

Walgar was acquainted with them. 

He adorned the two children. 4590 

He came to the king and greeted him. 

The king rose up to meet him. 

He embraced Walgar, set him beside him, 

And made cheer and joy with him. 

He knew well about the two lads, 4595 

How he had cared for them. 

And that they were right heirs of England. 

But he knew not what he wished to ask . 

Until the master spoke. 

The king asked, so he showed him 4600 

Of the two lads, how it was 

That men wished to destroy them. 

Then he told him how they had fled, 

And how they came to ask his pity. 

And if he would give them counsel, 4605 

4588. Florence, 1017. 

4587. Florence calls this king Salomon. Stephen I. was reigiiing from 
A.D 1000 to 1038. There was a king Salomon in 10G3. 

U 51689. K 


That they might recover their land. 

" Sir," gaid he, " they will hold it of you, 

'* And they will become thy men." 

The king replied, '' They are welcome. 

** All my power and my strength 4610 

'' I will put forth to help them. 

'' I will exert myself to raise them. 

" To my power I will make war 

" On those who have taken their land." 

Walgar replied: — "Thanks to you. 4615 

** Upon your faith, I entrust them to you. 

" As you have trust in God 

" I entreat you, keep them well." 

The children remained there ; 

Three years after they were grown up. 4620 

The younger was fifteen years old. 

But the eldest was the taller. 

He had passed nineteen years. 

Eadgar was his name. He was well favoured. 

The king's daughter took him for her lover. 4625 

And he loved her ; this was known ; 

Before a whole year had passed, 

The lady became pregnant. 

What shall I say? It went so far 

That the matter could not be concealed. 4680 

The king heard it, it was told him. 

He was but little wroth. 

Ho even said he would agree to it. 

If he would take her, he would give her to him. 

The youth agreed; 4635 

He kissed the king's foot. 

And the king summoned his folk. 

The next day was the meeting; 

4624. It was Eadward the younger who wns father of Margaret and 
Eadgar iEtheling. See note, p. 143. 


The king gave, his daughter to Eadgar. 

Before his people^ he married her, 4640 

And the king gave all to know 

That Eadgar should be his heir after his days. 

As he had no sod, he made him his heir, 

Because of his eldest daughter whom he took. 

Therefore have I told you, I would have you know, 

Marvel not at it. [4645 

From this Eadgar and his wife 

Issued the precious gem, 

Margaret they called her. 

King Malcolm made her his queen. 4650 

She had an elder brother, 

Eadgar the iEtheling was he named. 

The English sent for the children, 

For their father was no longer alive. 

The two children were the right heirs, 4655 

[To him] who would acknowledge them as true. * 

When they should have landed in Humber 

A storm fell on the sea. 

Which drove them into Scotland. 

King Malcolm seized them; 4660 

He made Margaret his queen. 

She was devoted to God. 

Six sons, I trow, the king had by her. 

Now will I tell you the first three, 

Donald, Duncan, Eadmund ; 4665 

The other three, I think they were kings, 

Eadgar, Alexander, and David. 

This lineage sprang from Eadmund, 

4660. It was in 1067 she went to Scotland with her mother, hrother, and 
sister, and married Malcolm. AS. Chr. 1067. 

4663. The names given by Buchanan are Edward, killed at the siege of 
Alnwick, Edmund, and Ethelred, died in exile in England, being 
driven out by their uncle Donald, Edgar, Alexander, and David, after- 
wards kings, Matilda wife of king Henry I., and Mary wife of Eustace, 
of Boulogne. (Kerum Scot. Hist., Lib. vii.) 

K 2 


Who was king in England. 

And all his forefathers before him. 4670 

Now I will return to the Danes. 
Cnut and Emma his wife 
Had a very fair daughter. 
Ounhild was the damseVs name. 

The king had besides two sons, 4675 

They were descended only from Danes. 
Harold and Harthacnut were their names. 
These two held the kingdom. 
After Cnut they held it seven yeai*8. 
Beyond sea were the children ^ 4680 

Who ought by right to have reigned. 
Men caused them much trouble. 
Cnut was a good king, rich and powerful. 
Hi8 inheritance was very great. 

Denmark he had and England. 4685 

All Norway he went to conquer. 
He drove out king Olaf, 
He returned to England. 
While Cnut was reigning better [than Olaf], 
Olaf returned with many folk. 4690 

He thought to recover Norway. 
The Norwegians summoned their army. 
They fought a bitter battle. 
They killed Olaf who was the right king. 
Then was Cnut lord of three kingdoms. 4695 

He found few who dared gainsay him. 
And nevertheless he was gainsaid, 
And his command despised. 
At London he was on the Thames. 

4670. AS. Chr. 1067. 

4674. Ganhild married the emperor Henry III. (Simeon of Durham, II., 

155. Rolls Ed.) 
4686. AS. Chr. 1028. 
4694. AS. Chr. 1030. 
4699. Henry of Huntingdon says this occurred on the sea shore. 



The tide flowed near the church, 4700 

Which was called Westminster. 

The king, on foot, stopped 

On the bank, on the sand. 

The tide rose quickly, 

It approached fast, it came near the king. 4705 

Cnut in his hand held his staff. 

He said to the tide ''Turn back, 

" Flee from before me lest I strike thee." 

The sea did not go back a step for him ; 

And more and more the tide rose. 47 JO 

The king stood, he waited. 

Then he struck the water with his staff. 

The water for that did not cease, 

Before it came up to the king and wetted him. 

When the king saw he had waited too long, 4715 
And that the tide would do nothing for him, 
He went back from the beach. 
Then he rested on a stone, 
Stretched his hands towards the east, 
Hear what he said, his folk listening : 4720 

'' Him who makes the sea rise, 
" Men ought truly to believe and worship. 
^* He is a good king, I am a poor one. 
'^ I am a mortal man, but He is living ; 
'' His command makes everything. 4725 

" Him I pray to be my guard. 
'' I will go to Rome to seek Him. 
" From Him I will hold all my land.'' 
Then he had his way prepared. 

He would go without delay. 4730 

He took plenty of gold and silver. 
All the bridges which he found 
Beyond the mountains on his voyage. 
And on this side over the water, 
The king had made and repaired 4735 


With the goods which he would give. 

He redeemed the bondage^ 
St. Peter's By money, of the house 
pence. Which the English support at Rome. 

By this means he obtained that no one 4740 

Of England should be put in irons, 

Nor should leave Ins kingdom, 

For any sin he had done. 

In his country he should purge himself. 

When the king had accomplished this 4745 

He returned to England. 

But he did not tarry there long. 

To Scotland he went with his host. 

So well he spoke to the king and promised. 

That the king would hold of him, he said. 4750 

He had him well [bound] by treaty. 

But he could never get service from him. 

Before the fuU month passed 
Death of Both the kings came to their end. 

And the sons of Cnut both reigned. 4755 

Harold. Harold first all asked for. 
Harthacnut. He reigned two years and Harthacnut five. 

And king Cnut, their father, twenty^ 

These two gave their sister, 

Gunhild, to the powerful emperor, 4760 

Who then had Rome in his dominion. 

And Almain and Lombardy. 

4788. " Et a Jobanne Papa nt Scholam Anglonun abonmi tributo et 
tbelone liberaret, impetraTit." Florence, 1031. Legacion can hardly 
mean legation here, as the first archbishop of Canterbury who was 
legate was Theobald, in 1139. (Gervase of Canterbury, ii. 384.) I 
have yentured to assume that the word should be ligadon, 

4748. AS. Chr. 1031. 

4754. Cnut died November 12, 1035, Malcolm in 1084. AS. Chr. 

4757. Harold reigned 4 years 16 weeks, Harthacnut, 2 years less 12 nights. 
AS. Chr. 1039, 104^. 


But, as I told you before, 
Seven years they ruled the country. 

Then the Danish heirs were dead, 4765 Death of 

Great joy the EngUsh made. ^"''^^• 

For the Danes held them cheap, Harthacnu 

Oftentimes they shamed them. 
If a hundred met one [Dane] alone, 
It was bad for them if they did not bow to him. 4770 
And if they came upon a bridge. 
They waited ; it was ill if they moved 
Before the Dane had passed. 
In passing each [Englishman] made obeisance. 
Who ,did it not, if he was taken, 4775 

Shamefully men beat him. 
So cheap were the English. 
So the Danes insulted them. 
•Now they discussed what they should do, 
For which heirs they should send. 4780 

If they sent to Hungary 
It would be too far, they have little aid. 
In the end they agreed 
That they should send to Normandy 
For Eadward and for iElfred. ' 4785 

Eadward was the elder brother. 
He had gone into Himgary 
To help his cousins 
In a war which they had. 
The people of Velcase caused it. 4790 

When the English did not find him, 
They brought .Alfred with them. 

4787. The AS. Chr. speaks of Eadward coming to England in 1040 before 

Harthacnut's death. 
4790. This probably refers to the last irars of Stephen king of Hungary 

with Henry doke of Bavaria, son of the emperor Conrad. Can Velccue 

mean Bidgaref Bonfinius Ber. Hungar., p. 212. 
4792. The AS. Chr. puts .Alfred's return and death in 1036. 







Much they hasted because of the Danes. 
They did hot wish them to be kings any more. 
And yet there was a man 4795 

Who had a son by the sister of two kings. 
She was the daughter of Cnut and sister of Harold. 
Now hear what he wished to do. 
He wished to make one of his own children heir. 
This hope he afterwards obtained. 4800 

Earl Godwine came to London, 
Which held with the Danes. 
There were all assembled, 
They waited for iElfred. 

All the thanes of the kingdom 4805 

Had sent for him. 

Earl Godwine thought with himself, 
Took and sent for horsemen, 
And other folk well armed. 

Towards the sea he went. 4810 

That night he lodged at Guildford. 
He had great desire to do wrong. 
Next day Alfred came there. 
Earl Godwine led him 

To the top of Geldesdone Hill, 4815 

" Sire," said he, "to your crown 
" All that you see belongs, 

" And a thousand times as much and a hundred and 
a hundred. 
-Alfred replied, " Thanks to God. 
" If it be permitted ine to possess it 4820 

Treason. " ^ ^"^ S®* ^P S^^^ customs, 

" And will love well peace and right." 

4797. God wine's wife, Gytha, was sister of Ulf jarl, who married Gnat's 

sister, Estrith. Lappenberg, ii., 208. 
4799. The AS. Ghr. (1036) says that Godwine would not permit Alfred 

to go to his mother in Winchester, *' because the public yoice was then 

greatly in favour of Harold," the son of Cnut. Can this line be due to 

Gaimar's taking this Uarold for Godwine's son ? 
4915. William of Malmesbury, Lib. ii., 188, says this took place at 



Grodwine had indeed commanded, 

As soon as he cried " Warrai," 

That all the Normans should be seized. 4825 

By nines were they killed. 

The nine were straightway beheaded, 

The tenth was saved. 

Thus they were slain by nines, 

One escaped out of ten. 4830 

Then they took iElfred, 

They carried him to Ely. 

There they put out his eyes. 

Round a stake they had him tied, 

His great intestine they drew out 4835 

With spikes, which they had made^ 

There they had him tied thus 

To draw out his bowel. 

So that he could no more stand on his feet. 

His soul fled,' and they rejoiced 4840 

That they had murdered him thus. 

For love of Godwine they did this. 

But the thanes when they heard it. 
Who had sent for uElfred, 

Where grieved and very sad ; 4845 

And they said, if Gbdwine were taken, 
No earthly thing should save him; 
Much worse should he die than Eadric Streona. 
Earl Oodwine did not wait^ 

He took ship, he and his folk ; 4850 

To Denmark he fled. 
There was he well received. 

4884. Aler is perhaps an error for aUier^tUligare, 

4840. The AS. Chr. by saying that .Alfred abode with the monks seems 

to imply that he lived some time. He was buried in the south porch of 

Ely Cathedral. 
4849. As Mr. Stevenson suggests, this flight of Godwine to Denmark 

seems to be a confused reference to his flight to Bruges in 1051. 

AS. Chr. 


And the English crossed the sea. 

They go to give hostages to Eadward. 

They make him sure of the crown, 4855 

That they will make him king and chief. 

And he then sent for his company. 

And got ready much folk. 

He came to the sea^ crossed it easily. 

And was crowned at London. 4860 

Then he held the land, established his laws. 

Never were such laws before. 

Peace he loved well, and right and justice. 

Therefore he established them in such a way 

That never before, nor since his day 4865 

Could any king make better. 

When he had thus settled and was thus reigning 

Godwine prepared hims^lf . 

With a great fleet, which he had, 

Into Thames he sailed straight. 4870 

Then he sent for his friends, 

Of whom he had many in the country, 

That of their mercy they should speak to the king, 

That he might have his right, this he prayed of them ; 

And they did so. They spoke so well, 4875 

Before the king they led him. 

They brought him on this condition 

That he would follow the king's judgment. 

He gave a pledge to do right. 

And many a rich man was surety for him. 4880 

The pledges were indeed 
Very noble and fair and handsome. 
Of fine silver seven great caskets. 
Of pure gold were the rings, 

Stones were therein of many kinds, 4885 

Well set in gold rings. 

4860. At Winchester. AS. Chr. 1048. 


Jaspers, sapphires and topazes, 

Beryls, sards, chrysoprases, 

Alectores and diamonds, 

And agates and alabaster (?) 4890 

Very well made were the caskets. 

Each had a lid 

Well worked in gold and silver. 

Each was valued at one hundred marks, 

But for the stones, and for the gold, 5895 

They were worth more than any treasure. 

Earl Godwine had gained them 

From the king of Sweden (?) whom he had killed, 

This was the pledge he gave. 

Then they called him, he would answer. 4900 

The king himself rose, 
With great anger he accused him, 
And said that by him his brother died; 
He betrayed him as a felon and robber; 
And if he purges himself at all of this, 4905 

He shall cause it to be proved, this he said. 
The earl replied: — "Altogether I deny it, 
*' As you have told it here. 
'* Word by word I will deny it. 
" I will purge it by trial. 4910 

" And I have given you my pledge, 
" By trial let it be granted. 
" Of your appeal and of my answer 
** Let all these barons say the right." 
There was a great assembly, 4915 

Earls, thanes, many a wise man. 

4889. Aleetorea. ''Alectorias Yocant in Tentriculis gallinaceoram iiiTentas, 
ciTStallina specie, magnitudine fabsB ; qnibosMiloDem Crotomeniem naum 
ID certaminibus, iovictum faisse rideri volunt." Plin. Hist. Nat. zzxyii. 

4890. This compurgation was made by Godwine in the year 1040 accord- 
ing to Florence of Worcester. 


Earl Lewine waa seated there. 
He was powerful in Cheshire. 
Earl Siward sate there then, 

Who was lord of York, 4920 

And of the county of Huntingdon, 
Which belonged to his person. 
Earl Leofric held Norfolk. 
With the others he sate on the bench. 
Twelve earls there were, very wise, 4925 

Besides thanes and clergy, 
Who listened to his words. 
But they held their peace, none moved 
Thence till they had commandment 
From the king that they should proceed to judg- 
ment, 4930 
And then they rose in their places. 
Earl Siward went first. 
Into a chamber they passed^ 
Into which they mounted by a step ; 
They seated themselves to judge right. 4935 
Then a knight rose, 
MsBrleswegen was his name. 
A Dane he was, rich, and a thane. 
Towards Gk>dwine he bowed himself, 
And nevertheless he spoke right out 4940 
" Lords,** said he, "you have heard 
" How this earl is appealed, 
" And you have heard the answer. 
" He has denied all, you know it well. 
" If the king charges him with felony, 4945 

4980. Algent, snhy of aUer. Bartsch'B ChreBtomathie, 506. 

4937. MsBTleswegen retired to Scotland with Eadgar iEtheling in 1067, 
and was present at the storming of York in 1069 by Srein's (ons 
Asbiom and Thorkell. AS. Chr. ** Marleswain Ticecomes " witnesses 
a charter of the time of William I. in the Peterborough Cartulary 
called " Swafham," and occurs in Domesday. 



" There has been nothing seen or heard, 
'' And no man comes forward 

Who says, ' It was done in my sight.' 

Consider it^ for it is my belief 

They may still be firiends." 4960 

Eabl Siward, on the other side, 
Said, "This I have in my thought, 
" To the king he denies boldly. 
'* All he says ought to be credited 
" If he did not deny felony, 4965 

" Treason and perfidy. 

" But from these a man ought to defend himself. 
" He ought to wait for judgment. 
" This is a great matter, an appeal by the king, 
" It will come to trial, I trow, 4960 

" By fire, or by water, or by battle, 
" With one of these three there will be no failure." 

"So it will be, sire," said Freegis, 

[But] this is not the law of it in this country ; 

For a simple word of a blind accusation 4966 

" We will not make a new trial. 

By his oath he well acquits himself. 

There is no need for more delay." 
Leofric spoke, of Northampton: 

" King Eadward wears the crown. 4970 

" Oreat importance belongs to his appeal. 
*' Well should one follow his will. 
" He has taken pledge of justice. 
^* I do not think such a one was ever seen. 
'" As he commenced it in honour, 4975 

" He cries for mercy to his lord. 
'' According to the appeal which the king made, 
" By law he will follow his plea. 

4963. The name Fregis appears as the holder of land in Stotfald hundred, 
Northants, before the Conquest. Domesdaj Book, 223. 





" There is nothing to do with battle, 
'^ Of no avail is an oath^ 4980 

" Nor fire, nor water, nor ordeal. 
" We will not judge in such manner. 
" A witness by hearing or seeing, 
*' He ought by right to have, 

" Who wishes to bring another to the iron, 4985 

" Or make him float in water ; 
*' But a decision without a trial, 
" Let us decide on together. 
" Of great riches and honour, 

^^ Let him make an offer to his lord, 4990 

" Let the offer be such as I shall say. 
" I will impose it on Earl Godwine. 
" Let him be armed and his five sons, 
" And his nephews, of whom he has ten. 
" Let them be armed, sixty in alL 4995 

" With all arms let them be provided. 
*' According to the law of us English, 
" Let all their harness be specified. 
'^ Let the hauberks be broidered with gold, 
" And the helms be circled with gold, 5000 

" And the shields with gold bosses. 
" Earl Godwine has great treasure. 
*' On each bracelet let there be as much gold 
'* As weighs at least twenty ounces. 
** On their arms let them have their gold 
manacles. 5005 

4985. Fer perhaps refers to the hot ploughshares of the ordeal. 

4996. Qaomm unusqaisqae habebat dims in snis brachiis anreas armillas, 
sedecim uncias pendentes, loricam trilicem indutam, in capite cassidem 
ex parte deaoratam, gladinm deauratis capulis renibus aecinetuin, 
Danicam securim aoro argentoqne redimitam in sinistro hnmero pen- 
dentem, in manu sinistra clipenm, cujas umbo claviqae erant deaorati, 
vx dextra lanceam qase lingua Anglorom alegar appellatur. Florence, 


" In such wise let them give themselves to the king, 

'' That the king may have all their homages. 

" Let them bring hostages to keep faith, 

*' And their harness be delivered to him ; 

" Then let him do his will. 6010 

" Let earl Qodwine be with the king, 

" At his mercy, until he has reparation. 

" This award, if it be agreed to, 

^* Is very honourable on both sides. 

" Nor for us will it be ill settled, 6015 

^' According to the appeal which the king has made, 

'' If we decide it thus." 

All said '' We grant it well." 

Now all were agreed to this. 
They came before the king. 5020 

When this award was repeated 
It was granted by both sides. 
The king received all their homages; 
He took hostages for keeping faith. 
He took the arms, the gold and the silver. 5025 

He kissed them as a sign of agreement. 
And the earl served him so well 
That they were afterwards such good friends 
That the king married his daughter. 
And crowned her as queen, 5030 

And restored to him all his earjdom. 
And raised all his sons. 

He made them earls, so much he loved them. 
With great honour Eadward reigned. 

At the time that this was so, 5035 

And this king thus reigned, 
Then were the Normans driven 
Out of the land, all in anger. 

6029. Eadgyth. AS. Chr. 1044 (1043). 
6087. AS. Chr. 1062. 



Likewise archbishop Robert 

Was driven out, and lost much. 5040 

Earl Godwine then died. 

At WinchjBster he was buried. 

Earl Siward then agreed 

With the king of Scotland^ whither he went. 

But Macbeth broke the peace^ 5045 

And made no stay in warring. 

Earl Siward caused ships to be brought^ 

His host he sent hy sea, 

And a great host he led by laud. 

Against Macbeth he raised such war, 5050 

He defeated him in battle, 

And slew many of his men. 

Gold and silver, harness and swords. 

He gained in those countries. 

But a son of his^ Osbem by name^ 5055 

And his nephew Siward Bam^ 

And one of the king's knights, 

Whom Siward had taken with him^ 

And the housecarles whom he led^ 

He left dead in Scotland. 5060 

After this Siward departed. 

Then they made Tostig earl. 

He was son of Gkniwine. 

He had no right in York. 

Then died earl Leofric. 5065 

Of his honour was Raulf seized. 

But little time he held it, and soon ended. 

He was a right good man, a short time he lived. 

5040. AS. Chr. 1053. 
5043. AS. Chr. 1054. 
5061. He died at York. AS. Chr. 1055. 

5065. AS. Chr. 1057. 

5066. Earl Raulf, Kadward's nephew, died the same year, but did not 
sacceed to Xieofric's earldom, which descended to his son ^Ifgar. The 
mistake is no doubt due to the proximity of the two names in the 


The earl was buried at Peterborough. 

At Coventry, earl Leofrie. 5070 

King Griffith then made treaty. 

He protected earl iElfgar. 

But short time lasted the treaty. 

He often wrought evil on king Eadward. 

Then came Tostig from the north, 5075 

And Harold from the south, from Oxford. 

The two brothers led a great host. 

Straight towards Wales they journeyed. 

The South Welsh fought 

Against Griffith, conquered his folk, 5080 

Cut off the king's head, 

Presented it to Harold and Tostig, 

And they carried it to Eadward. 

There was no more care about the Welsh. 

But the Scotch warred against them. 5086 

Often they harried Northumberland. 

King Eadward drew near. 

Two bishops he sent, 

Bishops -3Egelwine and Kynsige, 

With them went earl Tostig. 5090 

To king Malcolm so well they spoke 

That they brought him beyond the Tweed. 

He came to meet king Eadward. 

He had speech with Malcolm. 

Presents he gave him; much he honoured him, 5095 

Which he made ill use of. 

Peace and truce they took between them. 

But it lasted few days. 

To Rome went earl Tostig, 

.5071. AS. Chr. 1058. 
5075. AS. Chr. 1068. 
5089. Simeon of Durham, Hist Reg. II. 174. JEgelwme was bishop of 

Durham and Kynsige archbishop of York. 
5099. AS. Chr. 1061. 

U 51689. L 


With him the countess Judith. 5100 

Meanwhile his earldom 
King Malcolm harried all ; 
Holy Island then was harried. 
Which had been always spai'ed before. 
Then long time after this 5105 

Gathered monks and people 
To meet bishop iEgelwine, 
St. Oswine. Who took from the earth St. Oswine. 
Four hundred years and fifteen beside 
Had the body lain there, 5110 

At Tynemouth, where it was 
And still is. This is true. 
And God does there many works 
By the holy body, as is known. 

In this year returned Tostig 5115 

And the countess Judith. 
Peace was made with Malcolm. 
With him went the thanes. 
Those of York, at his return, 

Had Tostig in such hatred 5120 

That he could not enter the city. 
For a little they would have killed him. 
Many of his housecarles they slew, 
And ill-used several of his retinue. 
Then they made Morkere earl, 5125 

He was son of earl iSlfgar. 

When they had made Morkere lord. 
He went with the host to Northamptonshire. 
They harried all this coimty. 

They brought the spoil to York. 5130 

Tostig went to Baldwin^ 

5108. Florence of Worcester, 1065. 
5120. AS. Chr. 1065. 

5131. Baldwin, count of Flanders. The AS. Chr. frequently calls Flan- 
ders *' Baldwines lande." 


Whose sister, lady Judith, he had to wife. 

He received him with great honour. 

And made cheer with his sister. 

Then it was from the Nativity 5135 

A thousand years and sixty-six p&^ssed. 1066. 

In this year Eladward departed, Death of 

Twenty-four years he reigned, I trow. ^" * 

The best king, and the best 

That the English had for lord. 5140 

And queen Eadgyth died, Death of 

As God pleased and must be. S^th. 

At Westminster they were laid 

In two tombs right well wrought. 

After their death a comet 5145 

(A star, that is, of which soothsayers 
And good astronomers 
Know that it poi^tends either good or ill) 
Showed itself in the firmament. 

Many people saw it well. 5150 

On the night of " Litania Major '* 
It made as much brightness as if it were day. 
Many men looked at it. 
In many places they foretold from it. 
Each man said his guess, 5155 

But soon followed the great strife, 
And the great tribulation. 
Which afterwards came to the country. 
Then came Tostig with much folk. 
Most of them were Flemings. 5160 

At Wardstane they landed. 
All that country they sorely harried. 
And many men they slew. 

51S6. King Eadward died 5 January 1066. AS. Chr. 1066. 

5151. Viij. kal. Mai. (24 April). Pingr^ says it was seen in China on 

April 2 and in the West on April 16, and lasted till Jane. (Com6t- 

ographie, I., 375.) 

L 2 


They went to Thanet. In that land 

Copsi came to meet him. 5166 

A thane of his who held of him, 

He came from the Tsle of Orkney. 

Seventeen ships he had in his diaige. 

Then they overran Bnmemue. 

That country they confounded. 5170 

Great damage and great misery 

They caused there and elsewhere. 

Then they went to Humber with their fleet. 

A great prey they took in Idndsey. 

Many men they slew there, 5176 

Before they left the country. 

Eabl Eadwine with a right great host 
Quickly came to Lindsey. 
Then he defended this country from them. 
But they had already done much evil. 5180 

Earl Morkere on the other side 
Defended his land. They cared not for him. 
They were on Humber, near the sea, 
"Where he prevented their landing. 
But the Flemings, when they saw this, 5185 

Departed, and failed Tostig. 
They went back to their land laden 
With the plunder of miserable English. 
With those then, who remained. 

They turned, then they departed. 5190 

Towards Scotland they went. 
To Malcolm who had sent for them. 
Eaxl Tostig honoured him much, 
And gave him fair gifts. 

The king of Norway came thither 5195 

With a great fleet, and held with Tostig. 

5161. This must be Tostig's descent in the Isle of Wight and Sandwich 
mentioned in the AS. Chr. 1066, and also hj Florence and by 
Simeon of Durham, II., 179. 


Harold Hardrada was the name of this king. 

With him held the Danes. 

So much they spoke, he and Tostig, 

Each pledged his faith to the other, 5200 

That all which they conquered together, 

All equally they would divide. 

Now they wished first by their war 

To share between them all England. 

They two had a great fleet, 5205 

Four hundred ships and seventy more. 

So far they floated and so far sailed 

That they entered the water of Humber. 

From Humber they came to Ouse. 

At St. Wilfrid's they left their ships. 5210 

Next day they came straight sailing 

To York, in the evening. 

But the two earls met them. 

They led the men of seven counties. 

At Fulford they fought. 5215 

The Norsemen won the field. 

But on both sides was great slaughter. 

Then the Norsemen took the land. 

They went on seizing aU that country, 

And driving off" much booty. 5220 

Who knows not, let him here remember 

It was twelve days within September. 

Fifteen days after king Harold came; 
Against the Norsemen he fought a battle. 
This was Harold, son of Godwine, 5225 

Who punished the Norsemen. 

5197. Both Gaimar and the AS. Chr. call him Haifagri instead of 

5210. The editor of the Monumenta suggests that this place maj be 

BraytoD, of which the church is dedicated to St. Wilfrid. 
5215. The AS. Chr. does not mention the place of the battle. 
5222. St. Matthew's Eve, 20 September, or 12 Cal. Octobris. 


This was at the Bridge of Battle; 
He found the Norsemen plundering cattle. 
Kiug Harold then followed them. 
Fiercely they fought. 5230 

Death of The other Harold he slew on the field, 

Hardilia, ^^ ^^^ likewise with Tostig. 

and Tostig. Ho had the vietoiy over the Danes. 

It seemed great glory to the people of the south. 

But no one could count half 5235 

Of those who were killed on the field. 

All the ships and their harness 

King Harold seized. 

The king*s son was found there. 

He was led to Harold^ 5240 

Mercy he begged, ransom he promised. 

Harold took homage of him ; 

And of all the rest 

He took good and worthy hostages. 

With twenty ships he let them go. 6245 

Then they rowed till they reached the sea. 

William FiVE days after there landed 

Bastard. Frenchmen, with quite eleven thousand ships, 

At Hastings upon the sea. 

There they built a castle. 5250 

When king Harold heard of it 

He gave over to bishop Ealdred 

The much booty and harness 

Which he had gained from the Norsemen. 

Meerleswegen then he left there. 5255 

To summon a host he went to the south. 

Five days he took in gathering them ; 

But he could get together but few. 

Because of the many men who had been killed 

5239. Olaf, AS. Chr., or Hetmand in one MS. 
5247. iSt. Michael's eve, 26th September, AS. Chr. 



When God did jastice on the Norsemen. 5260 

As far as Sussex Harold went. 

Such men as he could he took with him. 

His two brothers gathered men; 

To the battle they came with him, 

The one was Gyrth, the other Leofwine, 6265 

Against the folk from beyond sea. 

When the battles were drawn up, Battle. 

And ready to strike, 
Many men there were on both sides. 
In courage they seemed leopards. 5270 

One of the French then hasted, 
Before the others he rode. 
Taillefer was he named. 
He was a minstrel, and bold enough. 
Arms he had and a good horse. 5276 

He was a bold and noble warrior, 
fiefore the others he set himself. 
Before the English he did wonders. 
He took his lance by the butt 

As if it had been a truncheon. 6280 

Up high he threw it, 
And by the head he caught it. 
Three times thus he threw his lance. 
The fourth time, he advanced quite near^ 
Among the English he hurled it. 6285 

Through the body he wounded one. 
Then he drew his sword, retreated, 
Threw the sword which he held. 
On high, then caught it. 

One said to the other, who saw this, 5290 

That this was enchantment 
Which he did before the folk. 

5279. The reading of D. and L. («««/, cued) is probably right. In v. 217 
the word means /ai7,and no doubt here means the batt end of the lance. 
Taillefer is not mentioned in the AS. Chr., but by Florence of Worcester, 
Henry of Huntingdon, and Wace. 


When three times he had thrown his sword. 
The horse with open mouth 

Went bounding towards the English, 6295 

So that there were some who thought they would be 

By the horse who thus gaped. 
The minstrel had taught him this. 
With his sword he struck an Englishman. 
He made his hand fly off on the spot. 5300 

Another he struck as well as he could. 
An ill reward that day he had, 
For the English, on all sides, 
Hurled at him javelins and darts. 
They killed him and his horse. 6305 

In an evil hour had he asked for the first blow. 
After this the French attacked them, 
And the English struck back. 
There was raised a very great cry. 
Until evening there cease 6310 

Of striking or thrusting. 
Many knights died there. 
I cannot name them, I dare not lie, 
Who struck the best. 

[Earl Alan of Brittany 6316 

Struck well with his company. 
He struck like a baron. 
Bight weU the Bretons did. 
With the king he came to this land 
To help him in his war. 6320 

He was his cousin, of his lineage, 
A nobleman of high descent. 

.5322. In Faustina, B. vii., f. 72, is an illnmination of earl Alan receiving 
a charter from William I. granting him the land of earl Eadwine 
in Yorkshire. The pedigree appended is printed in Dugdale, Mod. 
Angl., V. 574, with an insufficient reference. 


Much he served and loved the king. 

And he right well rewarded him. 

Richmond he gave him in the north, 5825 

A good castle fair and strong. 

In many places in England 

The king gave him land. 

Long he held it, and then came to his end. 

At St. Edmund's he was buried. 5330 

Now I have spoken of this baron 

I will return to my story. 

He and the others struck so well 

That they gained tiie battle.] 

But I know well that in the end 5335 

The English had the worse. 

In the evening they turned to flight. 

Many a body remained, empty of the soul. 

Harold lay there and his two brothers; 

By them died sons and fathers, 5340 

Uncles, nephews of all the lords. 

The English endured their violence. > 

Leofv^ine and Gyrth were sLun. 

Earl William had the country. 

Twenty-two years was he its lord, 5345 

Except five weeks to tell. 

But when he had reigned a short time 
And well quieted the land, 

A thousand and sixty-seven years there had been MLXVU. 
Since God was born, as it pleased Him. 5350 

Then the king sent for his knights. 
He retained full a thousand soldiers; 
Straightway he crossed the sea. 
To Normandy he went, 

He settled the country, then he returned. 5355 

At London he held festival, 

5851. AS. Chr. 1067. 


But in coming from Normandy 
Some of his people perished at sea. 
This year truly 

Many folk saw a sign. 5360 

In likeness of fire it was. 
In the air it greatly flamed and burned : 
Comet. Towards the earth it approached. 
For a little it quite lighted it up. 
Then it revolved up above, 6365 

Then fell into the deep sea. 
In many places it burnt woods and plains. 
There was no man who was certain 
Nor who knew what this meant, 
Nor what this sign portended. 5370 

In the country of Northumberland 
This fire went about showing itself; 
And in one year, in two seasons. 
Were these displays. 

In this year, truly, 5376 

King William, with much folk. 
With earls and with his barons, 
Went far in bis regions. 
When he came to Nottingham, 

He sent to York by ban, 5380 

And by prayer and by love. 
That they should acknowledge him as lord. 
He sent an archbishop thither. 
Ealdred was his name, by him he ordered 
(He was archbishop of the city ; 5385 

Very far went his power,) 
That to him should come all the thanes 
Of the city and the neighbourhood. 
For to those who would hold of him 
Their inheritance, he would well return 5390 

5368. This comet appeared in May, 1067. Pingr^, I. 378. 
5379. AS. Chr. 1067. 


What their ancestors had before, 

And what their fathers held. 

In peace to go and safe to come ; 

He who wished to depart from him 

Might go back safely, 5395 

He should have no hindrance. 

All those who were summoned came, 

The king imprisoned them. 

To York then he went. 

In a castle he shut up 5400 

The thanes taken in the country. 

He gave their lands to the French. 

Then he went south, harrying; 

Many a town he left burning. 

In this year I tell you of 6405 

Came back God wine, Eadmund^ and Tostig. 
Godwine and Eadmund, the sons oF Harold, 
And the son of Swegen, Tostig, came back. 
With a great fleet they came. 

Ernold (Eadnoth) was aware of it, 5410 

A rich man of the country. 
He sent for his folk and his friends. 
He gathered a host, went against them, 
A fierce battle he then fought with them. 
Bat I cannot say truly 5415 

Who struck most hardily. 
But this I know, the Danes conquered ; 
French and English lost the day, 
Many died and many were slain. 

5400. This treacherous capture of the English lords is not mentioned in 
the AS. Chr., only the huUding of the castle. Simeon puts the visit to 
York in 1068. 

5405. Recording to the AS. Chr. 1067 one of Harold's sons attacked 
Bristol that year and was heaten off hy Eadnoth, and next year both 
of them entered the Taw, and were again beaten off by earl Brian. 

5408. Swegen III., king of Denmaric 1046-74. He left no legitimate 
issue, but thirteen natural sons, the names of all of whom are not 


Then the Daues took York. 5420 

But the good king when he heard of it 

Grieved much and was greatly wroth. 

Then he made ready Flemings. 

He sent them there to war. 

At Durham, on a hill, 5425 

There they would make a castle. 

But the English were troubled at this, 

"With the Flemings they meddled. 

They slew them all in one day. 

Both the men and their lord. 5430 

This year Swegen sent 
(A king full of wrath) 
His brother Asbiom and his three sons, 
Harold and Cnut and Buem Leriz, 
With a great fleet into England. 5435 

Danes, Norsemen, to make war, 
Entered the mouth of Humber. 
The peasants came against them ; 
To York they came, 

And the castles they beat down, 5440 

Which the Normans had built. 
Many a soul left its body. 
For the wardens were slain. 
Very few escaped alive. 

Gold and silver enough 5445 

And of other goods much they got. 
English and Daues divided it. 
Such took a share as had no joy thereof. 

5420. By the Danes, Gaimar means Eadgar ^theling and some North- 
umbrians. AS. Chr. 1068. 

5425. AS. Chr. 1068. Simeon of Durham, II p. 187. 

5430. AS. Chr. 1069. 

5434. See Anderson's Genealogies 418. Harold IX. and Cnat IV., who 
succeeded their fitther Swegen. Another son who succeeded Swegen 
was Eric the Good. It Is possible that Buem Leric is an error for Eric 
Bam. Langebeok, Script. Ber. Dan. iii., 282. L'Art de Verifier 
(Ed. 1770), 608. 


For the king came, took the city, 

Danes, Norsemen^ all he slew. 5450 

King William did not end then. 

He destroyed everything as far as Tyne. 

Bishop Walchere was slain. 

The king destroyed his enemies^ 

At Gateshead he avenged him, 5455 

The king who had sent him thither. 

A TEAR after bishop iSgelwine 
And Siward Barn to sea 
Went from Scotland with new ships. 
As far as Humber they sailed. 5460 

Earl Morkere came to meet them. 
He took ship, and joined with them. 
At Welle they met the English. 
They were outlaws to king William. 
So much they spoke about comradeship, 5465 

That esych wished to help the other. 
There were many outlaws. 
One noble man was their lord, 
Who was named Here ward, 

One of the best of the country. 5470 

Normans had disinherited him. 
Now all were gathered with him. 
Earl Morkere and his thanes, 
The bishop and his companions. 

Then they harried much of the country 5475 

Which the Normans had taken. 
Thence they went to Ely. 
They did not fear their enemy. 
There they would tarry, 

And let the winter pass. 5480 

But when William heard this 

5458. AS. Chr. 1080. 

5458. AS. Chr. 1072(1071). 

5463. By Welle, Gaimar probably means Ely. See AS. Chr. 1072 (1071). 


He prepared himself for something quite different. 

He summoned his host, sent for men-of-war, 

French, English, and horsemen. 

Towards the sea he sent sailors^ 5485 

Shipmen, sergeants, freebooters. 

And other folk, of whom he had many. 

None of the besieged could depart, 

And besides throughout the woods 

All the passes were guarded, 5490 

And the marsh all round 

Was well guarded against them. 

Then the king commanded 
That a bridge should be built across the mai-sh. 
He said that he would destroy them all, 5495 

That none should escape him. 
When they knew this at Ely 
They put themselves at his mercy. 
All went to cry for mercy. 

Except Hereward, who was right brave. 5500 

He escaped with few folk, 
Geri with him, his kinsman. 
With them they had five companions. 
A man who brought fish 

To the guards along the marsh 5505 

Acted like a good and courteous mao. 
In his boat he received them. 
With reeds and flags he covered them up. 
Towards the guards he began to row, 
As the evening began to grow dark, 5510 

Near their quarters in his boat. 
The French were in a tent. 
Guy, the sheriff, was their captain. 
Well he knew the fisherman. 

And well they knew it was he coming, 5515 

Of him none of them took heed. 
They saw the fisherman rowing. 


It was night, they sat at meat. 

Forth from the ship came Hereward. 

In courage like a leopard. 5520 

His comrades came after. 

In a wood they made for the tent. 

With them came the fisherman. 

Hereward was erst his lord. 

What shall I say ? The knights 5525 

Were surprised at their meal. 

They entered with axes in their hands. 

In striking hard they were not amiss, 

Twenty and six Normans they slew. 

And twelve English were slain there. 5530 

Great was the fear among the houses. 

They shared in the flight. 

They left horses all saddled. 

The outlaws mounted them, 

At leisure and safe. 5535 

They had no hindrance, 

They were ready to do mischief. 

Each chose a good horse. 

The wood was near, they entered in, 

They did not go at random. 5540 

Well they knew all that country. 

Many of their friends were there. 

In a town to which they came 

They found ten of their comrades. 

These joined Hereward. 5545 

Before they were eight, now they were ten more, 

Eighteen comrades there were. 

Before they had passed Huntingdon 

They had a hundred men well armed. 

Of Hereward's own vassals. 5550 

His men they were and faithful to him. 

Before the morrow's sun had risen 

5580. These Engluhmen were on the Norman side. Uereward's party only 
amounted to eight (y. 5508), and none were killed (y. 5546). 


Seven hundred had come to him. 
Tbey followed him to Bruneswald. 

Now their company was very large, 5555 

They assaulted a city. 

They assaulted Peterborough which had betrayed him. 
Soon was the wall all broken. 
They entered in, enough they took 
Of gold and silver, vair and gris. 5560 

Other gear there was enough. 
They wrought this thing upon the monks. 
Thence they went to Stamford. 
They did no wrong with what they took there. 
For the townsmen resisted, 5565 

So that Hereward was driven away. 
They raised strife against the king, 
With much wrong and lawlessness. 
Thus he avenged himself, and it was no wrong, 
On the men of Peterborough and Stamford. 5570 

What shall I say? For many years 
Hereward held out against the Normans; 
He and Winter, his comrade. 
And Dan Geri, a brave man, 

Alveriz, Grugan, Saiswold, Azecier, 5575 

These and the other men of war 
Warred thus against the French. 
If one of them met three 
They did not leave without a fight. 
This was seen again at Bruneswald, 5680 

Where Gier fought. 

Who was right strong and brave and hardy. 
With six others he attacked Here^«%rd, 
His body alone. He (Hereward) did not care. 
Four he slew, three fled. 5585 

Wounded, bleeding, they fled. 
In many places it befel thus 

5557. AS. Chr. 1070. 

5568. To Ely. AS. Chr. 1070. 

5575. See the names of hiB comrades at vol. I. p. 878. 



That he defended himself well against seven. 

Of seven men he had the strength. 

A hardier man was never seen. 6590 

Thus for several years he warred, 
Till a lady sent for him, 
Who had heard speak of him. 
Many times she sent for him 

That he should come to her, if he pleased; 6595 

Her father would give him the honour, 
And if he took her for wife 
Well could he war against the French. 
It was Alftrued who thus sent 

To Hereward, whom she loved much. 5600 

So many times she sent for him 
That Hereward made ready. 
He went to her with many folk. 
Verily he had a truce ; 

He was about to make peace with the king. 5605 
Within the month he was to pass 
The sea to fight the men of Le Mans, 
Who had taken the king's castles. 
He had been there before. 

He had slain Gauter del Bois, 5610 

And Dan Qefrai del Maine 
He had kept a week in prison. 
Now he thought to go in peace. 
Gold and silver he had great plenty. 

When the Normans heard this 5615 

They broke the peace, they set on him. 
At his meat they set on him. 
If Hereward had been warned 
The bravest would have appeared a coward. 

5599. The Vita Herwardi calls her *< uxor Dolfini GomitiB," bnt gives no 

name. See Vol. I., p. 897. 
5611. I Btippose this means Geoffrey of Mayenne, whose castle was taken 

by William I. in 1063 (Freeman, N. C. III. 208-12), and who was also 

concerned in the subsequent insurrection in Maine in 1073, which 48 

perhaps the occasion referred to here. 

U 51689. M 


Ailward ^^tched him ill, 5620 

His chaplain. He should have watched, 

But fell asleep upon a rock. 

What shall I say? He was surprised, 

But nobly he carried himself. 

He carried himself like a lion, 5625 

He and Winter, his companion* 

As he could not lay hold on his hauberk, 

Nor on his arms to arm himself, 

Nor could leap on his horse, 

He took a shield which he saw lie, 5630 

And a lance and a sword. 

He girded on the sword, he bared it, 

Before all his comrades 

He made himself ready like a lion. 

Proudly he said to the French, 5635 

** The King had given me truce, 

" But you come in anger, 

'' Take my gear, and slay my men. 

'^ You have surprised me at my meat. 

" Foul traitors, I will sell myself dear" 5640 

Three javelins a servant held. 

His man he was, he came before him. 

One of them he handed to his lord. 

A knight was going about. 

Through all the field he went seeking 5645 

And asking oft for Hereward. 

Of his men he had slain 

And put to death as many as ten. 

As he went seeking him 

The hero came before him. 5650 

He let fly the javelin at him. 

In the middle of the shield it struck the knight. 

It burst through his hauberk, it did not stop. 

It pierced his heart, thus it befel. 

And he fell, it could no other be. 5655 

At his death he had no priest. 

Then the Normans set on him. 


They shot at him and hurled spears ; 

On all sides they surrounded him. 

In many places they wounded his body, 5660 

And he sbruck them as does a wild boar, . 

As long as the lance could hold out. 

And when the lance failed him, 

With his sword of steel he struck great blows. 

Such a one thought to have had him very cheap 5665 

Who had to buy him with his life. 

And when they found him so hard^ 

Some dared no longer stay ; 

For he struck strongly, 

He attacked them quick and often. 5670 

With the sword he killed four. 

With the strokes he struck the wood i^esounded. 

But then broke his brand of steel 

Upon the helm of a knight ; 

And he took the shield in his hands 5675 

And smote with it so that he killed two Frenchmen. 

But four came at his back 

Who smote him through the body, 

With four lances they smote him. 

No wonder if he fell. 5680 

On his knees he kneeled. 

With such force he threw the shield. 

That one of those who had smitten him 

He smote so hard with the shield in its flight 

That in two halves he broke his neck. 5685 

This man was named Raul de Dol. 

From Tutbury(?) he had come. 

Now both were struck dead, 

Hereward and the Breton, 

Haul de Dol was his name. 5690 

Then Halselin killed outright 

This Hereward, and took off his head. 

5687. Tutbury belonged to Henry de Ferrers. Domesday Book (f. 2486) 
mentions a ** Badalfas Miles Henrici," who might be the same as this 
Baal de Dol. 

M 2 



He swore bj God and His strength. 

And the othefs who aaw him. 

Many times they swore hard 5695 

That ooe so bold had ne^er been f«>ond ; 

And thai if he had had with him three such, 

n would tbe French have eome there. 

And if he had not been killed thns 

He would have driven them all ont of the country. 5700 

Eabl Morkere^ his comrade. 
Died in a long imprisonment. 
Thns did the bishop also. 
Who foolishly sorrendered themselves. 
And the others who sorrendered 5705 

Suffered such evils in the prison 
Better would it have been for them, when they were 

That they had been killed that day 
When they were cast into prison. 
And Hereward escaped. 5710 

AiTEB this, in that time. 
As the true history tells us. 
King William and his barons 
Led a great host against Malcolm. 
Malcolm assembled his host. 5715 

He came to meet them readily, and soon 
At Abemetby met 
These two kings. So much spoke 
Their lords that they agreed. 

All the Scotch thanked God. 5720 

This was done three years after. 
Raul, the earl of Waers, 

5700. Morkere was set free by William I. just before his death, and im- 
prisoned again by his snccessor. Simeon of Darham, 1087. 

6708. Bishop Egelwine died at Abingdon. AS. Chr. 1072 (1071). 

5711. AS. Chr. 1078 (1072). 

5717. Simeon of Durham and Florence of Worcester, ». a. 1072. 

5722. Ralph Onader, earl of Norfolk and Suffolk. AS. Chr. 1076 
(1075). Sim. Dnnelm. 1074. 


Was banished. He had forfeited. 

King William took Waltheof. 

Earl Waltheof and earl Roger 5726 

Would drive out the king. 

Afterwards Waltheof lost his head 

For this rashness, and from Winchester 

LoDg time after he was removed^ 

As pleased God and his mercy. 5730 

Monks they were who carried him away. 

To St Quthlac they presented him. 

At Croyland they buried him. 

His body they cherished welL 

Afterwards it was often seen in the place 5735 

That God did by it many works. 

Then after this, in a short time, l>eathof 

The king died, I trow. wuiiam 

® Baatard. 

And the queen had died; 

Maud, who led a good life. 5740 

Three sons survived this king, 

And fair daughters more than three. 

His eldest son was named Robert. 

Under heaven there was no better lord. 

He was duke of Normandy. 5745 

Over Normans was his dominion. 

Much goodness and much valour 

And much foreign service 

Did this duke of Normandy, 

And much fair knighthood. 5750 

This was he who did right well. 

Jerusalem he took from the heathen. 

He conquered the good city. 

5725. Boger, Bon of Wm. FitsOabert, earl of Hereford. AS. Chr., Sim. 

5727. AS. Chr. 1077 (1076). 

5738. Soptembei 9, 1087. AS. Chr. 

5752 Jemsaltim was taken in June 1099. Hen. Uunt, p. 229. 


By Christians he was praised 

For Curbarant, whom he dew, 5756 

The duke came into such high worth, 

That they wished to choose him king. 

They counselled that he should be thdr lord 

At the city of Antioch. 

There was he held as protector. 5760 

He conquered it like a valiant lord; 

Then he gave it to the Normans ; 

And the other good cities. 

As the duke devised. 

Were divided and given, 5765 

The lands and the countries. 

Duke Godfrey by his award. 

Was made king in Jerusalem. 

Because he (Robert) did not wish to tarry there, 

He left it to him. He made him his heir thereof. 5770 

Then he returned by Conversana. 

He took with him the duke's daughter, Sibilla ; 

To Normandy with her he came. 

A son he had, he kept her long. 

Now I will speak of the king, his brother, 5775 
He had the name of William, as his father had. 
He was much praised. 
The English, the Normans crowned him. 
While the duke was conquering 

They made him king in England, 5780 

And he held it and reigned well 
Normans, English he ruled hard. 
All the land he brought to peace. 

5755. Curbarant or Kerboga, general of the Sultan of Penda, was defeated 
before Antioch by the Christians and slain by duke Robert on June 28, 
1098. Hen. Hunt., 227. W. Malms., Bk. iv., § 364. 

5767. Gk)dfrey de Bouillon was elected king of Jerusalem 1099. 

5772. Sbilla, Robert's wife, was the daughter of William de Conyersano. 
He married her on his return from the East in Apulia. W. Malms., 
Gesta Regum, iv., c. 2. 


Then h^ crossed the sea; he went to S6ez 

With a right great host which he had gathered 6786 

At Alen9on he crossed the Sarthe. 

He came into Maine, and besieged Le Mans. 

He tarried till he took the city. 

Then he left some of his household there. 

And went into England. 6790 

The people of Anjou and Maine, 

By the command of Geoffrey Martel, 

Came to Le Mans, and besieged it 

On all sides round they sat down, 

And much they threatened those within, 5795 

And said it was bad for them that they had come 


But none the less a messenger 
Went full fast to tell the king. 

He found him at Brockenhurst, 5800 

At the head of the New Forest, 
Where he sat at his dinner. 
When he saw the king rise from his meat, 
He came before him, he saluted him. 
The king asked him, "How goes it? 5805 

"How fare my knights 
** Whom I left in Le Mans the other day V 
"Sir," said he," "they are besieged, 
" The siege extends as far as the bridge. 
" On all sides of the city 

" Are the Angevins quartered. 5810 

" More than a thousand tents are spread. 

5784. King William went to Normandy in Febmarj 1091, AS. Chr., bat 
this refers to his second jonrney thither in November 1097. 

5788. William took Le Mans in August 1098. 

5792. Geoffrey Martel was the son of Fnlk IV., smmamed Le Bechin, 
count of Anjou, 1060-1 109, and Hermengarde, daughter of Archambaud 
IV., lord of Bourbon. Geoffrey was killed at the siege of the castle of 

Lande in 1106. 
5800. This is narrated by William of Malmesbury. Gesta Regum, iy., 1. 



Never wan .soeb pride Mcn. 

Each daj they set op gallows 
'^ Whereon io buig knigfats 

'^ And Holdi^iv, aad townjaoAeiL 5815 

'' Take ihia letl^. Sir king." 
The king took it, broke it open at onoe. 
He gave the letter to Bannlf FlamhanL 
All tiiat the measenger had said 

The knights smt in their letto*; 5820 

That he should send sooeonr to the dty 
For each day the folk increased. 

The king wh^i he heard it, was sore grieved. 
On a hone he straightway leapt; 
To Southampton he went ; 5825 

He sent for all his soldiers; 
He ordered them to come after him. 
To make no stay till they came to him. 
And he with a privy company. 

Came to the sea, and passed it. 5830 

Against the wind he passed the sea. 
The steersman asked him 
If he would ^o with a oootrary wind 
And endanger himself on the sea. 
"Brother," said he, "hold your peace, 5835 

'*Tou never saw a king drowned. 
'' Nor shall I be now the first. 
^ Set your ships afloat." 
So far have they sailed and steered 
That they arrived at Barfleur. 5840 

He had in his household retinue 
A thousand and seven hundred at that time. 
All were rich knights. 
Know that the king held them dear, 
The knights whom he retained. 5845 

In short space he did good to them. 
Rich they were and well equipped, 
Among them was no poverty. 


But richly came the king, 

Like a wise and courteous man. 5850 

The soldiers whom he had summoned, 

Of them there were more than enough. 

Three thousand had the king's writ. 

He kept them, I know not why. 

For he had no war, 5855 

Nor did he fear any man. 

But for his great nobility 

He had joined such folk to him. 

What shall I say of his barons ? 

What a man was earl Hugh ! 5860 

The emperor of Lombardy 

Did not lead such a company. 

As he did of his private retinue. 

Never was his house shut 

To gentleman or freeman. * 5865 

Water in pool or pond 

Was [not] easier to draw 

Than was his drink and food. 

Always he had riches in plenty. 

Never did he give so much one day 5870 

That on the morrow he remembered it, 

And did not part with as much again. 

Earl of Chester he was called. 

With much folk he went to the king. 

Robert, the earl of Mellent, 5875 

Went to the king with much folk. 

Earl Bobert, he of Belesme, 

5860. Hngh Lnpns of Ayranchef, son of the sister of William I., created 
earl of Chester 1070. 

5875. Robert de Mellent was son of Roger de Beaumont, founder of the 
abbey of Fr^aux in Normandj. His power and influence both in Eng- 
land and Normandy are mentioned by William of Malmesbury, 
Gesta Regum, v., 407, and Henry of Huntingdon in the Epistola de 
Contemptu Mundi. 

5877. Robert de Belesme, son of Roger de Montgomery, earl of Chichester, 
Arundel, and Shrewsbury. Dugdale, I. 28. Gaimar says nothing of his 

\^A rxz K^n^'.^cr ^.^ m. ws^sjsbl 

Ka/L % "icLcnHamfi lan^jot as hia will* 

Ia fxi^iaiu\ TJt had zhz» tsyaaxA. 

Tori fi F^>rjdiiw wm Hk eaZiirf, 5«0 

.V> wM !i^ <^ '•JL l ^etu iumiL 

HU wati Ar2«»isaa and Seex 

In S/von b( had mamj ^tnebi. ^^^ 

He wm ear! of ax eoonszeaw 

H^ waa the bs^ knight 

Thai men knew, to war. 

Hi!; cacoe to Li^ lord the king. 

A thf/^^aokd kni^ta he led with him. oSdO 

And Ho^ de If oncameri 

Came to the king likewise^ 

Earl Boger was their brother. 

He had the smname of Poitevin. 

Earl Emnlf was the firarth brother. 5895 

In penKm he was worth an empercM-. 

Th^ four were of Normandy. 

To the king there came to give aid 

Walter Giffard and the eail of Eo. 

Their knights were no wise few. 5900 

Earl William, he of Evreox, 

Ue and Eustace of Dreox, 

Came to the king with many men. 

cradty and other viees of which Henry of Himtiiigdon and Orderic 

5883. SeManeii may be an error for Sonnou, a dutrict between Boche 

Mabille and Beletme. 
5888. ArgentoQ. Dngdale, i. 29. 
689 !• Robert de Bellesme's younger brother, who held the earldom before 

8894. Ro called becaose he married a Poitevin lady. W. Malmes., y. 
6899. Walter Giffard was created earl of Buckingham by William I. 

William count of Eu deserted Robert duke of Normandy for his brother 

William in 1094. Sim. Donelm., ii., 323. 
6901 • Bon of William count of Erreux. 


At Barfleur they waited for his host 

And William of Mortein 5905 

Waited for the king, who was far off. 

He and Botro of Mortaigne, 

These two earls had a right great company. 

From beyond sea such folk came 
That whoever undertook to name them, 6910 

Unless they were first written down, 
Never would they be numbered. 
All the folk were moved. 
This was seen this year, 

And all came willingly 5915 

To serve the king, who was waiting for the host. 
But when the Angevins knew it. 
And the people of Maine, one morning early 
They went off; they did a very wise thing. 
It was not good to remain, 5920 

And if the king had pursued them 
Doubtless he would have taken the Angevins. 
Never was king so well loved, 
Nor so honoured by his folk. 

The king, when he heard that they had gone, 5925 
Went to Kouen by the great bridge. 
The earl of Maine was there in prison. 
He was willing to give a great ransom. 
But he said that if he had known 
That they would have taken him, 5930 

He would have borne himself otherwise; 
The king should never have taken Le Mans. 

5905. William count of Mortaigne. 

5928. Elias de la Fleche. AS. Chr. 1099. There is an acconnt of hiB 

dealings with William Bnftis in Beaugendre's Life of Hildebert, Migne's 

Patrologis Gnrsos, vol. 171, p. 66. 
5980. '' Fortuita," inqnit, <' me cepisti ; Bed si possem evadere, dot! qnid 

facerem.'' W. Malmes., iy.> 820, 


Wben this was told before the king, 
He had him brought before him. 
With all good humour he asked him 5935 

If he had thus boasted. 
He replied, "Sir, I said it. 
*' Much am I loved in this country. 
'' There is not under heaven so strong a king, 
" That if he came with force against me, 5940 

'^ He would not lose, if I knew it, 
" So that I had assembled my people.*' 
The king, when he heard it, began to laugh. 
In good humour, not in anger, 

He bade him go away, 5945 

Take Le Mans and he [the king] would fight for it 
And he was glad, and went away. 
All his castles the king gave back 
To him, in good will. 

And even Le Mans, the strong city. 5950 

And [the eai'l] sent for his barons, 
He wished to stir up strife. 
But his barons counselled him 
To give up the city to the king, 
And the castles of his country, 5955 

And that he should be his liegeman for ever. 
Earl Elias did this. 
Became his man, did not refuse. 
And if he had not done this 

There would have been a bitter dispute between 
them. 5960 

The king would have taken him by foi'ce. 
And slain him by a right ill death. 
The king then had Normandy, 
And all Maine in his power. 

5963. Mr. Sterenioii translates this line ** the king seised him by force 
'* and put him to a shameful death," but Helias did not die till 1110. 
AS. Chr. 


Through all France the bardns 5965 

Feared him as a lion. 

As far as Poictiers there remained no man 

Whom he did not make bow to him. 

By his great nobleness. 

All his neighbours were subject to him. 5970 

And if he could have reigned longer 

He would have gone to Rome to claim 

The ancient right of that country, 

Which Brennus and Belinus had. 

The king, when all was at peace, 5975 

Went straight to the sea. 
To England he returned. 
At Westminster he held his feast. 
In his new hall 

He held a rich and fair feast. 5980 

Many kings, earls and dukes were there. 
Three hundred ushers he had at the door. 
Each one wore vair or gris. 
Or rich doth from foreign lands. 
These conducted the barons 5985 

Up the steps, instead of grooms. 
With the wands which they held in their hands 
They made way for the barons 
That no groom approached them, 
Unless one of them ordered. 5990 

Likewise all came by them. 
Who brought the dishes 
From the kitchen and the offices. 
And the drink and the meat. 

These ushers conducted them 5995 

On account of the plate w;hich they carried. 

5978. William kept WhitBuntide in Westminster Hall both in 1099 and 
1100, the former being the first time he held his court there. AS. 
Chr. 1099,1100. 


That no greedy person might seize it, 

Nor spoil nor break it. 

LibertJ fee had these ushers, 

As belonged to their office. 6000 

Of great honour were they possessed. 

At the court they were well served ; 

Each had his livery, 

As he ought to have at court. 

The kmg, among a marvellous company of barons, 
Heard mass in his house. [6005 

The kings of Wales were there, 
Who ought to bear the swords, 
And they wished much to claim 
That this was their right office. 6010 

But the Normans would not suffer it. 
Four earls went before; * 
Each held a sword. 
Each served as a noble porter. 

Earl Hugh was so proud 6015 

That he deigned to carry nothing. 
For he said he was not a servant. 
The king laughed at it, he was so merry. 
He asked him to take his golden wand. 
And rule equally with him. 6020 

The earl replied : — " I will take it, 
" As lord I will return it to you, 
" I will bear it as long as you will, 
" For the great weight which you bear 
" Of the mantle, the sceptre, and the crown, 6026 
" Of which you are king and owner. 
'' And for the honour which you have done me, 
" I put myself in fealty to you. 
" Ever will I be faithful to you, 
" But never will I compare myself to you 6030 

'' By any equality that may be. 

5997. Bead e9chet(ut, which 10 a form of acheter. 


'' You are chosen and blessed as king, 

" And I am yonrs, and ought to be, 

" To serve you, I grant it well." 

A while he held the king's wand, 6035 

In great love, in simple manner. 

At the gospel, he gave it back to him. 

The king was much pleased at these words. 

And to his heirs it should be a right. 

And to all the earls of Chester, 6040 

That in such office they should serve 

To help bear the wand. 

The king gave him North Wales. 

He granted it to him to advance his honour. 

And full oft jested 6046 

The king of the earl, to his familiars, 

Of the sword which he threw down, 

And to what good it turned to him. 

And ever were turned to good 

The deeds of the king and his bounty ; 6050 

And ever will be talked of 

The baronage which he gathered. 

And of the earl likewise. 

Ever will folk talk. 

Of them should men example take 6055 

Of risiDg to-day, of falling to-morrow. 

He who in his life does good. 

Ever are his children more honoured. 

Likewise him who rises easily, 

With the finger men point at his deeds, 6060 

And all say, ''See thete, 

" He who will never last. 

« May evil ruin seize him. 

'' He has risen too high ; he may well fall.'* 

He is of Nero's lineage, 6065 

6059. aire, eire it perhaps ftom «rfcr= marcher, agir. (Barguy, iii., 601.) 
6062. Or " will never give." 


And of Judas, tlie foul felon, 

And of Herody and of Cain, 

Who does not think that an end will come. 

What he can snatch, 

He takes his pleasure in keeping. GOTO 

Ever he thinks he wants money. 

He puts his money to usury. 

He makes usury out of a single penny. 

In a short time will increase 

A single penny into many marks of silver. 6075 

Who thus rises often falls. 

Let us leave this, and speak of the king. 
He held his feast like a baron. 
But I have no leisure to relate all 
The great riches he displayed; 6080 

Nor the great gifts he gave. 
Many a nobleman he knighted there. 
With Giffard the Poitevin alone, 
Who, in the illegitimate line, was his kinsman. 
He knighted thirty youths. 6085 

He (Giffard) had cut their locks, 
All had their hair cut. 
For their lord was wroth 
Because he tarried there a month 
Before the king gave them arms. 6090 

He had himself and his men shorn. 
With shorn locks they went to court. 
These were the first youths 
Who had their locks cut. 
The king laughed and mocked at it. 6095 

6084. Stevenson tranBlatee Barbastre, " the man with the beard." I am 
inclined to think it must hare aomethiog to do with bastre, illegitimate, 
referring to Walter GifBeurd's affinity with William. Giffard was son 
of Osbem de Bolebec and Avelina, sister of Gannora, mistress, after- 
wards wife, of Richard I., duke of Normandy. Gunnora was William 
Kufus' great-great-grandmother. Wm. of Jumieges, lib. VIII., cap. 37. 


He took it as a courtesy. 

And when the king took it weU^ 

Some of his youths who had come there 

Were shorn abo. 

Then was in court a cropping. 6100 

More than three hundred had their hair cropped^ 

Never did they leave it oflf after in court. 

The second month that Giffard came 

The king held this feast. 

So richly he knighted them 6105 

That for ever it will he spoken of. 

For these and others he did so much 

That all London shone. 

What shall I say of this feast? 

So rich it was, it could not be more so. 6110 

When the king had held his court 
The news arrived 
That Malcolm was slain, 
The king, who was his enemy. 

Bobert de Munbrai had killed 6115 

This king, whether it was right or wrong. 
At Alnwick was the battle. 
Three thousand men in all by tale 
Were slain there with Malcolm ; 
And on both sides many a good baron. 6120 

It was Geoffrey de Gulevent, 
He and Morel, his kinsman. 
Who took the life of Malcolm. 
When the news was heard 

The king sent for the earl 6126 

To come to court, he will hear his words. 

6113. AB.Chr. 1098. 

0115. Bobert de Mowbray was earl of Northumberland 1090-1095. 

6121. Morel of Bamborough, the earl's steward and kinsman (Ord. Vit. 
Le Pre?ost's Ed. III. 897), and Malcolm's gossip is mentioned in the 
AS. Chr. and elsewhere, but not Geoffrey de Gulevent. 

U 51689. N 


And according to what he would hear, 

He would be well rewarded for doing right. 

The earl, he of Mowbray, Robert, 
Was accused by a traitor. 6130 

His man he was, he had brought him up. 
He had told this to the king. 
This had told the wicked felon. 
The earl was arraigned of the treason. 
One of these traitors was he 6135 

Who wished to kill the king, 
With the same treason 
Which the barons proposed, 
For which Waltheof was put to death.- 
Black William of Eu broke his trust. 0140 

Qefirai Baignard challenged him for it. 
He vanquished William of Eu. 
There were so many appellants 
That the earl of Northumberland 
Would not go thither at this time. 6145 

At a castle on the sea, 
Which was called Bamborough, 
There he went in. 

The king with his host went thither. 
The new castle then he built. 6150 

Then he took Morpeth, a strong castle, 
Which stood, on a hill. 
Above Wansbeck it stood. 
William de Morlei held it. 

And when he [the king] had taken this castle 6155 
He advanced into the country. 
At Bamborough upon the sea 

6129. According to the AS. Chr. king William's displeasure with the 
earl of Northumberland was owing to his refusal to come to court at 
Easter and Whitsuntide 1095. Florence, II. 88, and Simeon of Durham, 
II. 225, speak of the conspiracy between him and William count of £u. 

6141. AS. Chr. 1096, after the capture of Robert Mowbray. 


He made all his host stay. 

Robert de Moubray was there, 

He whom the king wished to take. 6160 

The king tarried there a great while. 

And many assaults he endured there. 

But the castle had scant victuals. 

When the earl saw that they failed, 

Towards the sea by the postern 6165 

He came to the ship, which one man steered. 

In he entered with few folk. 

He put to sea^ he had a right good wind. 

To Tynemouth he went. 

Then he thought he had quite escaped. 6170 

But early in the morning it was told the king. 

Who turned the matter quite otherwise. 

He contrived so that he took him. 

He did not put him to death nor kill him, 

But he was in prison for twenty years. 6175 

In the prison he ended^ dying. 

A good man he became before he died. 

He never saw again anything that he had. 

Now had the king put all at peace, 
Before this host repaired 6180 

Towards the kingdom of Scotland. 
King Eadgar was one of his friends. 
From him he had received his kingdom, 
In free service, without tribute. 
And the king granted him freely, 6185 

6164. This account omits the attempt to take the New Castle. 

6172. The king does not appear to have been at Bamborough in person 
at the earl's capture. The words of the AS. Chr. " Da |>a se cyng 
'< ongean com " may have led Gaimar to suppose the king returned to 
Northumberland, but it possibly means only returned from his Welsh - 

6182. Eadgar was son of the late king Malcolm and Margaret, and was 
set upon the throne of Scotland by Eadgar JEtheling, with the support 
of king William. AS. Chr. 1097. 

N 2 


That when he came towards his court, 

He should have sixty shillings a day; 

That he might be served with great honour^ 

Besides presents and other gifts. 

This was his proper livery, 6190 

From the time he left his kingdom 

Till he retmned again. 

So much he had in his visits 

In proof that the king was his lord. 

Everywhere went his dominion, 6195 

In England and in Normandy; 

And his heirs have likewise 

This heritage in possession. 

So had they all their time. 

Never was king more feared 6200 

Than was this king by his neighbours. 

All he made obedient to him. 

King and duke was this lord, 

Who led this joyous life. 

Also he was duke of Normandy, 6205 

Of which earl Bobert had none. 

He had gone to Jerusalem. 

He had given it to the king to hold. 

From that time he held it while he lived. 

Henry his brother ruled it 6210 

BxTT when he had reigned some time, 
And well established peace, 
And held such justice and right, 
That no one lost anything by wrong, 
And no free man was put out 6215 

Or injured in his kingdom ; 
For by his just rule 
He had made commandment 
That those who held by free tenure. 
If they refused their house 6220 

To any free man bom, 
They should be quite disinherited. 


And meat and lodging. 

Should be open to free men. 

AU the free men who had need 6225 

Could procure this. 

On the other hand he had set 

His justices about his land, 

His foresters in his forests^ 

That never dog nor archer should enter there. 6280 

And if an archer entered there^ 

If he was taken, he was evil entreated. 

And the dogs lost their feet, 

Never were any spared. 

To keep the forests for the king 6235 

They expeditated them. 

Then you might see in the thickets 

Harts, roebucks, bucks, and wild boars. 

Hares, foxes, and other deer 

Were in such plenty in these wastes 6240 

That no man alone could count the thousands 

For all the gold that is in Rome. 

The king loved these sports much. 

He never tired night or day, 

All day he was joyous and made merry. 6245 

A red beard he had and &ir hair. 

Therefore I tell and say wherefore 

He had the surname of the Red King. 

This noble king, with great splendour, 
Held his kingdom in honour. 6250 

In the thirteenth year that he reigned thus 
Then it befell, as it pleased God, 
The king went to hunt 
Towards Brockenhurst, to shoot 
This is in the New Forest, 6255 

A place which is named Brockenhurst. 

6286. There ig no doubt what etpeleter means here, though I have not met 
this form of the word before. 


Privately he went. 

Walter Tirel he took with him. 

Walter was a rich man. 

In France he was a lord of the country. 6200 

Poix was his, a strong castle. 

He had enough at his pleasure; 

He had come to serve the king, 

To get gifts and wages. 

With great kindness he was received. 6265 

Much was he cherished by the king. 

Because he was a foreigner^ 

The noble king cherished him. 

Together the two went talking, 

Diverting themselves with many things, 6270 

Until Walter began to jest, 

And craftily to talk to the king. 

He asked him, laughing. 

Why he tarried so long. 

" King, since you are ho powerful, 6275 

** Why do you not increase your worth ? 

*' Already you have no neighbour near 

" Who against you dares raise his hand. 

" For if you choose to go against him, 

" You could lead all the others. 6280 

" All are your men^ subject to you, 

" Bretons, men of Maine and Anjou, 

" And the Flemings hold of you. 

" The men of Burgundy have you for king, 

'' And Eustace, he of Boulogne, 6285 

" You can well lead at your need. 

'' Alan the Black of Brittany, 

** You can well lead in your company. 

'* You have so many allies and so much folk, 

<' I marvel much that you wait so long 6290 

6287. AlanuB Niger was brother of the preyioos Alan accordiug to the 
pedigree in Faustina, B. yii., f. 72. See v. 5322, 


'' Before you make war somewhere, 

" And. conquer beyond your land/' 

The king replied briefly: 

^' As far as the mountains I will lead my men, 

'* Then 1 wiU go to the west, 6295 

*' At Poictiers I will hold my feast. 

" At this Christmas which is coming, 

" If I live so long, my seat shall be there." 

" That is a great thing," said Walter, 

" To go to the mountains, then return 6300 

** And hold the feast at Poictiers. 

" An ill death may they die, 

" The Burgundians and the French, 

*' If they are ever subject to the English." 

The king had aaid it in joke, 6305 

And he (Tirel) was false, and devised many things. 

In his heart he kept the felony. 

He thought within himself of a plot. 

If he could ever see it, 

The end should be quite otherwise. 6310 

In the'Torest was the king, 
In the thicket, near a marsh. 
He wanted to shoot at a stag 
Which he saw pass in a herd. 

Near a tree he dismounted. 6315 

He bent his bow himself. 
On all sides the barons dismounted. 
The others surrounded the place. 
Walter Tirel dismounted 

Very near the king, close to an elder, 6320 

Against an aspen he leaned. 
As the herd passed. 

And the great hart came in the midst. 

He drew the bow which he held in his hand. Death of 

A barbed arrow 6325 ^^^^ 

6320. In the text the lines are wrongly numbered from here. 


He shot, by an evil fate. 

Now it befel that he missed the hart, 

And to the heart he struck the king. 

An arrow went to his heart. 

But we know not who drew the bow; 6330 

But this said the other archers, 

That it came fipom Walter's bow. 

It appeared so, for he fled straightway. 

He escaped, the king fell. 

Four times he cried out. 6335 

He asked for the sacrament^ 

But there was no one to give it him. 

Far from any minster was he, in a waste ; 

But yet a hunter 

Took some herbs with all their flower, 6340 

He made the king eat a little ; 

Thus he thought to communicate him. 

He was in God, and ought to be. 

He had taken consecrated bread 

The Sunday before. 6345 

This should be a good warrant for him. 

Then it befel that the king died. 
Of his barons there were three with him 
Who had dismounted with him. 

Two were sons of Eichard, 6350 

Earl Gilbert and Lord Boger. 
They were tried kuights. 
And Gilbert of Laigle was with them. 
They tore their hair, 

And made moan without stint. 6355 

Never was there such grief shown. 
Robert Fitz Hamon came there, 
Bichf gentle and a noble baron, 

6350. Gilbert of Tunbridge, son of Richard FitzGilbert, earl of Clare. Hoger 
is probably a mistake for Bobert, as Bogei was settled in Nonnand j, and 
probably not in England at the time. Dagdale's Baronage, L, 807, 208. 


He made such moan, so much he loved hun, 

And often said :— " Who will kill me ? 6360 

*' Rather would I die than live longer." 

Then he fainted and fell down. 

When he came to himself, he wrung his hands. 

So feeble and weak he became 

That he nearly fell again. 6365 

On all sides he heard great mourning. 

The grooms and the hunters 

Wept and grieved 

Gilbert of Laigle said: 

" Be silent, sii-s, for Jesus Christ. 6370 

" Let be this grief. 

^' It can bring nothing back. 

" Even if for ever we weep thus 

" Never shall we have such a lord. 

" Whoever loved him, let him appear eS'ZS 

" And help me to make a bier." 

Then you might have seen grooms dismounting, 

And huntsmen taking their axes. 

Soon were cut stakes. 

Of which they made the bars. 6380 

Two branches they found cut down ; 

They were light and well dried. 

They were not too thick, but they were long. 

All by measure they prepared them. 

With their belts and baldrics 6385 

They tied tight the bars. 

Then they made a bed upon the bier 

Of fair flowers and fern. 

Two palfreys they brought 

With rich bridles, well saddled. 6390 

On these two they laid the bier. 

It was not heavy, but light. 

— ^-- - - - I ^^^^ 

6S80. Meinel may be a form of meneau, which now meanfi a moUion. 


Then they spread a cloaks 

Which was of new cloth. 

Fitz Hamon unfolded it, 6395 

Robert who loved his lord. 

They lay the king upon the bier, 

Which the palfreys carried. 

He was' buried in a cloak (?) 

In which William de Munfichet 6400 

The day before had been knighted. 

It had only been one day woroj. 

The grey cloak, which he took off. 

Above the bier he spread it. 

Then might you see barons on foot 6405 

Go weeping and sad. 
They would not ride 

Because of their lord whom they held so dear. 
And the grooms went after 

Weeping, and much they bewailed themselves. 6410 
The hunters all together 
Said "Wretched, miserable, 
'' What shall we do ? What will become of us ? 
*' Never shall we have such a lord." 
Till Winchester they did not stop. 6415 

There they placed the king 
Within the minster of St. Swithun. 
There the barons assembled. 
With the clergy of the city, 

And the bishop and the abbot. 6420 

The good bishop Walkelin 
Watched the king till morning ; 
With him monks, clerks, and abbots. 
Well was he served and sung for. 

6899. tiretaine is a species of cloth. Roquefort, Littr^. 
6421. Walkelin had died on January 8, 1098. 


Next day was such a dole 6425 

As never man saw in his life; 
Nor so many masses, nor such service 
Will be done, till God come to judgment, 
For one king alone, as they did for him. 
Quite otherwise they buried him 6430 

Than the barons had done 
Where Walter shot him. 

Let him who does not believe it go to Win- 
There he will hear if this can be true. 

Here will I end about the king. 6435 

(This history caused to be translated 
The gentle lady Custance ; 

Gaimar employed on it^ March and April. 

And all the twelve months, 

Before he had translated about the kings. 6440 

He procured many copies, 

English books and books on grammar, 

Both in French and in Latin^ 

Before he could come to the end. 
^If his lady had not helped him 6445 

' Never by any day could he have finished it. 

She sent to Helmsley 

For the book of Walter Espec. 

Robert, the earl of Gloucester, 

Hsd this history translated 6450 

According to the books of the Welsh 

Which he had, about British kings. 

Walter Espec asked for it. 

Earl Bobert sent it to him. 
: Then Walter Espec lent it 6455 

i To Ralph Fitz Gilbert. 
I Dame Custance borrowed it 
\^ Of her lord, whom she loved much. 


Geoffrey Gaimar wrote this book. 

He translated them, put in deeds 6460 

Which the Welsh had left out. 

For he had already obtained. 

Whether right or wrong. 

The good book of Oxford, 

Which belonged to Walter the archdeacon. 6465 

Thus he corrected his book well. 

And from the history of Winchester 

Was corrected this history, 

[And] from an English book of Washingborough, 

Wherein he found written of the kings, 6470 

And of all the emperors. 

Who were lords of Bome, 

And had tribute of England ; 

Of the kings who held of them, 

Of their lives, and of their treaties, 6475 

Of their adventures, and of their deeds. 

How each held the land; 

Who loved peace and who war. 

Of all the most can be found here 

By him who will look in this book. 6480 

And he who does not believe what I say 

Let him ask Nicholas de Trailli. 

Now, says Gaimar, if he had warrant. 
He would go on to teU of king Henry ; 
Of whom, if he chose to speak a little, 6485 

And translate about his life. 
He could tell a thousand things of him. 
Which Davit never wrote. 
Nor the queen of Louvain 
Never held the book of it in her hand 6490 

6489. Adelaide of Lonyain married Henry I., 1121, and Wm. de Albini, 
earl of ArandeL She died 1151. (Wright, p. 227.) 


She caused a great book to be made of it^ 

The first verse noted for singing. 

Well spoke Davit and well he composed, 

And well he arranged the music. 

Dame Custance had a copy of it. 6495 

She often read it in her chamber. 

And for the copy she gave 

A mark of silver burnt and weighed. 

In many places is narrated 

In the book, what was done. 6500 

But of the feasts which the king held, 

Of the woods, of the jokes, 

Of the gallantry, and of the love 

Which the best king showed, 
; Who ever was or ever will be, 6505 

V And he was a Christian and blessed. 

Davit's writing says little. 

Now, says Gaimar, he passes it over. 

But if he would take more trouble 

He could compose verses about the fairest deeds ; 6510 

That is about love and gallantry. 

And woodland sports and jokes, 

And of feasts and splendour. 

Of largesses and riches, 

And of the barons whom he led, 6515 

Of the great gifts he gave : 

Of this a man might well sing, 

Omitting and passing over nothing. 

Now tell Davit, if it please him, 
To say on, not to leave offi 6520 

For if he will go on writing 
He may much amend his book. 
And if he will not listen to this, 
I will go for him, I will have him taken ; 
He shall never come out of my prison 6525 

Till the song is finished. 



Now we have peace and live merrily. 

Formerly Qairaar spoke of Troy, 

He began there where Jason 

Went to fetch the Fleeoe. 6530 

Thus he finishes right here. 

May Qod bless us. Amen. 


The epilogue is MSS. D., aod L. is as follows: — 

Here will I now finish my history. 

Of King Henry I will give no account, 

For Adela, the good queeu, 

To whom God give grace divine, 

Has dealt thereof in a great book. 5 

Therefore mine finishes thus. 

The History of the English endfl here. 

May Jesus Christ bless all those 

Who give ear thereto 

And repeat it to others. 10 

Those who know it not, nor have heard it. 

The Ood of Heaven bless them alL 

For men ought to study such a thing 

Where there is nothing to blame, 

Neither villainies nor falsehoods. 15 

This book is not a fable nor a dream. 

But it is drawn out of the true history 

Of the ancient kings, and their deeds, 

Who governed England, 

Some in peace and some in war. 20 

Thus it happened, it could no other be. 

May God the King of Heaven bless you. 

When Hengist and the Saxons 
Had wrought their treachery, 

And had seized the cities, 25 

The castles and the strongholds. 
And had driven out the Britons, 
They quartered themselves in their land. 


They divided the land in seven, 

And seven kings settled there. 30 

To the kingdoms they gave names, 

To each according to their will. 

Kent they called the first 

This Hengist held in his hand. 

The country was very fertile. 36 

There were two cities of note, 

Canterbury, the archbishopric, 

And Rochester, the bishopric. 

The second they called Sussex. 
At Chichester was the king's seat. 40 

Wessex they called the third. 
Therein were many cities. 
Wilton was the chief. 
The king held it in demesne, 

Where is now a great abbey. 45 

Nuns have it in their keeping. 
And the city of Winchester, 
Where now is a rich bishopric, 
And the bishopric of Salisbury, 

With the city of Amesbury. 60 

The fourth is called Essex, 
Which did not last long. 
For it was poor beyond measure. 
Therefore it lasted but a short time. 
East Anglia is the fifth named, 55 

Made out of two. countries. 
Therein is Norfolk, 
And the land of Suffolk. 
As learned folk tell us, 

The sixth was made by the Mercians, 60 

Many cities are there. 
Towns, castles, and rich boroughs. 
This realm was rich, . 
And many cities were therein. 


For Dorchester belonged to it, 65 

And Lincoln, and Leicester. 

The seventh was full rich, 
For York belonged thereto, 
And all as far as Caithness. 

More had this [king] alone than the six kings. 70 
He had under him Northumberland, 
And the land of Cumberland, 
And the earldom of Lothian. 
And this king was king of Scotland. 
Li the end a powerful king, 75 

Who was right valiant in arms. 
By force conquered the six kings. 
To his use he took their honours. 
He was king of Wessex. 

He gave new laws to the land. 80 

By his prowess he conquered them all, 
And made them his subjects. 
As soon as he held the kiugdom, 
He divided it into thirty-five. 

To each he gave its name. 85 

In English he called them shires ; 
But we who speak Eomance, 
Name them in another fashion. 
What is named shire in English, 
Is named ccmnty in French. 90 

I will teU them all by name. 
For I know how to name them all. 
Kent is the first and chief. 
There is the archbishopric 

In the city Dorobellum, 95 

Which is called Canterburv. 
And there is a bishopric 
In the city of Eochester. 
The second county is called Sussex; 
It is adorned with a bishopric. 100 

Chichester is the capital of the county. 

U 51689. o 


There is the bishop's see. 

The third county is Surrey, 

And the fourth ELampshire. 

There is a bishopric 105 

Within the city of Winchester. 

The fifth they call Berkshire, 

And the sixth Wiltshire, 

Wherein is a bishopric. 

At Salisbury is the see. 110 

The seventh is Dorset. 

And the eighth Somerset. 

In Bath is the bishopric, 

Of which the see was then at Wells. 

This Bath had erst another name, 115 

As the Saxons say, 

Who first settled there ; 

Achemannestrate they called it. 

Devonshire the ninth is named. 

It is a land very rich and good. 120 

There is a rich bishopric. 

At Exeter is the see. 

The tenth is Cornwall. 

The men are valiant in battle. 

Corineus settled it; 125 

He who drove out the giants. 

They call the eleventh Essex, 

And the twelfth Middlesex. 

The bishopric is at London, 

Which is an ancient city. 130 

Suffolk is the thirteenth, 

Norfolk the fourteenth. 

Now the bishopric is in Norwich. 

Then the see was at Thetford. 

The county of Cambridge 135 

Is counted the fifteenth. 

The bishopric is at Ely. 

In a marsh stands the city. 


Those who dwell there, in great plenty, 
Have oftentimes good fish, 140 

And fowl and venison. 
Within the marsh they take. 
The sixteenth is far renowned. 
Lincoln is that county. 

Very rich is the bishopric. 145 

Eight counties belong to it. 
Lincoln and Northampton, 
Hertford and Huntingdon, 
Leicester and Bedford, 

Buckingham and Oxford. 150 

Right rich is the bishopric. 
Two waters encompass it, 
Humber they call the lesser, 
Thames the greater is named. 

The twenty-foui-th is Gloucester. 155 

The twenty-fifth is Worcester. 
The bishopric of Worcester 
Is much honoured in this country. 
The twenty-sixth is Hereford, 

Which is the stronger for the bishopric. 160 

For they are much feared 
Who dwell within the city. 
The twenty-seventh Shropshire. 
The twenty-eighth Cheshire. 

Within the city of Chester 165 

There is a fair bishopric. 
Warwick is the twenty-ninth. 
And Stamford the thirtieth, which is near. 
Derby the thirty-first, 

With the countiy all around. 170 

The county of Nottingham 
Is counted the thirty-second. 
York is the thirty-third. 
It is the capital, towards the North. 
It is a city of antiquity. 176 

o 2 


There is the archbishopric. 
It is the best in Engkiid 
Much honour belongs to it. 
The length is from Totness 

As far as Caithness, 180 

As perfectly describes it to us 
Belinus who had it measured. 
The county of Northumberland 
Is counted for the thirty-fourth. 
And there are all situated 185 

The bishopric of Durham, 
The land of Cumberland, 
With all Westmoreland. 
In the last they have appointed 
Carlisle. There newly a bishopric. 190 

Thus as I have shown you. 
In England there are reckoned 
Only two archbishoprics, 
And fifteen bishoprics. 

There are many cities 195 

Where there is no bishopric, 
As Oxford, as Leicester, 
As Warwick, as Gloucester 
I could name many. 
But I will not take more trouble. 200 

But I will speak of the Welsh. 
I will tell of the people there. 
In Wales there are many cities, 
Which were highly renowned. 

As Oaerwent and Oaerleon, 205 

And the city of Snowdon. 
And there are five bishoprics, 
And a master archbishopric. 

190. Ilia regio in qua est novus episcopatus Carluil. (Hen. Hnnt., 10.) 
The bishopric of Carlisle was founded in 1133. (Hen. Hunt., 253.) 


Of these there are none left 

But three, of which I will tell .you the sees. 210 

One is at St David's, 

Which before was at Caerleon. 

This was once the archbishopric, 

Now it is a poor bishopric. 

The other is settled at Bangor. 215 

Glamorgan is the third. 

They are not in any city, 

In consequence of war they are deserted. 

But still we know well 

That the bishop has the pallium 220 

Of St. David, as he claimed it. 

We know well he went to Rome. 

Now there is no city lefb, 

For all the country is destroyed, 

First by the Saxons, 225 

Then by the war of the Britons ; 

On the other side^ since the French 

Have defeated the English 

And conquered the land 

By fire, by famine^ and by war, 230 

They have passed the water of Severn, 

And waged war on the Welsh, 

And spied out the land. 

They conquered much of the land, 

And set very grievous laws on it; 235 

For they drove out the Welsh, 

They settled in the land; 

They built many castles there. 

Which are right good and &ir. 

But natheless often times 240 

Well have the Welsh avenged themselves. 

Many of our French have they slain. 

Some of our castles they have taken ; 

216. That is, Llandaff. 





Openly they go about saying, 

Fiercely they threaten us, 245 

That in the end they will have all; 

By means of Arthur they will win it back; 

And this land all together 

They will take from the Latin folk, 

They will give back its name to the land, 250 

They will call it Britain again. 

Now we will hold our peace about the Welsh, 
And speak of the roads 
Which were made in this country. 
King Belinus had them made. 255 

The first goes from the east 
Until it comes to the west. 
It crosses the country. 
Ikenild the road is called. 

The second, according to the Saxons, 260 

Ermingestreet still we call it 
This road is well known. 
From the north it goes straight to the south. 
The third is far famed. 

Watlingstreet it is called. 265 

At Dover this road begins. 
Right at Chester it ends. 
It takes the length of the land. 
The fourth is very wearisome. 

This road is called Foss. 270 

It goes through many cities. 
It begins at Totness, 
And goes as far as Caithness. 
Seven hundred leagues is it reckoned. 
This road is far famed. 275 

Belinus who had them made 

274. This length is not mentioned by Henry of Huntingdon. The two 
other MSS. read, ** eight hundred " and ** five hundred." 


Placed them in great freedom. 

Whoever was outlawed 

Should have his peace on these roads. 

We have described to you the conntiew 280 

Of the landj and the bishoprics, 

And the names of the four roads. 

Now thus will we leave it. 

Here ends tlie history of the English. 

277. This refers to the ** pax quam habont quatuor Chiinini/' according to 
the Laws of Edward the Confessor. Ancient Laws, p. 191\ 



The Lay op Haveloc the Dane. 

WiUingly should one hear, 

And repeat, and retain 

The noble deeds of the ancients, 

And their prowess and their good deeds, 

To take examples and to remember, 5 

For free men to redress 

Villainies and misdeeds. 

Such should be the discourse 

By which men ought to be corrected ; 

For many have bad need of it. 10 

Let each one take as for himself, 

The adventure of a great king. 

And of many other barons, 

Of whom I will give you the names. 

Shortly enough I will tell you. l.») 

I will relate you the adventure. 

Haveloc was this king named, 

And Cuaran is he called. 

Therefore, I mean to tell you of him, 

And recal his adventures, 20 

Of which the Bretons made a lay. 

They called it from his name 

Both Haveloc and Cuaran. 

Of his father I will teU first. 

Gunter was his name, he was a Dane. 25 

He held the land, he was king. 

At the time that Arthur reigned, 

He crossed the sea towards Denmark. 

He would make the land submit to him, 

And have tribute of the king. 30 

With king Gunter he fought. 

And with the Danes, and conquered. 

HAVELOa 217 

The king himself was killed^ 

And many others of the country. 

Hodulf slew him by treason, 35 

Who always had a felon heart. 

When Arthur had ended his war 

Hodulf gave him all the land, 

And the homage of his barons. 

Then he departed with his Britons; 40 

Some by constraint, some by fear, 

Most of them served Hodulf. 

Some there were who sought his ruin 

By the advice of Sigar the Stallere, 

Who was a good and rich man, 45 

And well knew how to war. 

He had the horn to keep 

Which no one could sound 

"Unless he were right heir of the lineage, 

Which was over the Danes by inheritance. 60 

Before king Arthur came, 

Or had fought with the Danes, 

Gunter had his castle 

On the sea shore, strong and fair. 

With food it was well supplied. 55 

Within he placed his wife and son. 

To a baron of the country 

He entrusted the care of them. 

Grim was his name, much he trusted him, 

Loyally he had always served him. 60 

Above everything he commended to him 

His son, whom he dearly loved, 

That if ill befel him. 

If he died in battle, 

That he should protect him to his power, 65 

And send him out of the country, 

So that he should neither be taken nor found 

Nor given up to his enemies. 

The child waa^Cotvery big; " - 



He was no more than seven years old. 70 

/All the time he slept i 

A flame issued from him. 
It came out of his mouth, 
Such great heat he had in his body. 
The flame gave out such an odour, 75 

No man ever smelt anything better. 
They held it as a great wonder, 
y^hose of the country who saw it. 
After king Gunter was dead, 

And his barons and his strength, 80 

Hodulf came down and drove away 
All those whom be knew that he loved. 
The queen had great fear, 
And the good men who protected her. 
Lest he should take the castle from them, 85 

And kill the king's son. 
They had no strength to defend themselves. 
They had to take other counsel. 
Qriin had ships prepared. 

And well laden with victuals. 90 

Forth from the country he meant to flee, 
To preserve the right heir from death. 
He would take the queen with him. 
For fear of the felon king 

Who had killed his lord ; 95 

He would soon bring dishonour on her. 
When his ship was equipped. 
He caused his company to enter. 
His knights and his soldiers, 

His own wife and his children. 100 

He put the queen in the ship. 

He carried Haveloc under his cloak. . 

He himself went on board last. 
He entrusted himself to the God of Heaven. 
They weighed anchor from the harbour, 105 

For they had a good wind. 


They went across the sea, 

For they did not know where to go 

Where they could save their lord. 

HI befel them the day, 110 

For they met outlaws 

Who loudly challenged them. 

Eight stoutly they attacked them; 

And the others valiantly defended themselves. 

[They plundered and spoiled the ship, 

And the queen was killed there.] 

But they had little strength, 115 

The outlaws slew them all. 

None escaped, small or great. 

Except Grim, who was known to them. 

His wife ai^d his small children. 

And Haveloc also was saved there. 120 

When these had escaped from them, 

They floated and sailed 

Until they came to a harbour. 

And landed from the ship. 

This was in the North, at Grimsby. 125 

At. the time I tell you of 

There was no man dwelt there, 

Nor was this harbour frequented. 

He^ set up the first house there. 

From him it was called Grimsby. 130 

When Grim first arrived, 

l&e cut his ship in two halves. 

The ends he set upright ; 

Within he lodged. 

He went to fish as he was wont. 135 

Salt he sold and bought 

Till he was well known there. 

And well acquainted with the peasants. 

Many joined themselves to him. 

By the haven they dwelt; 140 

Because of his name, which they had heard, 



They called the place Grimsby, 
The good man reared his lord, 
And his wife served him* 

They all took him for his child, 145 

For nothing elae they knew. 
Grim had made him change his name, 
So that therefore no one knew him. 
The child grew and improved. 

He waxed strong in body and limbs. 150 

(Before he had much age 
There was no bearded man found 
Who would wrestle with him 
But the lad would overthrow him. 
He was very strong and brave, . 155 

[And enterprising and wrathful. 
Marvellously rejoiced at him 
Grim, the good man, who reared him. 
But for this his heart was grieved 
That he had not brought him up amongst such 

people 160 

Where he could sometimes hear 
Instruction and learn sense. 
For he thought in his heart 
That yet he should have his inheritance. 
Grim called him one day to himself. 16»> 

" Fair son," said he, "hearken to me. 
" Here we live very quietly, 
" With fishers, with poor folk, 
" Who keep themselves by fishing. 
" You are not meet for this trade, 170 

'^ Here you can learn no good, 

You will never gain anything. 

Go, fair son, into England, 
'' To learn wisdom and seek gain. 

Take your brothers with you. 175 

In the court of a great king 

Place yourself, fair son, under the servants. 



*' You are strong, well grown, and tall, 

" So you can carry great burdens. 

" Make yourself loved by all men, 180 

" Then give up service 

" When you can find an opportunity; 

" And God grant that you succeed, 

" So that you may gain something there." 

When the good man had thus advised him, 185 

And weU supplied him with raiment. 

He sent him away reluctantly. 

The two lads he took with him. 

AU three thought they were brothers. 

As their fiEtther had told them. 190 

So long they held the straight road 

Until they came to Lincoln. 

At this time that I tell you of 
A king who was named Aisi 

Held the land in his rule. 195 

Lincoln and all Lindsey, 
This way towards the North ; 
And Rutland and Stamford, 
Had. this Alsi in his inheritance. 
But he was a Briton by race. 200 

The kingdom towards Surrey (?) - 

Another king governed, 
Ekenbright was this king's name. 
Many a noble baron he had. 

He had Alsi's sister [to wife], 205 

(They were companions and friends), 
Orewen, a worthy lady. 
But between them they had no child. 
Except one fair daughter. 

Argentine was the maiden's name. 210 

King Ekenbright was ill. 
And much troubled by a sore disease. 
Well he knew he could not be healed. 
He caused Alsi to come to him. 




He intrusted to him his daughter, 215 

And delivered to him all his land. 
Cv First he made him swear, 

His folk seeing it, and promise 
That he would bring her up loyally, 
And keep her land for her, 220 

Until she was of such age 
That she could bear marriage. 
When the maid should be grown up, 
By the counsel of his tenants. 

He should give her to the strongest man 225 

\Whom he found in the kingdom ; 
That he should deliver to him his cities, 
His castles and his strongholds, 
His niece and his sister in keeping. 
And all the men of the honour. 230 

But the queen fell sick, ^ 

When king Ekenbright died, | 

Speedily she died also. i 
Near her lord she was buried. 

About them it is time to stop here. 235 

I will go on to tell of Haveloc. 

King Alsi, who then reigned, - 

And governed the two kingdoms, I 

Held a fair court, and many folk. 
At Lincoln he often dwelled. 240 

This Haveloc came to his court, 
And as a cook the king retained him, 

Because he saw him strong and tall, ^ 

And saw that he was of right good countenance. 

Wonderful loads could he lift, 245 ^ 

Cut wood, carry water. . 

He took the dishes 
And washed them after meals; 
And whatever he could get. 

Piece of meat or whole loaf 250 

Very willingly he gave it * 



To the' grooms and to tbe squires. 
So free he was and good natured 
That he wished to do pleasure, to all. 
For the liberality that he had 255 

Among them they took him for a fool. 
They made sport of him. 
Cuaran they all called him. 
For thus call the Britons 

A cook in their language. 260 

Often they brought him forth, 
The knights and the soldiers, 
For the strength that was in him. 
When they knew his great strength, 
They made him wrestle before them 265 

With the strongest men they knew, 
And he threw thdm all. 
And if any of them said him ill. 
By sheer strength he tied him up. 
So long he held him and punished him, 270 

Till he had pardoned him all, 
And they were reconciled. 
jThe king greatly marvelled 
At the strength he saw in him. 

Ten of the strongest of his house 275 

Had no power to resist him. 
Twelve men could not lift 
\The burdens that he could carry. 
He was a long time at the court, 
Until there was an assembly, 280 

When the barons came to the court, 
Who held their land of Ekenbright ; 
And now they held of Argentille, 
The child, who was his daughter, 
Who now was grown up and tall, 285 

278. The king even very often 

Made him wrestle before his folk. 

He held him as a great wonder 

For the strength that was in him. P. 


And could well bear children. 

They represented to the king, 

And required of him, for hia niece, 

That he should marry her to such a man 

As would uphold and advise her, 290 

And that he would thus keep his oath^ 

That he would acquit himself thereof loyally. 

The king heard what these said, 
And the request they made. 

He asked them for a respite, 295 

And said he would consult about it. 
He wished to know and inquire 
To whom he could give her. 
He gave them a time and named a day. 
He bade them return 300 

When he should have taken counsel; 
And he was very crafty. 
He spoke of it to his familiars. 
And showed them all his heart 

He sought and asked their advice 305 

About those who now demanded 
That he should give a lord to his niece 
Who would maintain her honourably; 
But he would rather bear their war 
Than be dispossessed of the land. 310 

Thus said his counsellors : 
" Cause her to be sent far off 
" Into Brittany, beyond the sea, 
** And entrusted to your kinsfolk. 
*' Let her be nun in an abbey, 315 

" And serve God all her life." 
*' Lords, I have thought of it all. 
" Quite otherwise I will free myself. 
" King Ekenbright, when he died, 
** And entrusted to me his daughter, 320 

'' Made me swear an oath, 
** You all seeing, and promise 
*' That I would give her to the strongest man 


" That I should find in the land. 

" Loyally can I acquit myself; 325 

" To Cuaran I will give her, 

" To him who is in my kitchen. 

^ She shall be queen of kettles. 

" When the lords return 

" And make their request, 330 

'' In the hearing of all I will show them 

" That I will give her to my cook, 

" Who is strong and of great courage. 

" They know it who have seen him. 

" If there is any who gainsays it, 335 

" Or who charges me with idllany, 

" I will put him in my prison, 

" And will give her to the cook." 

Thus had the king deviled. 
On the day that he named to them 340 

He prepared of his household 
Seven score armed men in his chamber; 
For he thought to have a riot 
When she should be married. 

The barons came to the court, 345 

The king showed them his intent. 
" Lords," said he, " now listen to me, 
" Now that you are assembled. 
" A request you made to me 

*• The other day, when you came to me, 350 

" That I should give my niece a husband, 
" And yield him her land. 
" You know well, and I tell you, 
I* When king Ekenbright died, 

" He put his daughter into my keeping, 355 

(91 " And made me swear an oath 

*' That I would give her to the strongest man 

i* T hat I could find in the kingdom. 

'' Enough have I sought and asked, 

** Until I have found a strong man. 360 

U 51689. p 



'' I have a groom in my kitchen, 
Ji^To whom I shall give the girl. 
^Cuaran is his name. 
/S^ " The ten strongest of my house 

" Cannot stand up to him, 366 

Nor endure his play nor his wrestling. 

" Truth it is, from here to Rome, 

-^ There is no .man with such a chest. 

" So will I keep my oath, 

'* Nor can I give her otherwise.*' 370 

When the barons had heard 

That he had said his will, 

Among each other they said openly, 

That this should never be suffered by them. 

There would have been great blows given, 375 

When he sent for his armed men. 

He had his niece brought to them 

And married to Cuaran. 

To disgrace and shame her 

He made her lie with him at night. 380 

When they both were abed 

She had great shame of him. 

And he as great of her. 

He lay on his face, he fell asleep. 

He did not wish her to see 385 

The flame which came from him; 

But afterwards they so assured each other 

By word and by liking, 

That he loved her, and lay with her 

As a man ought to do with his wife. 390 

The night that first he spoke 

Such joy he had that he loved her, 

Ttiat he fell asleep and forgot. 

He lay towards her, and took no heed ; 

And the girl fell asleep, 395 ; 

She threw her arm over her lover. ! 

It appeared to her in a dream 



That she had come to her lord 

Beyond the sea in a thicket. 

There they found a wild bear ; 400 

He had foxes in his company, 

AU the field was covered. 

They tried to attack Cuaran^ 

When on the other side they saw come 

Hounds and wild boars, who defended him, 405 

And killed many of the foxes. 

When the foxes were conquered, 

One of the boars with great boldness 

Went towards the bear and attacked him. 

There he killed and overthrew him. 410 

The foxes who held with him 

Came together towards Cuaran. 

They laid on the earth before him, 

They seemed to beg for mercy. 

And Cuaran had them bound. 415 

Then he went towards the sea^ 

But the trees which were in the wood 

On all sides bowed to him. 

The sea swelled and the waves rose 

Up to him. He had great fear. 420 

He saw two lions of great fierceness. 

They came against him terribly. 

They devoured the beasts of the wood 

Which they found in their way. 

Cuaran was in great fear, 425 

More for his love than for himself. 

They climbed upon a high tree 

On account of the lions which they feared. 

But the lions came on^ 

They knelt under the tree. 430 

They made a show of love to him, 

405. P. reads pores in8tea«l of ehiem, wliich is perhaps correct, as hound a 
and boars would hardly act in concert even in a dream. 

P 2 



And that they took him for their lord. 
Throughout the wood there was such a great cry 
That Argentine awoke. 

She had great fear on account of the dream. 435 

(Then she had more for her lord 
On account of the flame which she saw 
(Which came from his mouth. 
She rose up and cried 

So loud that she woke him. 440 

"Sir/' said she, "you bum, 
" Alas, you are all on fire." 
He embraced her and drew her towards him, 
" Fair love/' he said, "wherefore 
" Are you so frightened ? 445 

" Who has thus terrified you ? " 
** Sir," said she, "I was dreaming, 
" I will tell you the vision." 
She related and told it to him. 

^e told him of the fire which she had seen 450 

[Which came forth from his mouth. 
She thought that all his body 
Was alight, therefore she cried out. 
Cuaran reassured her. 

" Fair love/' he said, " fear nothing, 455 

" It is good for your sake and for mine. 
" The vision which you have seen 
" To-morrow may be known. 
" The king will hold his feast. 

" He causes all his lords to come. 460 

" There will be venison enough. 
" I shall give spits and bacon 
" To the squires in great plenty, 
'^ And to the grooms who have loved me. 

" The squires are the foxes, 465 |f 

" And the lads who are below them, 
" And the bear was killed yesterday 
*' And put in our kitchen. 



" Two bulls the king had baited yesterday. 
" We can count them as the lions. 470 

" We can take the caldrons for the sea., 
" In which the fire makes the water rise. 
" I have interpreted to you the vision. 
*' Be no more in fear. 

** The fire which my mouth threw out 475 

^* I will tell you what that will be. 
" Our kitchen will bum, I know. 
" It will be in trouble and fear 
" That we carry out our caldrons, 
" And our dishes and our kettles. 480 

'lAnd nevertheless I will not lie, 
(^ '* From my mouth fire is wont to come 
^When I sleep ; I know not why. 
" Thus it happens, it troubles me." 

Then they left the dream, 485 

And afterwards the young people slept. 

But on the morrow morning 

When Argentille had risen, 

To a chamberlain who was with her. 

Who had brought up her father, 490 

She told and related the vision. 

He turned it to good, 

Then said to her, "In Lindsey 

" There was a man of holy life ; 

" A hermit he was, he dwelt in a wood, 495 

" If you spoke to him, he would tell you 

" Of the dream, what it could be. 

" For God loved him, he was a priest." 
Friend/' said she, " I trust you much, 
For the love of God, come with me, 500 

** I will spe^k to this hermit 

** If you will come with me." 

He agreed readily 

469. Beiter ox better means to look or gaze at. (Godefroj.) 





To come secretly with her. 

He covered her with a cape, 505 

Led her to the hermitage. 

He made her speak to the holy man, 

And show him all her heart 

Of the dream for which she feared, 

jXnd of her lord's mouth, 510 

Whence she had seen fire issue, 
(But knew not what it was. 

For charity she asked and prayed him 

To advise her, and tell her about it 

His advice and his wiD. 515 

The hermit sighed. 

He began his prayers to God, 

Then he told her about the vision. 

" Fair lady," said he, "what thou hast dreamed 

" Of thy lord, thou shalt see it. 520 

" He is bom of royal lineage. 

'* Some day he will have a great inheritance. 

" Many folk he will make subject to him 

" He shall be king and thou queen. 

" Ask him who was his father, 525 

" And if he has sister or brother. 

" Then go to their country. 

" There thou shalt hear the destiny, 

" Of whom he was bom and whence he is, 

" And God of heaven give thee virtue, 630 

" And give thee to hear such things J 

" As may turn to thy good." 

Argentine took her leave. 

And the holy man commended her. to God. 

She went to her lord, 535 

Secretly and lovingly 

She asked him where he was bom. 

And where were his kinsfolk. 

'* Lady," said he, " at Grimsby, 

" There I left them when I came here. 640 




Grim^ the fisherman^ is my father. 

Saburc is the name, I believe, of my mother." 

Sir," said she, "let us go seek him. 

So we will give up to the king his land 

From which he has wrongfully driven me, 645 

Both you and me, if he insist on it. 
" Better to be a beggar elsewhere 
" Than despised among my own folk." 
Cuaran replied to her : 

" Lady^ we will soon be there. 550 

" Willingly I will take you with me. 
" Let us go and take leave of the king." 
This they did in the morning. 
Then they took to the road. 

The two sons of Grim accompanied them. 555 

They went to Grimsby. 
But the good man was dead, 
And the lady who had brought him up. 
There they found her daughter Kelloc. 
She had married a merchant. 560 

They saluted the husband. 
And spoke to their sister. 
They asked about their father, 
And how their mother fared. 

She told them that they were dead, 665 

And coming in they made great moan, 
Kelloc called Cuaran 
And asked him, laughing, 
" Friend," said she, " by thy faith 
" This woman who is with thee, 570 

** Who is she? She is very fair. 
<* Is she lady or damsel?" 
" Lady," said he, " king Alsi, 
" Whom I have long served, 

*' Gave her to me the other day. 575 

" She is his niece, daughter of his sister. 
" She is daughter of a king of great birth; 


" But he j(Alsi) has all her inheritance." 

Kelloc heard what he said. 

Marvellous pity took her, 580 

Because he was the son of a king, 

And because of the wife he had. 

She called Haveloc aside. 

And privily asked him 

If he knew whose son he was ; 585 

If he knew his kin. 

He replied, " Grim was my father, 

" Thou art my sister, these are my brothers 

•' Who have come here with me. 

" Well I know you are our sister." 590 

Kelloc said to him, '^ It is not so. 

" Keep it secret, if I tell you. 

" Cause your wife to come forward, 

" And I will make you and her rejoice ; 

" Whose son you are, I will tell you, 595 

'*. I will relate you the truth. 

" "S'our father was king Gunter, 

" Who was lord over the Danes; 
*" Hodulf slew him by treason, ^ 

" Who ever had a felon heart. 600 

** King Arthur enfeoffed Hodulf, 
J!iJind gave him Denmark. 
I " Grim, our father, fled, 

" To save you he left his land. 

" Thy mother died at sea; 605 

" For our ship was attacked 

" By outlaws, who seized us. 

" Most of our folk perished there. 

" We escaped death ; 

*' We arrived here at this port. 610 

** My father would go no further. 

61 1, MS. p. sabetitates for ty. 611-620 these lines : 

We changed your true name, 
And called yon Cuaran. 


" Here he resolved to stay. 
f' Under this haven he settled. 
'' He bought and sold salt. 

He took great trouble to bring you up, 615 

And to conceal and hide you. 
" Poorly was he clad 
" That you might not be recognised. 
*' No one was so bold in his house 
" As to dare to say your true name. 620 

V* Haveloc is your name, dear. 
" If you will go to your country 
" My husband will guide you there: 
'' Tou shall go in his ship. 
** The other day he came thence, it is not a month 

ago. 625 

'* He heard enough [to show] that the Danes 
" Would have you among them. 
'^ For the king has made himself much hated. 
" There is a good man in the land, 
*• Who always is at war with him. 630 

*' Sigar the Stallere is he called. 
" We advise you to go to him. 
** His wife is of your kin, 
" Who often grieves for you 

" That she can hear no news. 635 

*' Therefore as soon as you can come to them 
" You shall have your heritage again. 
'* You shall take these two lads with you." 
Argentille, when she heard this. 
Rejoiced greatly. 640 

She promised them faith and love. 
If God brought her to honour 
She would do them great good^ she said. 
Then there was little delay. 

They soon manned their ship, 645 

And crossed the sea to Denmark. 


When they arrived at the country, 

And came out of the ship to the land, 

The merchant who conveyed them, 

Clothed them with good cloth, 650 

Then instructed them what to do. 

And to what town they should betake themselves, 

To the city of the steward. 

Whom men called Sigar the Stallere. 
. *' Haveloc," said he, "fair friend, 655 

p*" When you come to his country, 

** Go, lodge in his castle, 

*' And go eat at his table. 

" Ask for food for charity. 

" Take your wife with you. 660 

" They will soon ask you, 

" For the beauty which they will see in her, 

" Who you are, and from what country, 
LilAnd who gave you such a wife." 

They left the merchant, 665 

And held on their way. 

So far they journeyed and wandered, 

That they arrived at the city. 

Where the steward dwelt 
/They went straight to his castle. 670 

They found the great man in his courtyard. 

They asked for charity. 

That he would give them food, 
\And lodge them at night. 

The steward consented. 676 

He led them into the hall. 

When it was the hour for meat. 

And all went to wash, 

The good man sat down to his meat. 

He made the three lads sit down, 680 

Argentine near her husband ; 

They were served with great honour. 




The bachelors and the squires 

Who served at meat 

Gazed at the fair lady^ 685 

And greatly praised her beauty. 

Six of them took one part, 

Together they agreed, 

That they would take away the lad's wife; 

If he was wroth, they would beat him. 690 

When they rose from meat. 
The lads went to rest. 
The steward had them conducted 
To an inn to sleep. 

Those who coveted' the lady, 695 

Who was very fair and wise. 
Went after them in a street. 
They took away the lad's wife; 
They would have taken her with them, 
When Haveloc got hold of 700 

A sharp hard axe. 
I know not by what chance. 
One of them held and carried it. 
He seized it, he rushed on. 

Five he killed and cut down. 705 

One escaped alive, 
But he cut off his hand 
A cry rose up in the city. 
They turned and fled. 

They came running to a minster, 710 

And entered it for safety, 
They shut the doors after them. 
(Haveloc ascended the tower. 
The men. of the city surrounded it. 
On aJl sides they attacked it, 715 

And he defended himself well. 
From the top of the wall he took the stone 
^And threw it down with force. 
Tidings came to the castle, 


To the steward, which was not good, 720 

That he whom he had taken in. 
Had killed five of his men, 
And lamed the sixth, 
And himself had escaped ; 

(That he had taken refuge in the church tower, 725 
^ And the townsmen had besieged him; 
They were attacking him vigorously. 
And he was defending himself boldly ; 
He threw down the stones of the tower ; 
I He wounded many and killed more. 730 

The steward called for his horse. 
He ordered' all his knights 
To come with him to the riot 
Which bad arisen in the city. 

First he came to the minster, 735 

And saw Haveloc so well helping himself 
That he made them all draw back. 


All feared he would strike them. 

The steward went forward; 

He saw Haveloc, strong and tall . 740 

(And he had eaten at his table. 

He had been with him) ; 

Handsome body and fair face, 

Long arms and long legs. 

Steadfastly he gazed at him, 745 

He remembered his lord, 

King Gunter, whom he so much loved. 

He sighed grievously. 

This man was like him in face, 

And in height and breadth. 750 

He caused the attack to cease. 

And forbade them all to advance. 

He parleyed with the lad. 

" Throw not, friend," said he. 

" I give you truce, speak to me. 755 

*' Tell me the cause and why 


HAVELOC. ''37 

" You have thus killed my men. 
" Which of you is in the wrong?" 

Sir," said he, " I will tell you, 

I will not speak a word of falsehood. 760 

" When we left our dinner 
'' Before we came to the inn, 

On coming out of your house, 

The boys pursued me. 
" They meant to take away my wife, 765 

" And lie with her before me. 
" I seized one of their axes, 
" And defended myself and hen 
'* It is true I slew them, 
** But I did it in defending myself." 770 

When the steward heard 
Their misdeed, he replied, 
" Friend," said he, *' come forward : 
" Fear not at all, 

" Beware you hide nothing. 775 

** Tell me where you were bom." 
" Sir," said he, " in this country, 
fiL-Thus one of my friends told me, 
I" A rich man named Grim 

Who brought me up in his house, 780 

/" After the kingdom was conquered, 
" And my father was killed. 

Together with me and my mother. 

He fled after my father's death. 
" He carried off much gold and silver. 785 

We wandered long at sea; 
" We were attacked by outlaws, 
" They slew my mother and I was saved, 
<< And the good man escaped, 

*' Who nourished me and loved me much. 790 

" When our ship had arrived 
" In a desert country, 
'* The good man raised a house, 





" There he dwelt at firet. 
« He found enough for ua to eat 
By seUmg salt and fishing ^^^ 

"' tZ /i?'° ^ °^^ ^^'^ ^^^ ^^'^^ thither 
^^ liiat there is a town and a market. 

Because they caUed him Grim 

(JLOrimsby is the name of the town. goO 1 

When I was grown up I leit. ^ I 

*• In the house of king Alsi 

" I was under the cook in the kitchen. 

He gave me this girl. 

;; She waa his kinswoman. I know not why 805 

He jomed her and me. ^ 

" I took her out of the land. 
'' Now I am come to seek my friends ; 

„ i ^^ ^°^ ^^^"^ I ca*^ find any 
" For I can name none." 

The steward replied, ^^^ 

" Fair friend, tell me thy name." 

" Haveloc, Sir, am I named, 

" And Cuaran was I called 

r T^f" I ^as in the king's court, g,. 

And served in his kitchen." 

The steward thought within himself. 

In his heart he remembered 

Kiat tl^ was the name of the son of the king 

Whom Gnm had taken with him. ooa 

He almost recognised him. 

But nevertheless he was in doubt. 

He assured him of truce. 

And led him to the castle. 

His wife and his comrades, go/i 

He called them his prisoners. 

He had them well served. 

And made them lie at night in his chamber. 

When the young man was gone to rest 

He ordered one of his trusty men ggQ 


To find out, ^1^ *T~ — " ~^'3ep, 

If flame came from him, 

For this happened to the son of the king 

Whom Grim had taken with him. 

Haveloc was very weary, 835 

He fell asleep straightway. 


(^ \The very hour that he slept 
LXhe fire issued from his mouth. 
The chamberlain was sore afraid. 
He went to tell it to his lord; 840 

And he thanked God 
That he had got back the right heir. 
He summoned his chaplains 
To write and seal his letters. 

He sent them by his messengers, 845 

And sent for his friends, 
For his men, for his kinsfolk 
Many folk he assembled there, 
All those who were in the country 
Who hated king Hodulf. 850 

In the morning he had the baths warmed, 
And Havdoc bathed and washed. 
He clad him in rich clothes. 
And also his wife who was with him. 
He led them into his hall. 855 

Haveloc was in great fear 
Of the many folk he saw. 
Haveloc feared greatly 
For the men whom he had killed, 
That it was the custom of this country 860 

To bathe, wash, and clothe. 
And then judge for the crime. 
And lead him before the court. 
No wonder that he was afraid. 

He seized a great axe, 865 

(It hung on the fence on a hook.) 
Havelock took it in both hands. 


He meant to defend himself valiantly, 

If they condemned him to be hung. 870 

The steward looked at him, 
He went towards him and greeted him. 
" Sir," said he, «*have no fear, 
" Give up this axe to me. 

" Have no care. I tell you 875 

" I pledge you my honour." 
He gave him up the axe. 
And he hung it on the hook. 
He made him sit on one side. 

So that all could see him welL 880 

From his treasury he ha*d brought 
The horn which none could sound. 
If he was not right heir of the lineage 
Over the Danes by inheritance, 

To know if he could sound it. 885 

He told them that he would try it. 
To him who could sound the horn 
He would give his ring of gold. 
There was not in the hall knight. 
Servant, groom, nor squire, 890 

Who did not put it to his mouth. 
Never could any sound it. 
The steward took the horn. 
He put it in Haveloc's hand. 

" Friend," said he, '*now try 895 

" If you can sound the horn." 
" On my faith," said he, "Sir, I cannot, 
" Never have I used a horn. 

879. MS. F. snbstitates for y. 879-86 : 

He made him fsit on one side. 
He placed his wife beside him. 
He called his chamberlain. 
He asked for the king's horn. 
He said they should essay it, 
To know if they could blow it 


'' I do not choose to be mooked. 

" But since you command me 900 

*' I will put the horn to my mouth, 

" And if I can, I will sound it." 

Haveloc rose to his feet, 

And prepared to blow. 

He blessed and crossed the horn. 905 

Loud and well he sounded it. 

(^ They held it for a great marvel 

All those who were in the hall. 

The steward called them^ 

He showed him to the whole company. 910 

" Lords, for this have I sent for you, 

" Because God has revisited us; 

" See here our right heir. 

*' We should have great joy of him " 

First of all he uncovered himself, 916 

And kneeled before him. 

He became his man, and swore 

To serve him loyallj'. 

The others followed him, 

All with good will ; 920 

All became his men. 

After they had received him, 

The news was repeated. 

It could not be long concealed. 

They ran together from aU sides, 925 

Rich and poor, who heard it, 

They did homage to him, 

They dubbed him knight. 

The steward helped him so much. 

Being a good and loyal man, 980 

That he assembled a marvellous host. 

He bade king Hodulf by letter 

Surrender the land to him. 

And depart with speed. 

U 51689. Q 

'242 HAVELOC. 

( King Hodulf, when he heard this, 935 

Jested and railed much. 
^^^^ He said he would fight him. 
^J He collected folk from all sides, 

And enough men round him. 

On the day that was named between them 940 

That the two hosts should meet 
l^nd fight together, 

Haveloc saw the poor folk 

Who had come to help him. 

JSe. did not wish them to be killed. 945 

To king Hodulf, by his friends, 

He sent word that he would fight him, 

Body against body, and if he conquered him, 

The folk with him should come 

And hold him for their lord. 950 

^' I know not why they should fight 

" Who are not in fault.*' 

The king did not deign to refuse. 

He made all his people disai*m. 

And Haveloc disarmed his folk on his side. 955 

It seemed to him very long 

Before they came together. 

And be had gained or lost. 

The lords (Hodulf and Haveloc) came together. 

They sought each other like lions. 960 

Haveloc was of great courage, 

He struck king Hodulf so hard 

With an axe which he carried 

That he felled him, he did not rise again. 

There he slew him before his folk, 965 

Who all cried out loud, 

'* Sire, mercy, that we may not die, 

•' For we will serve you willingly." 

They turned to him, 

And he pardoned them all. 970 


After this deed he received 

The kingdom which was his fathers. 

He established good peace in tiie laud, 

And did justice on felons. 

His wife trusted and loved hiui, 975 

And she served him well. 

Once she was in despair^ 

But now God had comforted her, 

Since Haveloc was a powerful king. 

He held the kingdom more than four years. 980 

He acquired wonderful treasure. 

Argentine bade him 

Pass into England, 

To conquer her inheritance 

From which her uncle had cast her out, 1)85 

And disinherited her with great wrong. 

The king said that he would do 

What she bade him. 

He equipped his navy, 

Summoned his folk and his hosts ; 990 

He put to sea when there was wind, 

And took the queen with him. 

Four hundred and eighty ships 

Had Haveloc, full of folk. 

So long he floated and sailed 995 

That he arrived at Carleflure. 

They encamped on the harbour. 

They sought food through the countiy. 

Then the noble king sent, 

By the advice of his Danes, 1000 

To Alsi, to give up to him 

The land which Ekenbright held, 

Which was given to his niece, 

Of which he had disinherited her ; 

And if he would not surrender it 1005 

He said he would take it. 

Q 2 



The messengers came to the king^ 

They found him strong and proud. 

(When they had told him this, 

^nd he had laughed and joked at it 1010 

He answered with pride : 

" A wonder/' said he, " have I heard 

" Of Cuaran, this cook of mine, 

" Whom I reared in my house, 

'' Who comes to demand land of me. 1015 

" I will make my cooks tilt at him 

'' With tripods and with caldrons 

*• With shovels and with kettles." 

The messengers returned ; 

They related to their lord 1020 

The reply the king made to them, 

And the term the king gave them. 

Before the day they had taken 

Alsi sent for all his friends, 
I And all those whom he could have ; 1025 

vHe let none remain, 
frhe hosts assembled at Theford 

And prepared to strike. 

King Alsi iirst armed himself. 

He mounted a grey horse ; 1030 

He went to view his enemies, 
LHow many men they might have. 

When he saw the Danes 

With standards and with shields. 

He remembered no more the caldrons, 1035 

Nor the shovels nor the kettles, 

With which he had threatened them ; 

He retreated back. 

He told his folk what they should do, 

And how they should fight. 1040 

The shock was rude between them 

From that time till the evening, 

HAVKIiOC. 245 

Till they could last no longer. 

Black night made them separate. 

Many of the Danes were wounded, 1045 

And of the others many killed. 

Haveloc was very wroth 

For the men he had lost; 

He would have gone off with his Danes, 

And returned to his fleet 1050 

If the queen would have suffered it 

But she showed him a trick 

To conquer his enemy. 

The king remained, he trusted her. 

All the night he had great stakes cut, 1055 

And well sharpened at both ends. 

They tied the dead men to them 

And set them up among the living ; 

Two companies they set in order, 

Their axes raised on their neeks. 1060 

In the morning, when day broke. 
King Alsi first armed himself 
So did all his knights 
To begin the battle. 

But when they saw those on the other side, 1065 

All their flesh shuddered. 
Very hideous was the company 
Of the dead whom they saw on the plain. 
Against one man that they had, 

On the other side there were seven. 1070 

His councillors told the king 
That it was no use to fight ; 
The Danes had gained men, 
And he had lost many of his ; 

He should give the lady her right, 1076 

And make peace before it was worse. 
The king decided to grant all, 
For he could not help it. 
By advice of his friends 


A treaty was made with the Danish king. 1080 

Faithfully lie assured him 

And gave him sufficient hostages. 

All her land he restored 

Which Ekenbright held while he lived 

From Holland as far as Colchester 1085 

The Danes were lords and masters. 

Then Haveloc held his feast 

At the city when he came there ; 

He received the homage of the barons, 

And restored their inheritance. . 1090 

After this affair king Alsi 

Only lived fifteen days. 

He had no heir so direct 

As Haveloc and his wife. 

The barons received them, 1095 

And surrendered to them cities and castles. 

Haveloc held in his rule 

Lincoln and all Lindsey. 

Twenty years he reigned, he was king. 

He conquered much with the help of his Danes. 1100 

There wajs much talk of him. 

The men of old time, for remembrance. 

Made a lay of bis victory. 

That it might always be in memory, 

This was the lay of Cuaran, 1105 

Who was right brave and valiant. 

The End of Haveloc. 




The referenoM to Oaimar's Lestorie are by the lines, each number, therefore, refers 
equally to the text and to the translation. The Epilogue (pp. 278-289) is denoted by 
the letters Kp. " Le Lai d Haveloc " is similarly indexed by lines, with 11. prefixed. 
The " Narratio de Uxore Aemulfi " and ** Qesta Ilerwardi " are indexed by jiages. 

Figures between brackets are dates. 


Abemethy, Scotland, William I. and 

Malcolm III. meet at, 5717. 
Abingdon, Berks, 5703n. 
Acca, bishop of Hexham (710-33), 1623. 

driven from his see, 1733. 
Acee. See Acca. 
Actr Dunu, companion of Here ward, 

p. 383. See Azecier. 
Acere VasQs, companion of Hereward, 

p. 373. See Asecier. 
Achemannestrate, Saxon name of Bath, 

Ep. 118. 
Acke. See Acca. 
Adie. See Ockley. 
Adalre. See AUer. 

Adelais of Louvaine, wife of Henry I., 
causes Davit to write his history, 
her book, £p. 3. 
Adelbald. See JEthelbald. 
Adelbrict, Adelbrit, Danish king in Nor- 
folk, 47-91, 2085 :~H. 20V32, 282> 
319, 354, 1002, 1U84. 
marrie3 Orwain, 59, H. 205. 
dies at Thetford, 80. 
buried at Colchester, 81. 
entrusted Orwain and his land to 
Edelsi, 87^H. 211. 

Adeldni. See iEtheldryth, Raint. 
Adelher. See Ealchere. 
Adelstan. See Ealhstan, j^ithelstnn. 
Adrian I., pope, sends legates to England, 

AduinuB, earl of Leicester. See Ea«lwine, 

^cca, bishop of East Angles, 14619/. 
^dina, mother of Hereward, pp. 341, 

JEgelwine, bishop of Durham (1056-72), 
sent to Malcolm ITT. by Endward 
Confessor, 5089. 
disintera St. Oswine, 5107. 
joins Hereward, 5474. 
dies in prison, 5703. 
^>gthan, king of Scots, is defeated by 
^thelferth, king of Northumbria, 
j^Iesme. See ^thelhelm. 
^Ifgar, son of earl Leofric, 506 6n, 5072, 

-^Elflaed, wife of yEthelred, king of North- 
umbria, 2141. 
^Jfred, king, 2337, 2848-3498. 
his chronicle, 2837 — 3451. 
defeated by the Danes, with ^thelred, 

at Reading, 2956-63. 
at the battle of Ashdown, 2997. 
becomes king, 3028. 
defeats the Danes, 3040. 
makes a truce with them, 8042. 



JElfred, king— com. 

besieges tbc Danes in Exeter, 3110. 
makes peace with them, 3120. 
builds a fort at Atbelney, 3161. 
defeats the Danes at Edington, 8197. 
makes a truce with them, 3209. 
l)ope Marinus sends a piece of the 

Cross to, 3326. 
procured enfranchisement of the 
English school at Rome, 3350, 3351. 
besieges and takes London from the ' 

Danes, 3372. 
dies, 3440. 
TElfred, son of .Ethelred II., 4534. 
his return to England, 4785-4844. 
murdered at Ely, 4831. 
JElfric, feither of king Osric, 1315«. 
TElfric, archbishop of Canterbury (996- 

1006), 4100, 4101. 
TElfgifu. See Emma. 
^Ifthryth, queen of Eadgar I., 3601-4089, 
married to iEihelwold, 3726. 
comes to court, 3866. 
marries Eadgar I., 39 1 . 
has Eadward II. murdered, 3981. 
absolved by Dnnstau, 4084. 
dies at Wherwell, 4089. 
^lfwin«, nobleman, 1464. 
JElla, king of Deira. See ^Ella, king of 

Northumbria (867). 
JElla, -<Elle, king of Northumbria (560), 
919, 949, 1043, 1148, 2305w. 
dies, 1005. 
JElla, king of Northumbria (867), 2702- 
outrages the wife of Aemulfus, 

pp. 328-332.' 
his death foretold by a blind man, 

killed by the Danes, 2826, 
JElla, king of the South Saxons, 2305. 
Aelleswrda, palaoe of king ^.lla, p. 331. 

Aelsi. See Edelsi, 

Aemulftts, of Deira, a merchant, p.328-837. 
JEscwine, king of Wessex (674-676), 

JEthelbald, king of Mercia (716-55)» 

harries Wessex, 1 730. 

wars against Eadberht, king of North- 
umbria, 1749. 

wars against Cnthred, king of 
Wessex, 1764. 

joins with Cuthred against the Welsh, 

defeated by Cuthred, 1799. 

killed, and buried at Bepton, 1922-5. 

JEthelbald, with Heardberht, kills three 
high reeves, 2013. 

^:thelbftld, son of iEthelwulf, king of 
Wessex (855-60), defeats the Danes 
at Ockley, 2474. 

succeeds to Wessex, 2533. 

dies and is buried at Sherborne, 2539. 

iEthelberht king of Kent (565-616), 955, 
977, 1073, 1077, 1079, 1108, 2306. 
defeated by Cutha and Ceawlin, 977. 
dies, 1103. 
his widow, 1109. 

iEthelbryht, son of ^thelwulf, succeeds 
to Kent, Sussex, Essex, Surrey, 
succeeds to Wessex, 2542. 
dies and is buried at Sherborne, 2545. 

- jEthelburh, wife of Eadwhie of Northom- 
bria, goes vith Paulinus to Kent and is 
received by Eadbald, 1245-54. 
JEthelburh, queen of Ine of Wessex, rases 
her husband's building at Taunton, 
iEtheldryth, Saint, aunt of Ecgbryht, king 
of Kent, 1408. 
dies, 1469. 
^thelferth, iEtbelMth, king of Northum- 
bria (593-617), 1009, 1155. 

defeats ^Egthan, Scotch king, at 

Dawston, 1013. 
defeats Britons at Leicester, 1081. 
killed by Ksedwald, king of East 

AngUa, 1141, 1147. 
his sons, 1160, 1258. 




iBtbelflsed, sister of Eadward I.» inherits 
Mercia, S497. 
leaves it to Eadward I., 3500. 
jEthelfrith. See iEthelferth. 
iEthelgar, archbishop of Canterbury (988), 

JEthelheard, king of Wessex, succeeds Ine, 
dies, 1761. 
iEthelhelm, killed in battle by the Danes, 

^thelhere, brotlier of Anna, king of East 
Angles, killed at Wingfield, 1330, 
JEtheUiun, alderman, 1 7 92- 1796. 
J£thelmund, ealdorman, 221 7 n, 1221. 
JEthelred, king of Mercia (676-704), 1424. 
fights against Ecgferth, king of 

Northumbria, 1467. 
becomes a monk, 1565. 
dies and is buried at Bardney,-1655. 
his queen, Ostrythe, 1591. 
JRthelred, king of Northumbria (774-794) 
expelled by Alfwold, 2018. 
restored, 2128. 
marries ^Iflffid, 2140. 
killed by his subjects, 21 74. 
JEthelred I., king of Wessex (866-71),' 
2846, 2941-3021, S970. 
wars against the Danes, 2565, 2955. 
defeats them at Ashdown, 2995. 
dies, 3020. 

buried at Wimbume, 3021. 
JEthelredll., king of England (978-1016), 
his birth, 3968. 
is made king, 4077. 
crowned at Winchester, 4081. 
Eadmund his brother claims the 

kingdom, 4108. 
marries Emma of Normandy, 4129f}, 

flees to Normandy, 4153. 
returns, 4172. 

is besieged by Cnut in London, 4191. 
dies there, 4198. 
children of, 4201, 4241, 4533. 

^thelred, son of Eadmund Ironside, 4517, 

4518. (See note.^ 
JEthelric, king of York (Northumbria), 

(588), 1006-1008. 
iEthelstan, son of Eadward I., king of 
England (925-941), 3529. 
becomes king, 3515. 
defeats Guthfrith, 3518. 
han-ies Scotland, 3522, 
defeats Scots at Brunanbnrh, 3524. 
dies, 3529. 
^thelstan, son of Ecgbryht, succeeds to 
Kent, Surrey, and Sussex (836), 
defeats Danes, 2481. 
king of East Anglia, 2484. 
^thelstan, baptized name of Guthonu. 

See Guthorm. 
^^thelswitb, sister of king jElfred, goes to 
Rome, 3332. 
buried at Pavia, 3335. 
^thelwald, king of Sussex (661). 

receives Isle of Wight from 

Wulfhere, 1367. 
has its inhabitants baptised, 1369. 
JEthelweard, Fabius, 301 67<. 
^thelwold, 3637-3860. 
visits Ordgar, 3652. 
marries JElfthryth, 3726. 
king Eadgar sends him to York, 3845. 
is killed, 3856. 
iEthelwulf, son of Ecgbryht, king (836 
-857), 2256-2528. 
conquers in Kent, 2258-65. 
succeeds to Wessex, 2389, 2391. 
is defeated by the Danes at Charmouth, 

defeats the Danes at Ockley, 2473. 
helps fiurhred of Mercia against the 

North Welsh, 2495. 
Burhred of Mercia marries daughter 

of, 2508. 
divides his land, 2514. 
goes to Rome, 2518. 
marries Judith, daughter of Charles the 
Bald of France, 2521, 3343??, 3345. 
dies, 2525. 
buried at Winchester, 2528. 



^thelwalf, euldorman of Berkshire, 2552- 

2558, 2948. 
^thered, ealdorman of Mercia, 

Alfred commits London to him, 

3375, 3479. 
Gives ap London and Oxford to 

Eadward I., 3485. 
dies, 3478. 
Agatha, wife of Eadward son of Eadmund 

Ironside, 451 6n. 
Ahlstan, bishop of Sherborne (816-867) 

301 3n. 
Aidan, Aidanz, bishop of Linds&me (651), 
miracles worked by his body, 1822. 
Ailbrith. See Adelbriot. 
Ailesbyres. See Aylesbury. 

Ailward, Hereward's chaplain, 5620. 
Ail wine. See ^gelwine. 
Akemanestrete. See Achemannestrate. 
Alains, Alan. See Biittany, earl of, 
Alberni. See Abemethy. 
Albini, William de, earl of Amndel 

(1139-76), 6489JI. 
Albricht, Albriot. See Adelbrict. 
Albrit. See Ealdbriht. 
Alchere. See Ealchere, alderman. 
Alcherort, Alchereth. See Alchred. 
Alchred, king of Northumbria (766-774), 

1970, 1973. 
is driven away, 1976. 
his son. See Osred. 
Alclud (Dumbarton ?) 934w. 
Aldhelm, bishop of Sherborne, (705- 

709), 1574-1579. 
Aldret. See Ealdred. 
Aldreth(Alrchethe), Camb., pp. 376, 377, 

Alef, K., in Cornwall, p. 344. 
Alein le Neir. See Brittany. 
Alemaigne, Alemaine. Spe Almaio, 
Alen90n, Normandy. 

William II. crosses the Sarthe nt,5786. 
Alencun. See Alen^on. 
Alexander I., king of Scotland, 4667. 
Alfred. See Alfred, Ealdfertb. 
Alftrued, second wife of Hereward, 5592, 

5599, p. 397. 

Alftru«d. See JBlfthryth. 
Alfwold, king of Northumbria (778-789). 
deposes ^thelred, 2018. 
slain by Sicga, 2096, 2168. 
burial and relics of, 2102-2122. (^See 
Algar. See ^Ifgar. 
Alger, Danish merchant, 483, 485, 605, 

Algers. See Alger. 
Alisandre. See Alexander. 
Aliz. See Adelais. 
Algier. See Alger. 
AUer, Somerset, Guthorm baptized at, 

Allington, 225 In. 
Almain, 25, 4762. 
Alnewic. See Alnwick. 
Alnwick, Northumbria, Malcolm III. slain 
at, 6117. 
Edward his son slain at, 466dn. 
Alrehede, Alrehethe (Aldreth), Camb., pp. 

876, 377, 388. 
Alricus Grngan, comrade of Hereward, 

5575, pp, 372,378. 
Alsinus, comrade of Hereward, p. 373. 
Alwinus, son of Orgar, monk of Ely, p. 

Alsi. See Edelsi. 
Aluere. See .^Ufred. 
Alveriz, companion of Hereward. See 

Alvive, Haveloc's mother, 405, 418, 430, 
H. 93,101, 116. 
flies with Grim and Haveloc, 420, H. 

her death, 430, H. 116. 
Ambresbire. See Amesbury. 
Amesbury, Wilts, Ep. 60. 
Amund, Danish king, besieges Cambridge, 
takes Wareham, 3082. 
Anche, kills Mol JEthelwold, 1969. 
Andred, Andredeswald, Andredeswalt, 
Andredesweald, Sussex, 1825fi, 
1828, 1904, 3415. 
Sigebryht hides and is killed there, 
1828, 1830. 



Audreswald. See AndredMweald. 
Aue. See Anna. 
Ange. See England. 
Angerbale, near Ely ?, p. 391. 
Angevins, besiege Le Mans, 5791-5810, 
hold of William II., 6282. 

Augleis. See English. 
Anjou. See Angevin. 
Aiyou, Fulk IV., count of, 5792n. 
Anlaf. See Olaf . 
Aniaf Cwiran. See Olaf Kvarau. 
Anlas Quiran. See Olaf Kvaran. 
Anna, king of East Angles (654)> 1282, 
1831^) 1406, 140771. 

Antioch, battle at, 5755?!. 

Robert, dake of Normandy, king of, 

Appledore, Devon, 3148«. 
Appledore, Kent, the Danes at, 3436. 
Apalia, 5772n. 
Aquilinus. See Aernulfus. 
ArchambaudlV., lord of Bourbon, 5792n. 
Argentan, France, 5883. 
Argentele, Argentile. See Argentine. 
Argentine, Haveloc's wife, 66, 83, 98, 100, 
168, 181, 195, 291, 801, 329, 860, 
582, .542 :— H. 210, 283, 351, 378, 
397, 434, 488, 633, 556, 593, 609 
681, 698, 825, 854, 975, 982, 1051, 
marries Haveloc, 100, H. 378. 
her dreams, 195, H. 897. 
visits a hermit, H. 505. 
goes to Grimsby with Haveloc, 329, 

H. 556. 
her stratagem, 774, H. 1051. 

Argeutcu. See Argentan. 
Argentoil, France, 5888n. 
Argyle, 3016n. 

Annoricanum regnum (Brittany), 349 bt. 

Arthur, king, 4, 35, 89, 45, 410, 417,514, 

525, 3.573, Ep. 247, H. 27, 37, 51,601. 

fights against Gnnter, king of Den- 
mark, 410. 

slays Aschis, king of Denmark, 525. 
gives Denmark to Edulf, H. 601. 

Artur. See Arthur. 

Arundel, earl of. See Albini, Belesme. 

Asbiorn, Danish earl, at th« battle of 

Ashdown, 2989. 
Asbiorn, son of Swegen III., king of Den- 
mark, invades England, 4937n, 5488. 
Aschillius (Aschis), king of Dacia, 524». 
Aschis, Danish king, slain by Arthur, 

524, 525. 
Ashdown, taken by Kenwealh of Weasez 
from Wulfhere, 1360. 
^thelred and .Alfred defeat the 
Danes at, 2975. 
ABsandun. See Assingdon. 
Assendune. See Assingdon. 
Assingdon, Essex, Gnat defeats Eadmimd 

Ironside at, 4248. 
Athelney, Somerset, 3227. 

Mlfred builds fort at, 8162. 
Augustine, saint, 1025-1095. 

sent to England by pope Gregory, 

1025, 2061. 
joined by Paulinus, 1048. 
ordains MelUtus and Justus bishops, 

prophecy of, 1095. 
his tomb, 1127. 
Aurelius Conan, 35n. 
Austin, Austins. See Augustine, saint. 
Avelina, mother of Walter Giffard, 6084«. 
Aveloc, See Haveloc. 
Avranches, France, 5860m. 
Axemustre. See Arminster. 
Axminster, Devon, 1918. 
Aylesbury, Bucks, taken by Cutha of 

Wessex from the Britons, 985. 
Azecier, companion of Hereward, 5575. 
See Acer, Acere. 

Bade. See Bath. 
Badhe. See Bath. 
Bseldseg, 826n, 840,841. 
Baenbuic. See Bamburgh. 



Bagsffic, Danish king, slain at Ashdown, 

2983, 3003, 3039. 
Baignard, Geffirai, vanqaishes William of 

Eu, 6141. 
Baldewin. See Baldwin. 
Baldred, Baldret, king of Kent, 2264. 
Baldwin V., count of Flanders, 5131, 
pp. 354, .':59. 
bis army, pp. 360, 861, 362. 
Baldwin, Flemish knight, p. 370. 
Bambargh, Northumb., 1297n. 
restored by Ida, 934. 
Robert de Mowbray betiieged by Wil- 
liam II. in the castle, 6147, 6157. 

Morel of. See Morel. 
Banbury, Oxfordshire, 925n. 
Bangor, bishopric of, £p. 215. 
Barbeflet. See Barfleur. 
Bardenei, Bardeneie. See Bardney. 
Bardney, Lino., king Oswald buried at, 
^thelred, king of Mercia buried at, 

king Alfwold buried at, 2108. 
Hereward at, p. 374. 
Barflcur, Normandy, William II. at, 

Bas. See Bass. 
Baseng. See Bagssec. 
Basewerce (Basingwerk ?), Cenwulf of 
Mercia dies at, 2239. 

Basing, Hants, Danes defeated at, 3009. 
Basins. See losing. 
Bass, priest, 1389. 
Bath, 437411, £p. 115. 

taken from the Britons by Cutha and 
Ceawlin, 994. 

bishopric of, Ep. 1 13. 

Bavaria, Henry, Duke of, 4790?i. 

Bearth. See Beorht. 

Beaumont, Roger de, 5875n. 

Bebba. See Bamburgh. 

Bebbanburh (Bamburgh), 1297/1, 21 17it. 

Becwida near York, pp. 331, 332. 

Becwitha. See Becwida. 

Bede, death of, 1743. 

B«defhrd, See Bedford. 

Bedford, Britons defeated at, 963. 

Hereward imprisoned at, p. 401. 
Bedfordshire, Ep. 149. 
Bedwin, Wilts, 1416n. 
Beldeg. See Bsldsg. 
Beldeging, 839. 
Belesme, Le Perche, 5882n. 
Belesme, Robert de, goes to Normandy 
with William II., 5877. 

his possessions, 5879. 
Belin, Belinus, king, 5974, Ep. 182. 

made roads in Britain, 4376, Ep. 
255, 276. 

Belius. See Belin, Belinus. 
Bensington, Oxon., taken by Cutha, 985. 

Uken by Offa, 2008. 
Beorht, killed by the Picts, 1593. 
Beorhtf rith, fights with the Picts, 1625. 
Beorhtric of Wessex (784-800), 2051. 

married Offa*s daughter, 2065. 

dies, 2213. 

buried at Wareham, 2053. 

Beorht wnlf, king of Mercia, defeated by 

the Danes, 2468, 2470it. 
Beorn, burned by the Northumbrians, 

Beorn Butsecarl, 2598-2704. 

his wife is outraged by king Osbryht, 

2602, 2615-75. 
defies Osbryht, 2682. 
brings the Danes to Yorkshire, 2599, 
2602, 2694, 2704. 

Beorarsed, king of Mercia, 1927. 

driven out by Offa, 1929. 
Beomwulf, king of Mercia, 2283. 

defeated by Ecgbryht, 2250. 

Berefiid. See Beorhtfrith. 
Berford. See Burford. 
Berin. See Birinus. 
Berkescire. See Berkshire. 
Berkshire, Ep. 107. 

men of, led by .^thelwulf, caldorman, 

Beruiche. See Bernicia. 
Bemicia, 942, 1255, 1456, 1944. 

bishop of. See Eata. 
Bernicon. See Bernicia. 



Berthun, bishop of Lichfield (768-785); 

Bertriz. See Beorhtric. 

Beruicke. See Bernicia. 

Besington, Besingtone. See Bensiogton. 

Beverley (Beverlai), Yorks, minuter of 

St. John at, 1513. 

St. John buried at, 1690. 
Biedanheafod (Bedwin?), battle at, 1416. 
Biemns (Biorn), king of Norway, p. 34S. 
BirinuSy bishop of Dorchester, confirms 

king Cynegils, 1269. 

Bisi, bitthop of East A.uglia, 1461ft. 
Blind man foretells Ella's death, 2728- 

Bois, Walter del, .slain by Hereward, 


Bois de Pene. See Penwood. 
Bolebec, Osbern de, 6084n. 
Boloigne. See Boulogne. 
Bos, Bosa, bishop of Deira, 1455. 
Bosentebiri. See Pontesbury. 
Boter de S. Edmundo, companion of 
Hereward, 383. See Siwate, Broter. 

Bouillon, Grodfrey de, king of Jerusalem, 

Boulogne, 341 In. 

Boulogne, Eustace of, 466dii, 6285. 
Bourne (Bran), Line. Hereward's home, 
pp. 339, 341, 365, 372. 
retaken by him, p. 365. 

Brabant, lord of, p. 370. 
Brand, 826ii., 839. 

Brandune (Brandon, Suff. ?), William I. at, 
p. 385. 

Brant, abbot of Peterborough, p. 368. 

Bratton Hill, Wilts., 3190«.' 

Brayton, Yorks., 5210n. 

Brending, 838. See Brand. 

Brenes. See Brennus. 

Brennus, Gaulish king, 5974. 

Bret. See Briton. 

Bretaigne. See Britain, Brittany. 

Bretaine. See Brittany. 

Breton. See Britons. 

Breton, Raul d« Dol, a, 5689. 

Bretons at battle of Hastings, 5318. 
hold of William II., 6262. 
made the Lay of Haveloc, H. 21. 
Bretun. See Bretons, Britons. 
Brian, earl, 5405n. 
Brichwlf. See Beorhtwulf. 
Brictriz. See Beorhtric. 
Bridge of Battle (Stamford Bridge), 5227. 
Brihtwold, abbot of Beculver, archbishop 

of Canterbury, 1548. 
Bristol, 5405m. 

Britain, invaded by Saxons, &c., 22, 947, 
230512., Ep. 27. 
why called England, 34. 
kings of, 43,61, 73,991-2, 6452, H. 

Eadwine of Northumbria, conquers 

aU, 1149. 
Comet seen through all, 1447. 
called just inheritance of Danes, 2075, 

2088. . 
Welsh intend to recover, Ep. 251. 
Brithred. See Beornroed. 
Britons, invade Denmark under king 
Arthur, H. 40. 
driven into Wales by Cerdic, 872-90, 

Ep. 27. 
defeated by Cynric and Ceawlin, 925. 
defeated by Ida, 944. 
defeated by Chitha and Ceawlin, 982. 
Cutha killed by, 999. 
CJeolwulf wars with, 1036. 
defeated by JEthelferth, 1084. 
Augustine's prophecy to, 1098. 
defeated by Wulfhere, 1347. 
defeated by Kenwealh, ]357n. 
defeated by Cent wine, 1477. 
their wars in Wales, Ep. 226. 
their language, H. 259. 
Brittany, 3491n., H. 313. 

invaded by Danes, 3307. 
Brittany, Alan, earl of, 5315-5325, 6287ii. 
at battle of Hastings, 5315. 
William I. gives him Kichniond, 

5322n., 5325. 
Alan, the'BIack, earl of, brother of the 
preceding, 6287. 
Brixton Deverell, Wilts., 3166»., 3188n. 



BrocheheHt. See Brockenhartt. 

Brocinail. See BrocmaiJ. 

Brockenhurst in New Forest, WiUiAm II. 

at, 5800, 6254, 6256. 
Brocmail, British kiug, 1091. 
Broher, monk, compAnion of Hereward, p. 

392. See Siwate, Boter. 
Brokehest. See Brockenhunt. 
Broter de S. Edmundo, p. 340. See 

Siwat€, Boter, Broher. 
Broges, 4849m. 
Brumannus, drowns Norman monks, p. 

374, 380. 
Bruu, Bruane. See Bourne. 
Brunanburh, battle of, 8584. 
Brimemue, overrun by earl Tostig, 5169. 
Bnmeswald, Hereward in, 5554, 5580, pp. 

372, 392, 398. 
Bruuesweroe. See Brunanburh. 
Bruthpat. See Brihtwold. 
Buckinghamshire, Ep. 150. 
Buckingham, earl of. See Qiffiird, 

Buern. See Beorn. 
Buern Brucecarle, le Buzecarle. See 

Beorn Butsecarle. 
Buern Leriz, son of Swegen III. king of 

Denmark, invades England, 5484. 
Bukiuham. See Buckingham. 
Bulgaria, 4790t<. 
Bunan. See Boulogne. 
Burch. See Peterborough. 
Burehtric. See Baohrtric. 
Bureth. See Burhred. 
Burewelle (Bur well), Gamb.j p. 882. 
Burford, Oxon., battle between Cnthred 

and iEthelbald at, 1801. 
Burg. See Peterboroagh. 
Burgard, Burghard, king, 907, 917. 
Burgeinon. See Burgundians. 
Burgoine. See Burgundians. 
Burgundians, 6284, 6308. 
Burhred, king of Mercia (853-74), 8494. 
conquers the North Welsh, 8496. 
marries j^thelwulf s daughter, 2507. 
assembles army against Danes, 2845. 
driven out by the Danes, 8050. 
goes to Rome, 3055. 

Borhred— con^ 

dies and is buried at Rome, 8058, 
Burhert. See Burhred. 
Bumulf, Bumulfs. See Beornwulf. * 
Burwell (Burewelle), Camb., p. 382. 
Bury St. Edmund's, earl Alan of Brittany, 
buried at, 5380. 

monks of, pp. 340, 383. 


Cadwalla. See CeadwalU. 
Caerleon, Monm., Ep. 205. 
bishoprio at, Ep. 212. 
Gaerwent, Monm., Ep. 205. 
Cair Coel (Golchester), conquered by 

Adelbrit, 74. 
Cair Segont, 1664n. 
Caithness, 11, Ep. 69, 180. 

Fossway runs to, 4374it., Ep. 278. 
Caliburc, Arthur's sword, 46. 
Cambridge, besieged by Danes, 8078. 
Cambridgeshire, Ep. 185, p. 899. 
Candidant. See Condidan. 
Cantebrige. Sm Cambridge. 
Canterbire. See Canterbury. 
Canterbury, 4389, Ep. 37. 

taken by the Danes, 8466, 8470n. 
archbishopric of, 2056r, Ep. 87, 96. 
Canterbury, archbishops of. See Augus- 
tine, Mellitus, Justus, Deusdedit, Jan- 
bryht, Dunstan. 
Cantorbire, Cantorbirie. See Canterbury. 
Cantuorbire. See Canterbury. 
Canute. See Cnut. 
Caraw, battle near, 1627. 
Carle, King of Cumberland (error for 

Charles the Great), 2227, 2280. 
Carleflure, east coast of England, Haveloc 
lands at, H. 996. 



Carlisle, bishopric of, Ep. 190n. 

Carliuns. See Caerleon. 

Garloman, king of France, S298, 3S42n. 

killed by a wild boar, 3338. 
Carnarvon, 1664n. 
Carrum. See Charmouth. 
Cateneis. See Caithness. 
Cathwine. See Tatwine. 
Cawood, Yorks, Danes at, 2705. 
Ceadda, bishop, 1383. 
Ceadwale. See Ceadwalla. 
Cead walla, king of Wales (633), slays 

Eadwine, 1233. 
Ceadwalla, king of Wessex (685-8), wars 
in Kent, 1521. 

harries Isle of Wight, 1524. 

goes to Rome, 1531. 

is baptized in name of Petor, ?534. 

dies, 1585. 
Cealwlf. See Ceolwulf. 
Cealwins. See Ceawlin. 
Cearwolf. See Eardwnlf. 
Ceawlin, king of Wessex (560-93), 91 9n, 

fights against the Britons, 925, 987, 
995, 1002. 

defeats ^thelberht of Kent, 975. 

dies, 1010. 
Ceawolf. See Ceolwnlf. 
Cedwale. See Ceadwalla. 
Celred. See Ceolred. 
Celreth. See Selred. 
Cenburg. See Cwenburh. 
Cenfus (Cenfusing), 1412. 
Cenred, king of Mercia (702-9), sncceeds 
^thered, 1566. 

reigns over south of Hamber, 159-1. 

goes to Rome, 1611. 

dies, 1614. 
Cenred, king of Northumbria (716), 1647. 
Centwine, king of Wessex (676), drives 

the Britons to the sea, 1477. 
Cenwaille. See Cenwalfa. 
Cenwalh,king of Wessex (642-72), 1300- 

builds Minster at Winchester, 1304. 

fights against Wnlfhere, king of 
Mercia at Chester, 1356. 

U 51689. 

Cenwalh — cont. 

takes Ashdown from Wulfhere, 1859. 

dies, 1403. 
Cenwulf, king of Mercia, 796-822), 2207. 

captures Eadberht, king of Kent, 2210. 

dies, 2235. 
Ceolmer, joins Alfred, 3168. 
Ceolred, king of Mercia (709-16), 1610. 

fights at Wansborough, 1640. 

dies, 1650. 

buried at Lichfield, 1652. 

Werburh, his wife, 2038, 2042n. 
Ceolret. See Ceolred. 
Ceolwlf. See Ceolwulf. 
Ceolwulf, Child, set over Mercia by the 
Danes, 3062. 

retains a part, 3123. 
C^eolwulf, king of Mercia (819-21), 2240, 

loses his kingdom, 2243. 
Ceolwulf, king of Northumbria (731-60), 

becomes a monk, 1745. 
Ceolwulf, king of Wessex (597), lOSl. 
Ceorl, ealdorman, 2457. 
CJeowlf. See Ceolwulf. 
Ceolwlf. See Cynewulf, Ceolwulf 
Ceowolf. See Ceolwulf. 
Cerdic, 10. 

Cerdic, ancestor of English kings, 826n, 
848, 856, 4818, 4319, 4322. 

arrives at Charford, 822. 

dies, 873. 

succeeded by Cynric his son, 875. 

his genealogy, 830. 

his descendants, 1910, 1912, 2054. 
Certesore. See Charford. 
Certis, Certiz. See Cerdic. 
Cestre. See Chester. 
Cestreschire, Cestresjrre. See Cheshire. 
Ceulin, Cenlins, Ceulinz. See Ceawlin. 
Chaihy. See Chezy. 
Charford, Cerdic lands at, 823. 
Charles the Bald of I'rance, 2522, 3343. 
Charles the Great, 2227?i. 
Charles. See Carloman. 
Charmouth, Dorset, Danes defeat English 

at, 2365, 2443. 
Chef de Bede. See Biedanheafod. 




ChebuliDZ, sou of Cynric, 913. 
Chelmesford. See Kempsford 
Cbenchart. See Cynehcard. 
Chenesi. Sec K^nsige. 
Chenewlf. See Cjiienfulf. 
Clienewold. See Cenwalh 
Chenewojf. See Cynewnlf 
Cheniiisien. See Cenfiis. 
Chenret. See Cenred. 
Cheor. See Ceorl. 
Chenrig, Chenriz. See Cynrio. 
Cbenidne. See Cootvine. 
Chenwolf. See C'«nwulf. 
Cheolwlf. See Cenwulf. 
Cherbourg, Danes embark at, 3411. 
Cberesburg. See Cherbourg. 
Cheshire, 4918, £p. 164. 
Chess, a Danish game, 3655. 

Chester, 1083«, 4222m. 
bishopric at, £p. 1 65. 
Kenwealh defeated Wulfhere near, 

Queen Werbarh buried at, 2042. 
Watling Street runs to, 4374w, Ep. 

Chester, Ilogh de Abrincis, earl of, 5860- 

5874, 6015-6043. 
goes to Normandy with William II., 

becomes William II. *s wand bearer, 

William II. gives him North Wales, 


Chezy .snr Mame, Danes at, 3262. 

Chichester, Sussex, £p. 40, 101. 

Roger de Montgomery, ear! of, 

Cbilman meets Alfred with thanes of 

Hampshire, 3171. 
Cbimingesdive. See King's Cliff. 
Chippenham, Wilts, Danes at, 3129, 3244. 
Christina, daughter of Eadward, son of 

Eadward Ironside, 4516n. 

Chnde, meets JE\tted with thanes, 3169. 
Cicestre. See Chichester. 
Cier«. See Caniw. 
Clrecestre. See Cirencester. 

I Cirencester, besi^ed by Cerdic and set on 

fire by sparrows, 858. 
taken by Ceawlin and Cutha, 994. 
Cwichelm and Cynegils make treaty 

with Tenda at, 1217. 
Danes winter at, 3242, 3242fi, 3249. 
Eadward Martjr's body at, 4043. 
on the Fossway, 4374fi. 
in Eadmnnd's kingdom, 4392. 

Clare, Ric. Fitz Gilbert, earl of, 6.150, 
his sons, 6350, 6350yi. 
Clee. See Iley. 

Cncbba, Cnebbe, killed in battle against 

Cntha and Ceawlin, 980. 
Cnuht. See Cnut. 

Cnut, son of Swegen, king of England 

(1014-36), 2083n, 4169-4754. 
leaves England on ^thelred*s return, 

enters the Frome with his fleet, 4187. 
made king by the English, 4190. 
besieges jEthelred in London, 4196. 
wars with Eadmund Ironside, 4212. 
defeats him at Asnngdou, 4244. 
intended combat with Eadmund, 

divides the kingdom with him, 4367. 
executes Eadric Streona, 4468. 
marries Emma, widow of ^thelred, 

sends Eadmund's sons abroad, 4503. 
orders them to be maimed, 4568. 
drives out Olaf, king of Norway ,4 687. 
story of Cnut and the tide, 4699. 
goes to Rome, 4730. 
obtains privileges there for the 

English, 4740. 
goes to Scotland and makes treaty 

with Malcolm U., 4748. 
dies, 4754. 

his daughter, Gunhild, 4760. 
his sister, Estrith, 4799n. 
his sons. See Harold, Harthacnnt. 
Cnut, .son of Swegen III., king of Den- 
mark, invades England, 5434. 
Cnuth. See Cnut. 



Coaran, Coaiant. See Cuheran, Haveloc. 

Gobba, father of Ida, 937. 

Coenbyhrt, kiug, 1363. 

Coimapl* Sec Commail. 

Colchester, Essex, Adelbrit conqners, 75. 

is buried at, 81. 
Colchester to Holland given up to 

Haveloc, 805, H. 108.5. 
Coldingham, Berwick, burnt by light- 
ning, 1470. 
Colecestre. See Colchester. 
Coleman, Colman, bishop of Lindisfame, 

Colesdebnrch, 2117 (see note). 
Colesdesburg. See Coldingham. 
Ck)lumba, Columbains, Columban, abbot 
of lona, 966, 972. 
baptizes ^Ethelberht of Kent, 961. 
Conibran. 5ee Cumbra. 
Combreis. See Cymri. 
Combreis. See Cumberland, men of. 
Comet, seen all over Britain for three 
inontliH in 676, 1433. 
seen after Eadward Confessor's death, 

seen in Northumberland in 1067, 
Commail, British king, slain at Scorham, 

Compt^gne, Wilfrid ordained at, I384n. 
Condidnn, British king, slain at Scorham, 

Conrad, Emperor, 4790rf. 
Constantine, British king, 4, 44, 45, 
Constantine the Great, 1664n. 
Constantinople, Norman knight at, p. 

Constantius, father of Constantine, 

Conversaine. See Conversano. 
Convenano, Sibilla daughter of Wm. de, 

Copsi, thane, meets Tostig in Thanet with 

Ships, 5165. 
Coran Colbe, Dane, cuts off St. Eadmuod's 

head, 2923. 
Corbi, Godricus de, ** nepos *' of the earl of 

Warwick, pp. 372, 373. 


Corineus, settled Cornwall, Ep. 125. 
Cornewaille. See Cornwall. 
Cornwall, Ep. 123. 

battle between men of, and Britons, 

Hereward in, pp. 344, 349, 356. 
Cornwall, Alef, prince of, p. 344. 

his daughter, pp. 345, 347, 349. 
Coruneus. See Corineus. 
Costentin. See Constantine. 
Cotingelade (Cottenham?) Camb., p. 

Coutances, diocese of, 3308if. 
Coventre. See Coventry. 
Coventry, earl I/eofric buried at, 5070. 
Crida, Cridan, king of Mercia, dies, 1010. 
Cross seen in the skv, 1982. 
Croyland, miracles worked by earl 
Waltheof s body at, 5733. 

Turfrida becomes a nun at, p. 39S. 
Crulaude. See Croyland. 
Cuaran. See Cuheran. 
Cudbert. Sec Cuthbert, saint. 
Cudburg. See Ciithbm*h. 
Cuda, Cude. See Cutha. 
Cudret. See Cuthred. 
Cuclins. See Ceawlin. 
Cuharan. See Cuheran. 
Cuheran, Cuaran, name of Haveloc, <j. v, 

its meaning, H. 260. 
Cuherant. See Cuheran. 
Cumberland, 2228, Ep. 72, 187. 

ravaged by Eadmund I., 3540. 

men of, defeated by jEthelf^n at 
Brunanburh, 3525. 
Cumbcrlaut. See Cumberland. 
Cumbra, ealdorman, 1903. 
Cumbreis. See Cumbrians. 
Cumbrians, 4118. 
Curbarant, slain by Robert duke of 

Normandy, 5755. 
Custance, wife of Ralph Fitz Gilbert, 6447, 
6457, 6495. 

causes Gaimar to write his bistor}*, 
Cntha, king of Wessex (568-584). 

defeats Kentishmen, 975. 

defeats Britons, 981-99. 

R 2 



Cutha — cont, 

is killed by Britons at Fethanleag, 
Cnihbert, St., 1295, 2121. 

ordained bishop of Hexham, 1486, 
Cuthbcrt. See Cathbyrht. 
Guthburh, sister of Ine, foundB Wimborne 
Minster, 1669. 
marries Ealdferth of Northmnbria, 

is separated from him, 1672. 
Cuthbyrht, archbishop of Canterbury 

(741-758), 1767, 1954. 
Cuthred, king. (689-61), 1361. 
Cuthred, king of Wessex (740-54), 1762- 
^thelbald of Mercia wars against, 

fights against the Welsh, 1769. 
fights with j^thelhun, 1792. 
defeats JEthelbald of Mercia, 1796. 
is defeated by the Welsh, 1805. 
dies. 1807. 

Cuthred, king of Kent, 3228. 
Cwenburh, sister of Ine, 1677. 
Cwichelm, brother of Ceawlin, king of 
Wessex, 1010. 

Cwichelm, king of Wessex (626-36). 
sends a traitor to kill Eadwine, 1169. 
fights against Penda, 1215. 
baptized, 1272. 
his lineage, 1362. 

Cyecestre. See Cirencester. 
Cymri, 20. 

Cynegils, king of Wessex, fights against 
Penda, 1215. 
is baptized, 1264. 

Cynegilsing, surname of Kenwealh of 
Wessex, 1805. 

Cyneheard, brother of Sigebryht, kills 
Cynewulf, king of Wessex, 1 839- 
94, 2045. 
is killed, 1894. 
is buried at Axminster, 1918. 

Cynewulf, .^theling, slain by king Ine, 

C^ynewalf, king of Wessex (755-84), 
1815-1915, 2010. 

disinherits Sigebryht, 1815. 

is slain by Cyneheard's men, 1854, 

buried at Winchester, 1915. 
Cynewulf, high reeve, slain, 2015. 
Cynric, son of Cerdic , arrives at Charford, 

succeeds Cerdic, 874. 

fights with Britons, 894, 924. 

kiUsWasing, 911-916. 
Cynric, a king's son of Wessex, 1789. 
Cynuit, Arx, 8148n. 
Cyrccestre. See Cirencester. 


Dacia, Aschillius, king of, 524n. 
Dane, king in England before the Saxons 
came, 2088, 2990n, 4317, 4320, 
Daneis. See Danes. 
Danes, in Denmark, 528, H. 25, 32, 50, 

598, 626, 884. 
Danes in England, 87, 47, 60, 97,818, 
3387, 3635, 4173, 4503, 4938. 
chess learnt by Ordgar from the, 

in Norfolk from Haveloc's time, 

897, H. 990. 
invade England, 761, 2067, 2092. 
their claim to England, 2077, 4316. 
harry Lindsey, 2164. 
defeat Ofia, 2171. 
sail up Humber, 2185, 2578. 
their ships wrecked, 2195. 
harry Sheppey, 2359-2510. 
defeat Ecgbryht at Charmouth, 

joined by the West Welsh, 2372. 
kill iEthelhelm, 2411. 
besiege London and Rochester, 241 5. 



Danes — cont. 

defeat ^tbelwulf, 2445. 
defeated by Eanulf, 2450. 
defeated by Ceorl, 2456. 
take Canterbury, 2466. 
defeat Beobrtwulf, 2468. 
defeated at Ockley, 2477. 
defeated at Sandwich, 2480. 
kill Hilda and Ealchere, 2505. 
defeated by Osric and ^thelwulf, 

come to Thanet, 2561. 
make truce, 2563, 2574, 2587, 3042, 

3046, 3090, 3116, 3202, 3469. 
land in East Anglia, 2571. 
at York, 2588, 2721, 2743, 2839, 

invited by Beorn Buttjecarl, 2694. 
defeat and kill JEM, 2826. 
take Nottingham, 2841. 
kill St. EadmuBd, 2871. 
fight at Englefield, 2952. 
kill ^thelwulf, 2960. 
defeated at Ashdowu, 2975. 
fight at Basing, 3009. 
fight at Merton, 8011. 
defeat yKIfred, 3030. 
set Ceolwulf over Mercia, 3061. 
besiege Cambridge, 3073. 
take Wareham, 3082. 
defeated by yElfred, 3087, 3191, 3322. 
take Exeter, 3098. 
are besieged there, 3110. 
settle at Chippenham, 3129. 
rabe a mound to Dbba, 3150. 
are baptized, 3225. 
Danish host at Folham, 3254. 
waste France, 3265, 8304. 
winter at Ghent, 3276. 
enter Le Maine, 8306. 
driven out of France, 3313, 8316. 
those of East Anglia troublesome, 

3359, 3393. 
hold London, 8863. 
land at Lympne and ravage south 

coast, 3411, 3421, 3426. 
defeated by Eadward I. atTettenhall, 


Danes— cow/. 

defeated by ^thelstan, 3517. 

carry Svein's bones to Norway, 4164. 

defeat Eadmund Ironside at Sberstone 

and Assingdon, 4242, 4250. 
English desert to, 4936. 
their tyranny over the English, 4769. 
London favourable to, 4802. 
defeated by Harold 11. at Stamford 

Bridge, 5233. 
their invasion in William I.'s reign, 

5417, 5436, p. 383. 

Deda, a Normau knight who entered Ely, 
p. 377. 
his description of the isle, p. 380. 

Danemarche. See Denmark. 
Daniel, bishop of the West Saxons (709- 
45), 1577, 1582. 

goes to Rome, 1685. 

his successor, 1776. 

Danois. See Danes. 

Dauenesse, Tosti de, companion of 
Hereward, p. 373. 

Davi. .Sec Davit. 
David, St., Kp. 221. 
David I., king of Scotland, 4667. 
Davit, poet, 6488, 6493, 6519. 
Dawston, Liddesdale, battle at, 1015. 
Deerhurst, Glouc, meeting of Cnut and 
Eadmund at, 4257. 

Defheschlre. See Devonshire. 
Defurel (Deverell?), 1918w, 1919. 
Deira, Deiron, 941, 1943, pp. 328, 331. 

Bosa, bishop of, 1455. 

^lla, king of, p. 330. See JElln, king 
of Northumbria. 

Deirum, Deirun. See Deira. 
Denemarche. See Denmark. 
Denmark, trade between England and, 
Adelbrit has four earldoms in, 71. 
Arthur conquers, 412, 1 L 218. 
given by Arthur to Hodulf. H. 602. 
Haveloc and Argeutille, arrive in^ 

496, H. 646. 
Walgar takes sons of Eadmund Iron" 
side to, 4514. 



Denmark — cont. 

Ciiut*s Bons in, 4566. 

part of Cnut's dominion, 4685. 

Godwine flees to, 4851. 

king of. See Gunter. 
Deorham (Derham), 989m. 
Derby, 4222w, Ep. 169. 
Derebi. See Derby. 
Derbara, Norf., 989/i. 
Deus-dedit, Arcbbishop of Canterbury 

(655-64), 1385, 1386. 
Dcvenescbire, Devenescire. See Devon- 
Devonshire, £p. 119. 

lords of, pursue Danes, 2459. 

Ubba buried in, 3153. 

Ordgar, a great man in, 3651. 

king Eadgar in, 3770. 
Dexestane. See Dawston. 
Dinau. See Ninian, saint. 
Dol, Raul de, a Breton, slain b^ Here ward, 
5686, 5690. 

Dolfinus, count, his widow, 5599i>, p. 397. 
See Alftrued. 

Don, river, Danes at, 2187. 

Donald, son of Malcolm of Scotland and 

Margaret, 4665. 
Donald VI., king of Scotland, 466a». 
Donecan. Se9 Duncan. 
Donhead, Wilts, parson of, 4063. 
Doneheue. See Donhead. 
Doneuald. See Donald. 
Dorchester, Oxon, 4391, £p. 65. 

Cjnegils of Wessez,baptized at, 1267. 

Cwichelm baptized at, 1272r. 
ancient capital of Southumbria, 1602. 

Dore,Derby»h (?), 2349. 
Doresete. See Dorset. 
Dorewik, Dorewit, 2349/1. 
Dorkecestre. See Dorchester. 
Dorobelle (Canterbury), Ep. 95. 
Dorset, Dorsete, Ep. 111. 

men of, fight against the Danes, 2453, 
Dover, Watliug street runs f^om, 4374n, 
Kp. 266. 

Dovpe. See Dover. 

Draitone, headborough (Villicus) of, com* 

panion of Hereward, p. 373. 
Dretecestrc. See Dorchester. 
Dreux, Eustace of, 5902. 
Dnfelde. Sec Driffield. 
Driffield, Yorks, Ealdfcrth, king of 

Northumbria dies at, 1570. 
Drithelem. See Dryhthelm. 
Driwes. See Dreux. 
Dryhthelm, monk of Mailrose, 1554. 
Duerherstede. See Deerhurst. 
Dumbarton, 934/i. 
Duncan II., king of Scotland, 4665. 
Dunnichen Hill, Forfar, 1496n. 
Dunstan, archbishop of Canterbury, (961- 

remonstrates with Eadgar I., 3944. 

absolves Queen ^Elfthryth,4084. 

dies. 4082, 4096. 
Durelme. See Durham. 
Durham, head of Oswald at, 1296. 

William I. spends Flemish force to, 

bishopric of, Ep. 186. 
Durrume. See Durham. 
Duti, comrade of Hereward, p. 372. See 


Eadbald, king of Kent (616-640). 
forsakes Christianity, 1105. 
marries his father's widow, 1 108. 
is reclaimed by Laurentius, 1121. 
receives ^Ithelburh and Faolinus, 

makes Faulinus bishop of Rochester, 

dies, 1273. 
Eadberht, king of Northumbria (737-68) 

1747, 1751, 1937. 
becomes a monk, 1941. 
dies, 1985. 



Eadberht, Pnen, king of Kent, 2181, 2182. 
captured by Onwulf, king of Mercia, 
Kadbert. See Eadberht. 
Eudbrith. See Eadberht. 
Eadbrith. See Heardberht. 
Eadbryht, king of Kent (748), dit-S; 1788. 
Eadburch. See Eadburg. 
Eadburir, daughter of Offa, 2064, 2066. 
Eadgar, king of Enghiud (957-975), 
his issue, 3590. 
his dominion, 3571. 
sends ^thelwold to sec /Elftbryth, 

marries ^Ifthryth to ^thelwoid, 

meets iElfthrytb, 3790. 
sends iBthelwoidto York, 3845. 
marries JEIfthrytb, 3910. 
founds bishopric!j, &c., 3925. 
honours kings of Wales, 3930. 
is rebuked by Duustau, 8940. 
dies, 3974. 
Eadgar, sou of Eadmund Ironside, 4516, 
4624-54 (see 4516m). 
marries daughter of king of Hungary, 

death of, 4654. 
Eadgar, JEtheling, 4516m, 4624m, 4652, 

49d7it, 5420n, 6182». 
Eadgar, king of Scotland (1098-1107), 

4667, 6182. 
Eadgith, saint, daughter of Eadgar, 3593. 
Eadgyth, queen of Eadward Confessor, 
dies and is buried in Westminster, 
5141, 5143. 
Eadhed, bishop of Lindsey, 146l7i. 
Eadmund, St., king of East Anglia, 2871- 
2924, 4159m. 
is defeated by the Danes, 2876. 
martyred, 2906. 

appears in a vision to Swegen, 4159m. 
Eadmund, I., king of England (941-6), 
3532- 64. 
drives out Bagnald and Anlaf, 8538. 
ravages Cumberland, 8540. 

Eadmund l.-^conL 
murdered, 3546. 
his successor, 3561. 
Eadmund, son of Eadgar 1., 3968m. 
claims the kiogdom, 4106 
helped by the Welsh, 4109. 
fights with Eadmund Ironside against 

dies, 4106m, 4217. 
buried at Hereford, 4218. 
Eadmund Ironside, king of England 
(1016), 4211-4668. 

fights against Cnut, 4211, 4226. 
Wales and West of England receive 

him, 4225. 
is defeated by earl Thork}tel at Sher- 

stone, 4228. 
defeated by Cnut at Assingdon 4245. 
intended combat with Cnut, 4257. 
makes treaty with Cnut, 4367. 
his portion of the kingdom, 4383. 
murdered by Eadric Streona, 4408, 

4410m, 4460m. 
his marriage, 4222. 
his children, 4440. 4489, 4550, 4668. 
Eadmund, son of Eadmund Ironside, 

4440m, 4516m, 4542m. 
Eadmund, son of Malcolm III. of Scotland 

and Margaret, 4665. 
Eadmund, son of Harold II., comes to 

England with a fleet, 5406, 5407. 
Eadmund, brother of yEthelred I., 4106, 

{See notes to both passages.) 
Eadmunt. See Eadmund. 
Eadnoth, resists invasion by Harold's bods, 

5405n, 5410. 
Eadred, king of England (946-55), 3548- 
seizes Northumberland, 3547. 
Scotch subject to, 3548. 
Eadric Streona* 4848* 

murders Sigeferth, 4222m. 

deserts Eadmund Ironside at Sher« 

stone, 4239. 
murders Eadmund, 4408. 
has his sons sent to Cnut, 4445. 
tells Cnut of the mnrderi 4450i 



Eadrie Streona — conl. 

is executed by Gout, 4475. 
a son of, 441071. 
£adwaid I., the Elder, king of England 
(901-26), 3469-8514. 
defeats the Danes at Tettenhall, 3476. 
receives London and Oxford from 

^thered, king of Mercia, 3483. 
wars on Severn, 3493. 
inherits Mercia from his sister, 3496. 
kills king Sihtric, 3506. 
gathers u host against Raguald, king 

of York, 3511. 
dies, 3513. 

is buried at Winchester, 3514. 
Eadward II., Martyr, king of England 
(975-8), 3592, 8975-4384. 
succeeds his father, Eadgar L, 3975. 
is killed by order of queen ^Ifthryth, 

cures wrought by his body, 4072. 
buried at Shaftesbur>', 4075, 4384. 
his kinsfolk, 4114. 
Eadward Confessor, king of England 
(1041-66), 4241-5143. 
brought up in Normandy, 4534. 
sent for by the English, 4785, 4854. 
in Hungary, 4787. 
crowned at London, 4860. 
laws of, 4861, Bp. 2777t. 
accuses God wine of murdering his 

brother, 4901. 
manies Godwine's daughter Eadgyth, 

banishes Hereward, p. 342. 
dies, 5137. 

buried at Westminster, 5143. 
Eadward, sou of Eadmund Ironside, 

4440n, 4516/1, 4542/1. 
Eadward. See Eadmund. 
Eadward de Schafteshire. See Eadward 

II., Martyr. 
Eadwig, king (956-9), 3562, 3566. 
Eadwine, king of Northumbria (617-83), 
rebuilds York minster, 1041. 
baptised, 1045-1208. 
seizes kingdom of Hsedwald, 1148. 

Eadwine — coni. 

Cwiohelm sends to kill him, 1171. 
leads an army into Wessex, 1190. 
i? killed by Ceadwalla, 1282. 
^thelburh, wife of, 1246. 
daughter of. See Eanfled. 
nephew of. See Oswine. 
Eadwine, earl, defends Lindsey from 
Tostig, 5177. 
! his lands in Yorkshire, 5322n. 

with Hereward, pp. 376, 379. 
Eadwine*s cliff, 1968. 
Eadwlf. See Ealdulf. 
Ealchere, ealdorman, 2481-2505. 
Ealdbriht, king's son, 1708. 
Ealdelf, Eadelm. See Aldhelm. 
Ealdferth, king of Northumbria (685- 
705), 1500. 
dies at Driffield, 1570. 
marries Cuthborh, 1671. 
Ealdfrid, Ealfnd. See Ealdferth. 
Ealdgyth, queen of Eadmund Ironside, 

Ealdred, archbishop of York (1061-9), 

5262, 6386. 
Ealdulf, high reeve, slain, 2015. 
Ealhstan, bishop, sent by Ecgbryht to fight 

in Kent, 2259. 
Eanbald, archbishop of York (780-796), 
makes Eardwulf king of Northumbria, 

Eanfled, daughter of Eadwine of North- 
umbria, 1183, 1196. 

Eanfrid, son of ^thelferth, of North- 
umbria, 1161. 

made king of Bernicia, 1258. 

Eanulf, the ealdorman, defeats the Danes, 

2450, 2464. 
Eardwulf, king of Northumbria (795-806), 
expelled, 2225. 
East Anglia, 1143, 1331, 1349,2484,2874, 
Ep. 55. 
Danes in, 2671, 3242m, 3250, 3859, 

bishopric of, 146 In. 
East Saxons, 846. 



Easter, first obeerred by king Ercenberht, 

£ata, bishop of Bemicia, 1456, 1501. 
Eata, father of Eadberht, king of North 

umbria, 1751» 1752, 1751, 1986. 
Eate. See Eata. 
Eboraca. See York. 
Ebrauc builds York, &c., 934m. 
builds Bamburgh, 986. 

Ebureth. See Alfred. 

Ecberitli. See Bcgberht. 

Ecbert. See Bcgberht and Ecgbryht. 

Ecbricht. See Ecgberht. 

Ecbrith. See Ecgbriht. 

Ecbrith. See Eadberht. 

Ecbrithstane. See Ecbryht*8 stone. 

Ecbruth. See Bcgberht. 

Ecbryht's stone (Brixton Deverell), 

Ecferd. See Ecgferth. 
Bcferd. See Eadberht. 
Ecfred. See Ecgferth. 
Ecga, Ecgan, high reeve, 2015. 
Ecgberht, archbishop of Yo^k (732-66), 
1741, 1755. 
buried at York, 1758. 

Ecgberht, saint, 1659, 1725. 

Ecgbriht, king of Kent (664-73), 1379, 

1389, 1407. 
Ecgbryht, king of VVea«ex (802-36), 
2215-2386, 2529, Ep. 75. 
succeeds Beorhtric, 2215. 
harries Wales, 2235. 
defeats Beomwulf of Mercia at 

Ellendune, 2256 
becomes king of England, 2270, 

2295, 2345. 
subdues the Welsh, 2354. 
defeated by the Danes at Channoath, 

defeats them at Hengston, 2379. 
dies, 2386. 
Ecgferth, son of Offii, king of Mercia, 

1932, 1938, 1935, 2055, 2175, 2178. 
Ecgferth, king of Northumbria (670-85), 
1393, 1466, 1499. 
drives away Wilfnth, 1453, 1622. 

Ecgferth — cont. 

Rends a host against the Scotch, 1479. 
makes St. Cuthbert a bishop, 1485. 
slain by men of Orkney, 1495. 
minster of, at Wearmouth, 2187fi. 
his sister. See Ostrythe. 

Eohenegode. See Ercongota. 
Eohferd. See Ecgberht. 
Edefrit. See uEthelfrith. 
Edelbald. See Eadbald. 
Rdelbald, Edelbalt. See ^thelbald. 
Edelbert. See ^thelheard. 
Edelbrit, Edelbert, Bdelbrith. See 

Bdelbrith.. See ^Kthelbryht, Eadberht. 
Edelburc, Edelburg. See iBthelburh. 
Edeldrad. See ^theldryth. 
Edelfrid. See ^thelferth, iEthelfiith. 
Edelfriz. See JEthelric. 
Edelgar. See ^thelgar. 
Edelhard. See iBthelheard. 
Edelhon, Edelhun. See ^thelhun. 
Edelinge. See Athelney. 
Edeket, Edelreth. See JEthelred. 
Edebis, Edelriz, king, 1316. 

Edelsi, Alsi, British king at Lincoln, 49, 62, 
78, 86, 100, 762, 900, H. 194, 199, 
214, 237, 293, 339, 346, 469, 578, 
578, 1001, 1024, 1029, 1062, 1077. 

flaveloc serves in his kitchen, 105, 
H. 241, 803. 

marries his sister to Adelbrit, king of 
Norfolk, 58, H. 205. 

marries his niece Argentille to 
Haveloc, 100, 167, H. 378. 

fights with Haveloc, 765, H. 1029. 

dies, 810, H. 1091. 

Haveloc succeeds to his kingdoniv 
816, H. 1091. 

Bdelsis. See Edelsi. 
Edelsueht. See ^thelswith. 
Edelwine. See iEgelwine. 
Edelwlf. See ^thelwulf. 
Edelwold. See ^thelwald. 
Edelwolf. See ^thelwnlf. 
Edelwolt, Edelwoth. See JEthelwold. 
Edenesdone. See Edington. 



Edgar. See Eadgar. 

Bdid, Sc'iDt. See Eadgith, saint. 

Edinburgh, 934n. 

Edingtoii, Wilts, 3188«. 

^Elfred defeats the Danes at, 3190. 

Edith, saint. See Eadgith, saint. 

Editthe. See Eadgyth. 

Edret. See Eadred. 

Edriz Estreine,, Edriz Estrene, Edriz 

Estriene. See EUidric Streona. 
Edulf. See Odulf. 
Edward. See Eadwurd. 
Edward, sou of Malcolm HI. aud Margaret, 


Kdwi. See Eadwig. 

Edwiue. See Eadwiue. 

Edwiues clivc. See Eadwiue'>s clift'. 

Edwolf. See ^thelwolf. 

Edwynus, earl. Turbertin, great grandson 

of, p. 373. 
Egle, Gilbert del. See Laigle, Gilbert de. 
Egtau. See JEgihsai, 
Ekenbright. See Adelbrict. 
Elbrith. See Ecgbryht. 
Eldret. See iEthelred. 
Elebuman. See Helathyru. 
Elendonc. See EUeudune. 
Elepcrz. See Ely. 
Elesa, Elese, father of Cerdic, 826m, 830, 

Elessinc (Elesa), 829, 831. 
Elflet. See rifled, .i^thelflsed. 
Elfred. See Alfred the Great. 
Blfrich. See M\fnc. 
Elfrid. See jVAfnc. 
Elfwine. See iElfwine. 
Elfwolt. See Alfwold. 
Elias de laEleche. See Fleche, Elias de la. 

Elle. See JFAle. 

Ellecroft or Ellecrosi, iElla killed at, 2880, 

EUecros. See Ellecroft. 
Ellendune, battle of, 2251. 
Ellertcn, Yorks, 2016n. 
Klstreuet. See ^Ifthrythe. 
Elstrued, Elstrnet. See iElftbryth. 
Elueret. See iElfred. 

Ely, Camb., S463m, 5563n. 
convent at, 1410. 
Alfred, son of iEthelred Unready, 

murdered at, 4832. 
Hereward aud the Euglish besieged in, 

5477, 5497, pp. 374^391. 
bishopric of, Ep. 137. 
cathedral, 4840n. 
sword offered at mass io, p. 369. 
Tiirstan, abbot of, p. 374, 376, 391. 
Wilfumus, monk of, p. 368. 
mouks of, capitulate to William 1., p. 

Isle of, described, p. 380. 
Emma (;Elfgifu),d. of Richard 1. duke of 

maiTies ^thelred II., 4137, 4129/1, 

flees to Normandy, 4155. 
at Winchester, 4207, 4799«. 
marries Cnut, 4532, 4540. 
her sons, 4533. 
induces Cnut to imprison sons of 

Eadmuud, 4549. 
her daughter by Cnut, 4672. 
Emme. 5ee Emma. 
Emor. See Eomer. 
Engelfed. See Euglefield. 
England, why so called, 32. 
Danes invade, 2068. 
tribute to Rome paid by, 6473. 
old histories of, 2320-2340, 3461, 

6467, 6469. 
description of, Ep. 23-200. 
used for the part of Britain inhabited 

by English, H. 173. 
Englefield, Berks, 2947. 
English, invaders of Britain, 23, 30, 36, 
830, 854, 879, 898. 
distinguished by Gktimar from Saxons, 

Easter and Lent first observed by, 

as opposed to Danes during reign of 

Danish kings, 4525, 4545, 4551, 

despised by the Danes, 4767. 
their privileges at Rome, 4741. 



Euglibli — cont. 

serving in army of Wiliiam I., 5484, 

resist William, under Here ward, 

crown William II., 5778. 
English dances, p. 366. 
English language, 3451, 3948, 6469, £p. 

English method of knighting, p. 368. 
English school at Rome, Burhred of Mercia 
dies in, 3058. 
enfranchised, 3350, 4738. 
Eomer attempts to murder Eadwiuc, 1173. 
Eoppa. See Cobba. 
Ercenberht, king of Kent, 1275-1377. 

first English king to £i6t in Lent, 

and to observe Easter, 1279. 
his wife, Seaxburh, 1281, 1407m. 
his daughter Ercongota, 1283. 
dies, 1377. 
Erchenbert. See Ercenberht. 
Ercherbricht. See Ercenberht. 
Ercongota, daughter of Ercenberht, 1283, 

Eric Barn, son of Swegcu II., king of 

Denmark, 5434m. 
Eric the Qood, king of Denmark, 5434ii. 
Erkenbright. See Ercenberht. 
Ermingestrate, Ep. 261. 
Emald. See Eadnoth. 
Emingestrete. 5«e Ermingestrate. 
Emold. See Eadnoth. 
Emnlf, earl, goes to Normandy with 

William II., 5895. 
Emuls. See Eanulf. 
Escepaie, Esoepeie. See Sheppey. 
Escorestau. See Sherstone. 
Escose, Escoteis, Escoz. See Scots. 
Esendune. See Ashdown. 
Esenesdone. See Ashdown. 
Esewine. See JEscwine. 
Esexe. See Essex. 
Esla, 826ti. 
Eslage, 834. 
Esling, 833, 834. 
Espac. See Espec, Walter. 

Esparlon, France, 5882. 

Espec, Walter, 6448, 6453, 6455. 

Essex, Ep. 127. 

Mellitus preaches in, 1070. 

in East A.nglia, 1144. 

men of, send hostages to Ecgbryht, 

in ^thelbryht's kingdoms, 2585. 
kingdom of, Ep. 51. 
Esswitune, saint. See Swithun, saint. 
Estanford. See Stamford. 
Estein. See Hasten. 
Estengle. See East Anglia. 
Estrith, sister of Cuut, 4797n. 
EstrueUi. See ^Ifthrythe. 
Estsexe. See Essex. 
EHtsexiens. See East Saxou^. 
Estutesbirie. See Tutbury. 
Ethan. See Eata. 

Ethelred, son of Malcolm III. and Mar- 
garet, 4663/1. 
Eu, William, count of, with William II. in 
Normandy, 5899. 
conspiracy of, 6129n, 6140. 
challenged and vanquished by Gefifrai . 
Baignard, 6142. 
Eustace of Boulogne, 4663/i, 6285. 
Eustace of Dreux, 5902. 
Everwic, Everwich, Everwics. See York. 
Everwiz. See York. 
Evewich. See York. 
Evreux, William, count of, 5901. 
Evrewiz. See York. 
Evriwes. See Evreux. 
Ewldre. See Appledore. 
Excestre, Execestre. See Exeter. 
Exeter, 3606, 4392. 
Danes at, 3098. 

Alfred besieges the Danes in, 3110. 
bishopric of, Ep. 122. 




Falca, surname of Lewinus Mone, one of 
Hereward'8 companions, p. 373. 

Farimnagil, Farinmail, British king, 992. 

Feadecanlee. See Fethanieag. 

Felix, monk of Jarrow, 1637n. 

Ferrers, Henry de, 5687n. 

Fethaoleag, Cutha killed at, 998. 

Finchale, Durham, ld76n. 

Fitz Gilbert. Balph, 6456. 

Fitz Gilbert, Richard earl of Clare, 6350. 

Fitz Hamon, Robert, at William IVn 
death, 6357, 6395. 

Fitz Osbert, William, earl of Hereford, 

Flambard, Raniilf, 5818. 
Flanders, 5131n. 

Hereward in, pp. 853, 354, 366. 
Flanders, count of. See Baldwin. 
Fleche, Elias de la, count of Maine, 5927- 

in prison in Rouen, 5927. 

William II. restores Le Mans to bim, 

he becomes his liegeman, 5957. 

his death, 5962n. 

Flemenc, Flemeng. See Flemings. 

Flemings, come over with earl Tostig, 

desert him and return, 5185. 
sent to Durham by William I., and 

massacred by the English, 5423, 

hold of William II., 6283. 

Fordhere. See Forthhere. 

Forfar, 1496n. 

Forthhere, killed by Eomer, 1181. 

Forthhere, bishop of Sherborne, 1579, 

Foss, Fosse, Roman Road, 941, 4374, 
Ep. 270. 

Frsena, Danish earl, at the battle of Ash- 
down, 2989* 

France, Danish invasion of, 8862-3316, 
3399, 3406, 3435. 
William II. feared in, 5965. 
Walter Tirel's possessions io, 6260. 

Frane. See Frsena. 

Freawine, 826n. 

Frederic, brother of earl William de 
Warenne, p. 369. 

Freegis, speech by, 4963. 

Fregis, mentioned in Domesday, 4968it. 

French, Frenchmen, 6303. See Franoe. 
used for Normans in England, 5248, 
5270, 5307, 5402, 5484, 5512, 
5577, 5598, 5635, 5676, 5698, 
Ep. 227, 242, pp. 360, 366, 367, 

French Unguage, 6442, Ep. 90. 

French monks drowned by an English- 
man, p. 374. 

Freodagaring, 837. 

Freodegar. See Freothogar. 

Freothogar, 826n, 838. 

Fretewine, (Freawine), 837. 

Frethem, 998n. 

Fridlevus,king of Denmark, 780n. 

Frome, 3606. 

Frome, river, Cnut enters mouth of, 4987. 

Front. See Frome, river. 

Frum^. See Frome. 

Fuleford. See Fulford. 

Fuleham. See Fulham. 

Fulford, Yorks, victory of Tostig and 
Harold Hardrada at, 5215. 

Fulham, Danes at, 3254. 

Fulk IV., count of Anjou, 5792n. 


Gaenoch, comrade of Hereward, p. 368. 
Gaifer, king, grandfather of Haveloe, 



Qaimar, S995, 8893, 6488, 6rS08. 

account of his writing his book, eidS- 

had written of Troy, 6528. 
Grainsboroagh, Line, Swegen dies at, 4159. 
Ghileis. See Welsh. 
Galloway, Strechied, king of, 3069. See 

Gant. See Ghent. 
Gardimbre, city of Hungary, 4586. 
Gateshead, Durham, 5455. 
Gatesheued. See Gateshead. 
Gauter del Bois, slain by Hereward, 5610. 
Gawaleis. See Welnh. 
Gayuesburc. See Gainsborough. 
GefiErei Martel. .See Martet, GeofiVey. 
Gefmun, Gefmund, bishop of Rochester, 

Gefrai del Maine, imprisoned by Here- 
ward, 5611. 
Gefrai en Gulevent, 6121. 
Geine the Coward, king in Britain, 908. 
Geldesdone Hill, 4815. 
Geldesfort See Guildford. 
Geleweie. See Galloway. 
Geoffrey of Mayenne, 661 In. 
Geraint, king of Wales, 1630, 1632. 
Gerd. See Gyrth. 
Gerentin. See Geraint. 
Geri, kinsman of Hereward, 5501, 5574, 

p. 398, 309. 
Gememue. See Yarmouth. 
Gewis, 835. 
Ghent, Danes winter at, 8277, 3284. 

(Gant), Gisebritui de, p. 343. 
Gier, attacks Hereward, 5581. 
Giffard, Walter, goes to Normandy, with 
William II., 5899. 
knighted with thirty youths, 6083, 

6086, 6103. 
his pedigree, 6084n. 
Giffart. ^See Giffi^rd. 
Gilbert of Tunbridge, present at William 

II's. death, 6351. 
Gildas, 41. 
Gilde. See Gildas. 
Gilebert. See Gilbert. 
Gillemar. See Gaimar. 

Gillingham. 4815n. 
Ginnes. See Guisnes. 
Glrrii (Fenmen), p. 352. 

Gisebritus de Gant, p. 843. 

Giwis, 826». 

Glamorgan, bishopric at, Ep. 21 G. 

Glastonbury, 443 In. 

Gloecestre. See Gloucester. 

Gloucester, 3870, 4391, Ep. 198. 

taken by Cerdic, 866. 

conquered by Cuthaand Ceawlin, 993. 

Ceolwttlf, king of, 1032. 

meeting between Eadmund and Cnut 
at, 4268. 

mistake for Colchester, H. 1085. 

Lowine of, 919. 

Robert, earl of, 6449, 6454. 
Gloucestershire, Ep. 155. 
Godefrai. See Qodtrey. 

Godewine. See Godwine. 

Godfrey de Bouillon, king of Jerusalem, 

Godricus de Corbi, **nepo8'* of the Karl 
of Warwick, pp. 372, 373. 

Godrum. iSee Guthorm. 
Godwine, earl, 4796-5042. 

his designs on the crown, 4799. 
Normans massacred by order of, 4823. 
has jElfred, son of ^thelred II., 

murdered, 4842. 
flees to Denmark, 4851. 
returns, 4868. 
is tried and restored, 4901 . 
Eadward marries daughter of, 5029. 
dies, and is buried at Winchester, 

5041, 5042. 
his sons. See Harold, Tostig, Gyrth, 

his wife Gytha, 4767n. 
Godwine, son of Harold II., comes to 
England with a fleet, 5406, 5407. 

Godwinns, Gille, comrade of Hereward, 

p. 372. 
Godwin, the son of Guthlac, p. 372. 
Gonild, Gounild. See Gunhild. 
Gonter, Gountcr, See Gunter. 



Goyinus Gille, companion of Here ward, r 

p. 373. 
Goyinus de Rothewelle) . companion of 

Hercward, p. 373. 
Grantcestre. See GrautcheHter. 
Grantchester, Camb., 1605. 
Grantebrige. See Cambridge. 
Gregory y saint, 960. 

Rends Aogufitine to England, 1024,2061. 
Griffin. See Griffith. 
Griffith, king of North Wales, 5071, 5080. 
Grim, Danish baron, Gunter entrusts his 
wife and child to, H. 57. 

flees with them, 424, 579, H. 89, 820. 

arrives at Grimsby, 437, H. 131. 

becomcK a fisherman, 369, 380, H. 

brings up Uaveloc, 453, H. 158. 

sends Haveloe to travel, H. 1G5. 

Haveloc considers him his father, H. 
541, 587. 

his daughter. See Kelloc. 

his sons, 332, 334, 535, 547, 593, H. 
188, 555, 638, 680. 

his wife. See Sebrug. 
Grimesbi, Grimesby. See Grimsby. 
Grimsby, Line, Haveloc brought up at, 
307, H. 130, 539. 

Haveloc returns to, 329, 617, H. 556. 

named from Grim, H. 130, 142, 800. 

Danes at, 2582. 

merchant of, 604. 
Grugan, Aluricus, companion of Hereward, 

5575, pp., 372, 373. 
Guader (Waers)^ Ralph, earl of Norfolk 

and Suffolk, 5722, p. 390. 
Gualeis. See Welsh. 
Guales. See Wales. 
Gudfrid. See Guthfrith. 
Gudlac. See Guthlac. 
Gudret. See Cuthred. 
Gudrum, Gudrun. See Guthorm. 
Gnenelinge, 209 1 . 
Gui. See Guy. 
Guildford, 4811. 
Guisnes, coimt of, p. 354. 

Hoibrictus his nephew, p. 355. 
Gulac, seint. See Guthlac, saint. 

Gulevent, Geoffrey en, slays Malcolm III. 

at Alnwick, 6121. 
Guuhild, daughter of Cnut, wife of 

Emperor Henry HI., 4674, 4760. 
Gunner, 3585n. 
Gunnora, wife of Richard I., duke of 

Normandy, 6084yt. 
Gunter, king of Denmark, father of Have- 
loc, 403-684, H. 25. 

slain in battle agaiust Arthur, 415, 
H. 35, 597. 

entrusts his queen and son to Grim, 
H. 57. 

his ca.stle, H. 53. 

his bom, 673, 684, 716. 

Haveloc like him, H. 747. 

his steward. See Sigar. 
Gurmond. See Gurmund. 
Gunnund, Gurmunt, Danish king, 3404. 

at Cirencester, 3242. 

in East Anglia, 3251. 

harries France, 3262, 3404. 

slain, 3282, 3342. 
Guthfrith, kmg of Northumbria, 3518. 
Guthlac, saint, 1635, 5732. 
Guthlac, Godwin son of, p. 872. 
Guthorm, Danish king, besieges Cambridge, 

takes Wareham, 3082. 

baptized, 3215. 

named ^thelsUn, 3221, 3382. 

dies, 3242ft, 3379. 

buried at Thetford, 3388. 
Guy, French sheriff, 5512. 
Gyrth, brother of Harold II., 5265, 5343. 
Gytha, wife of Godwne, 4797ii. 


Hferethaland, 209 In. 
Hiesten, Danish chief, 3431, 3434. 
Haldene. See Healfdene. 
Halfdene. See Healfdene. 



Halielande. See Holy Islaud. 

Halselin, a Norman, kills Hereward, 5691 . 

Hampshire, 1819, 2553, £p. 104. 

men of, 2557, 3171. 
Hamtone, Hamtane. See Northampton, 

Hamund. See Heahmund. 
Hanbury, Wulfherc of Mercia bnried at, 

Ilaiite8chirc. See Hampshire. 
Harald, Danish earl, at the battle of Ash- 
down, 2990. 
Harald, Trie, son of, 3555. 
Harald. See Harold. 
Harald Hariage. See Harold Hardrada. 
Harald, name assumed by Hereward, p. 

Haralt. See Harald. 
Hardcnuth. See Harthacnut. 
Hardechunt. See Harthacnut. 
Harfagri. See Harold Hardrada. 
Harold I., king of England, 4677, 4756, 

4797, 4799n. 
Harold II., king of England, 5076-5407. 
with Tostig, subdues Wales, 5076. 
defeats Tostig and Harold Hardrada, 

takes homage of Harold Hardrada's 

son, 5242. 
killed at Hastings, 5339. 
sons of, 5407. 
Harold Hardrada, king of Norway, 5195- 
agreement with Tostig, 5199. 
slain by Harold II., 5231. 
his son, 5239. 
Harold, son of Swegen III., king of Den- 
mark, invades England, 5434. 
Harold. See Harald. 
Harthacnut, king of England (1039-41), 

4677, 4757, 4787n. 
Hastings, French build castle at, 5249. 

battle of, 5267-5342. 
Hatfield Chase, 1226n. 
Haveloc, son of a Danish king, also called 
Cuheran, 102-817, 898, 2085, 2099n, 

H. 17-1105. 
brought up at Grimsby, 306, H. 143. 

Haveloc — cuni. 

is cook to king Edelsi, 105, H. 241. 
marries Argentine, 167, H. 378. 
flame issues from mouth of, 245, 

H. 72, H. 436, H. 838. 
returns to Grimsby, 329, H. 556. 
goes to Denmark, 496, H. 647. 
blows the horn of Gnnter, 716, H. 

conquers and slays Odulf, 742, H. 

succeeds to kingdom of Edelsi, 815, 

H. 1097. 
Sidroc, his descendant, 2998. 
Headleaga, Guthorm buried at, 3384n. 
Heahmund, bishop of Sherborne, killed at 

Healfdene, Danish king, at battle of Ash- 
down, 2983. 
fights against the Ficts, 3067. 
his brother. See Ubba. 
his nephew. 5«e Harald. 
Heanbald. iS^ee Eanbald. 
Heanflet. See Eanfled. 
Heanfrid. See Eanfrid. 
Heardberht, 2013. 
Heathen. See Danes. 
Heaufnd. See Eanirid. 
Hecburch. See Ecgbriht. 
Hecce, first English bishop of Lindsey, 

Hecferd. See Ecgferth. 
Hecfildesham. See Hexham. 
Hectheuesham. See Hexham. 
Hectilham. See Hexham. 
Heddington, Wilts, 3188n. 
Hedfelde, Eadwine of Northumbria, slain 

at, 1226. 
Helathym, 2016. 
Helies. See Fleche, Elias de la. 
HeimoD, Heimun. See Fitz Hamon, 

Helmeslac. See Helmsley. 
Helmsley, Yorks, 6447. 
Hely. See Ely. 
Henges. See Hengist. 
Hengesdune. See Hengston. 
Hengestdown. See Hengston. 



Hengis, Ilengist, U, 27, 827, 842, 847, 

Ep. 23, 34. 
Hengston Hill, Ecgbryht defeats the Danes 

at, 2377. 
Henri. Se^ Henry. 
Henry II., emperor, 4516;?. 
Henry III., emperor, marries Gunhild, 

daughter of Cnut, 4674«, 4760. 
Henry, duke of Bavaria, 4790«. 
Henry I., king of England, 4663n, 6210, 

6484, 6189n, Ep. 2. 
Heota. See Eata. 

Hereford, Eadmund, son of Eadgar I., 
buried at, 4218. 
William Fitz Osbert, earl of, 5725n. 
bishopric of, Ep. 160. 
Hereford. See Hertford. 
Herefordshire, Ep. 159. 
Here ward, 5469-5710, pp. 339-404. 
his parentage, p. 341. 
description of, p. 341. 
kills a bear, p. 343. 
kills a giant in Cornwall, p. 344. 
in Ireland, p. 347. 
rescues a Cornish princess, p. 849. 
in Flanders, pp. 352-364. 
kills the Normans in his father's 
house and revenges his brother's 
deathi p. 364. 
is knighted, p. 368. 
leader of English against Normans, 

5469, p. 367. 
revisits Flanders, p. 870. 
names of his followers, 5574-5, pp. 

is besieged in Ely by William I., 5500, 

p. 374. 
goes to the Norman camp disguised 

as a potter, p. 385. 
bumi the Norman works, p. 388. 
takes refuge in Bmneswald, p. 392. 
is attacked there by Gier, 5583. 
captures the abbot of Peterborough, 

p. 394. 
sacks Peterborough, 5557, p. 395. 
St. Peter appears to, p. 395. 
is repulsed at Stajiford, 5567. 
does homage to William, 5605, p. 400. j 

Hereward — conL 

imprisoned, p. 401. 
serves William for many years, p. 404. 
killed by Normans, 5616, 5692. 
his >vivefl. See Turfirida, Alftrued. 

Herhethe, Camb. (?), p. 375. 

Hirundo, Hereward's mare, pp.363, 385. 

Hering, Herins, Scotch leader, 1019. 

Hermengarde, wife of Fulk IV., count of 
Ai:gou, 5792n. 

Hemiche. See Bemicia. 

Hertford, synod at, 1880tt. 

Hertfordshire, Ep. 148. 

Hese. See Heugh. 

Hestdene, 1596. 

Hestengle. See East Anglia. 

Hestsexe. See Essex. 

Hetmund, son of Harold Hardrada, 52S9». 

Heugh and Caraw, lakes, 1627. 

Beorhtfrith fights with the Picts 
between, 1627. 

Heveloc. See Haveloc. 

Hexham, bishop Eata dies at, 1501. 

bishop Acca driven from, 1734. 

Alfwold buried at, 2096n. 

relics of King Alfwold (Oswald) at, 

St. Cuthbert, bishop of, 1490, 1493n. 

John, bishop of, 1502. 

Hextildesham. See Hexham. 
Hibald. See Higebryht. 
Higbald, saint, bishop of Lindisfame, 

Higebryht, bishop of Dorchester, 2056. 
Hilda, Hilde, abbess of Whitby, 1474. 
Hinne. See Ine. 

Hlothere, bishop of the West Saxons,I396. 
Hlothere, king of Kent, 1518. 
Hodulf. See Odulf. 
Hogor, kinsman of Hereward, p. 373. 
Hoibrictus, nephew of the count of Guiines, 
p. 355. 

Hoiland. See Holland. 
Hol&nde. See Holland. 
Holdemeis. See Holdemess. 
HoldemesB, Danes come through, 2708. 



Holland, Line, in the kingdom of Adelbrit 
and Haveloc, 75, 805, H. 1085. 
in Southiunbrian kingdom, 1596. 
sends troops to William I., p. 892. 
Holmedene, 1595. 
Holy Island, harried by Malcolm III. of 

Scotland, 5104. 
Horepol, Robert de, pp. 401, 403. 
Hors. See Horsa. 
Horsa, 827, 842, 847. 
Hoy land. See Holland. 
Hnbald. See Higbald, saint. 
Huda, Hude, ealdorman, 2499, 2505. 
Hugh, earl. See Chester. 
Hugo, the Breton, chaplain of Hereward, 

p. 371. 
Hugo, the Norman, priest, companion of 

Hereward, p. 878. 
Humber, river, boundary of kingdoms, 51, 
boundary of a bishopric, £p. 153. 
Saxons spread from Caithness to, 11. 
Danes in, 2163, 2185, 2578, 2582, 

Ecgbryht, king of all south of, 2297. 
Ecgbryht leads army beyond, 2348. 
Danes conquer north of, 2836. 
Eadmund I. leads army beyond, 3584. 
^thelwold ruler north of, 3847. 
Swegen subdues people north of, 4147. 
Eadgar ^theling in, 4657. 
Tostig in, 5173, 5188, 5208, 5209. 
^gelwine and Siward Bam in, 5460. 
Humbre. See Humber. 
Hunfert, Hunferth, bishop of Winchester, 

Hungary, Eadmund Ironside's sons in, 

4584, 4588, 4781, 4787. 
Hungary, king of, 4587-4645. 

receives Eadmund Ironside's sons, 

marries his daughter to Eadgar, 4039. 
makes him his heir, 4641. 
queen of, 4587. 
Salomon, king of, 4587n. 
Stephen, king of, 4587n, 5790n. 
Hnngrie. See Hungary. 
Huntedon. See Huntingdon. 

U 51689. 

Huntedune. See Huntingdon. 
Huntendone. See Huntingdon. 
Huntingdon, 1603, 5548. 
Huntingdonshire, 1603, 4921, Ep. 148 

p. 392. 
Huon. See Muncumeri, Hugh de. 
Huons. See Chester, Hugh, earl of. 
Hurchullus, companion of Hereward, p. 

Huun. See Chester, Hugh, earl of. 
Hwiccas, 2217n. 


Ida, king of Northumbria, 930-49, 1155. 

first English king of Northumbia, 

restored Hamburgh, 984. 

fought against the Britons, 943. 
Ide. See Ida. 
Ikenild, road, Ep. 259. 
H. See JElle. 
Uchester, Somerset, 4374n, 
Iley, Wilts? 3188. 

Ine, king of Wessex (688-728), 1539, 

goes to Rome, 1542, 1710. 

deposes Geraint, king of Wales, 1629. 

fights at Wansborougb, 1640. 

builds Taunton, 1692. 

wars in Surrey and Sussex, 1701. 
Ingild, Ingilt, brother of Ine, 16BB. 
Ingvar, Danish king, 3066, p. 328. 

takes Nottingham, 2842. 

martyrs St. Eadmund, 2896, 2931. 

in London, 3066. 

his brother. See Ubba. 
Inne. See Ine. 
lona, 965, 1664fi. 
Ireland, expedition to, 1593n. 

Hereward in, pp. 347, 354, 355, 856. 





Ireland — cofit, 

king's son of, pp. 347, 349, 350, 351, 
353, 353. 
Ireloune de Leycestre, 919. 
Iric. See Yric. 

Isle of Wight, held by king Cuthred and 
king Coenbyhit, 1364. 
given by Wulfhere, king of Mercia to 
JEthelwold, king of the South 
Saxons, 1866. 
men of, baptised, 1369. 
harried by Mul and Ceadwalla, king 

of Wessex, 1524. 
Tostig's attack on, 5 161 it. 

I wain, king of Murray and Lothian, 5. 
Iwar. See Ingvar. 
Iwarz. See Ingvar. 

Justus, 1038r 

consecrates Paulinus, 1046n. 
bishop of liochester, 1064, 1067. 
archbishop of Canterbury, 1 186. 


Janbryht, archbishop of Canterbury 

(763-90), 2056n. 
Jason, 6529. 

Jerosalem, taken by Robert, Duke of Nor- 
mandy, 5752, 6207. 
left by him to Godft^y de Bouillon, 

Johans. See John, saint. 
John, saint, archbishop of York, bishop 
of Hexham, 1508. 

bishop of Chester, 1506, 1508. 

goes to Beverley, 1-6 1 2. 

buried there, 1690. 

Jon. See John, saint. 

Judith, daughter of Charles the Bald, wife 

of ^.thelwulf, 2522, 3343n, 3344. 
Judith, countess, sister of Baldwin of 

FlanderR, wife of earl Tostig, 

5100,.5116, 5182. 
Justin. See Justus. 


Kaer Ebrauc (York) 9849t. 

Eanterbire. See Canterbury. 

Kerliun. See Caerleon. 

Karlun. See Charles. 

Karrewein. See Caerwent. 

Karrun. See Charmoath. 

Kateneis. See Caithness. 

Kawode. See Cawood. 

Kelloc, daughter of Grim, 832-485, H.559- 

tells HaveloG who he is, 377, H. 591. 

assists him to go to Denmark, 485, 

H. 622. 

Kempsford, Welsh defeated at 2219. 

Kenbrit. See €k>enbyrht. 

Kenegilsing. See CynegUsing. 

Kenegilz. See Cynegils. 

Keuehert. See Cyneheard. 

Kenewlf. See Cynewulf. 

Kenewolf. See Cynewulf. 

Kenny Castle, Devon, S148ii. 

Kenret. See Cenred. 

Kenriz. See Cynric. 

Kent, 3413, Ep. 33, 93. 

^thelburh, wife of Eadwine of 

Northumbria, and Paulinus go 

to, 1248. 

^thelred, king of Afercia, harries, 


Mul and Ceadwalla harry, 1522, 1530. 

Cenwulf, king of Mercia, harries 


conquered by Ecgbryht, 2262, 2267. 

Hsesten in, 3438. 

kings of, 1988. 



Kent — cow/. 

See ^thelberht, Eadbald, Ercen- 
berht, Wihtred, Swebheanl, Ead- 
berht, CQthred, ilCtbelbrjbt, 
^:thelwulf, Ealchere. 
Kenteis. See Kentislimen. 
Eentisbmen, make truce with Danes, 
put to flight by Cutha and Ceawlin, 

resint king Eadwine of Northombria, 

burn Mol, 1526. 
pay Ine for doing so, 1555. 
fight with the Danes, 2432, 2486, 
Eentwine. See Centwine. 
Kenwealh. See Cenwalh. 
Kerboga. See Curbarant. 
Kesteven, Line., 1596. 
King's cliff, 2016. 
Kingston, 4078ii. 

Kinuith Castle. See Kenny Castle. 
Kjnsige, archbishop of York (1051-60), 


Laigle, Gilbert of, present at William II.'s 

death, 6353, 6369. 
Lancaster, 4224. 
Lancastre. See Lancaster. 
Lande, castle of, France, 5792n. 
Latin, books in, 6448. 
Laurent, Laurentius, archbishop of 

Canterbury (605-19), 1111, 1125. 
Le Magne, Le Maigne. See Maine, Le. 
Le Mans. See Mans, Le. 
Leadwald. See Leodwald. 
Lefwinus Prat, companion of Hereward, 

p. 373. 
Lefricus. See Leofric. 
Leicester, 4222n, Ep. 66, 197. 
battle at, 1083. 
Ireloune de, 919. 
Leicester, Aduinus, carl of. See Eadwine, 


Leicestershire, Ep. 149, p. 392. 

Leicestre. See Leicester. 

Lenbury, 986?i. 

Leneimeis, Robert de Belesme, earl of, 

Leodwald, 1752. 
Leofric, earl, at Grod wines trial, 4923. 

speech of, 4969. 

dies, 5065. 

buried at Coventry, 5070. 

Leofric the Black, companion of Hereward, 
p. 340. 

Leofric, the deacon of Bourne, pp, 339, 

373, 383, 402. 
Leofric of Bourne, father of Hereward, 

pp. 341, 365. 
Leofwine, brother of Harold IL, at battle 

of Hastings, 5265, 5343. 

Leswine. See Leofwine. 
Letoldus. Saxon knight, p. 398. 
Leueric, Leueriz. See Leofric. 
Lenricus. See LeoA*ic. 
Levipes, Martinus, comrade of Hereward, 
pp. 343, 364. 

Levipes, horse named, p. 363. 
Hereward kills him, p. 392. 

Lewine, earl, 4917. 

Lewine. See Leofwine. 

Lewinus Mone, companion of Hereward, 

p. 373. 
Lewis. See Louis. 
Leycestre. See Leicester. 
Liban. See Lilla. 
Lichesfeld. See Lichfield. 
Lichfield, archbp. of, 2056n. 

Ceolred of Mercia buried at, 1652. 
Lidwiccas, fleet fh)m, 3491. 

derivation of, 3491 n. 

Lidwiche. See Lidwiccas. 

Lile de With. See Isle of Wight. 

Lilla, killed by Eomer, 1181. 

Limene. See Lympne. 

Limmene. See Lympne. 

Lincoln, 94, 4222ii, 4374tt, Ep. 66, 144. 

Edelsie (Alsi), king of, 50, H. 196, 

Haveloc at, H. 192, 240. 

S 2 



Lincoln — conL 

Haveloc, king of, H. 1098. 

bishopric of, Ep. 145. 

tower of, p. 373. 
Lincolnshire, 159.5n, Ep. 147, p. 392. 
Lindeseie, Lindesie. See Li'ndsej. 
Lindas ware. See Lindsey. 
Lindisfame, 137 6n, 2164n. 
Lindsey, Line, in Edelsie's kingdom, 50, 
85, 94, H. 196. 

Jlaveloc brought to, 581, 

in Haveloc^s kingdom, H. 1098. 

Hecce, first English bishop of, 1460. 

in kingdom of Southambria, 1595. 

Danes harry, 2164, 2184. 

submits to Swcgen, 4142n. 

jEthelred ravages, 4179, 4184. 

harried by earl Tostig, 5174. 

earl Eadwine comes to, 5178. 

earl of. See Uhtred. 

a hermit of, H. 495. 
Lisle de With. See Isle of Wight. 
Liueret, companion of Hereward, p. 373. 
Llandaff, bishopric of, Ep. 31 6n. 
Llydaw, British name of Brittany, 3491ft. 
Loddon, river, 2964n. 
Loeneis. See Lothian. 
Loewis. See Louis. 
Lohier. See Hlothere. 
Lombardy, 4763. 

emperor of, 5861. 
London, people of, forsake Cbristianity, 

Danes at, 2417, 2470n, 8044, 3066, 
3361, 3368, 4801. 

taken by j^lfred, 3378. 

held by ^thered, 3375, 3479. 

given up by him to Eadward I., 3485. 

king Eadgar at, 8940. 

iEthelred Unready comes to, 4191. 

Cnut at, 4387, 4447, 4699. 

Eadmund dies at, 44 1 On. 

Godwine at, 4801. 

Eadward Confessor crowned at, 4860. 

William I. at, 5536. 

William II. at, 6108. 

bishopric of, Ep. 129. 

bishop of See Mcllitaf?. 

London — cont. 

St. Paul's Cathedral, iBthelred buried 
at, 4199. 
Londree. See London. 
Lot, Iwain's brother, In. 
Lothian, earldom of, £p. 73. 

Iwain, king of, 6. 
Louis III., king of France, 3291, 3296, 

3341, 8343. 
Louis le Begae, king of France, S842n. 
Loavain. See Adelaide. 
Lowine, Saxon king, 919. 
Lowis. See Louis. 
Ludecan, king of Mercia, 2284, 2291. 

Luie (London ?), city, 2470. 
Luitune, taken by Cuthaand Ceawlin,966. 
Lumbardie. See Lombardy. 
Lundenburg, 2470n. See London. 
Lundres. See London. 
Lutecan. See Ludecan. 
Luteran. See Ludecan. 
Lympne, Danes land at, 3412-25. 
Lyndeseye. See Lindsey. 


Macbeth, king of Scotland, 5044, .'>045, 

5050, 5051. 
Macheden. See Macbeth. 
Mffirieswegen, speaks in Oodwine*s behalf, 
left in the north by Harold II., 5255 

Maese, river, 8262ii. 

Mahald. See Matilda. 

Maine, Le, Danes in, 3308, 3402. 

insurrection in, 561 In. 

William II. in, 5787. 

people of, besiege English in Le 
Mans, 5791, 5808, 5918. 

subject to William II., 5964, 6282. 

earl of. See Flecne, Elias de la. 
Maine, Gefrai ; del, imprisoned by Hero- 
ward, 5611. 



Malcolm II., king of Scotland, makes 
treaty with Cnut, 4750. 

dies, 4754. 
Malcolm III., king of Scotland (1057-93). 

manieB Margaret, gister of Eadgar 
^theling, 4516n, 4650, 4660. 

makes peace with Eadward Confessor, 

harries Northumberland, 5102. 

makes peace, 5117. 

Tostig gives gifts to, 5192. 

William I., leads host against, 5714. 

meets William I., at iVbemethy, 57 1 5. 

killed at Alnwick, 61 IS, 6128. 

his wife. See Margaret. 

his sons, 4668, 6l82n. 

Malcolom. See Malcolm. 

Malcolub. See Malcolm. 

Maloolum. See Malcolm. 

Malcolumb. See Malcolm. 

Malet, Robert, p. 401. 

Malvern, from Lancaster to, receive 
Eadmund Ironside, 4224. 

Manasar, old, count in Flanders, p. 353. 

Mans, Le, Fr«nce,Hereward going to, 6607. 
William II. besides, 5787, 5982. 

people of Maine and A^joa besiege 
English in, 5798, 5807. 

William IL restores, 5946, 5950. 

Mansel. See Maine, le, people of. 

Margaret, wife of Malcolm III., king of 
Scotland, 4516ft, 4624n, 4649, 4650, 

her sons, 4663, 6182». 

Manns. See Marinns. 

Marinus, pope, sends JElfred a piece of the 
cross, 8825, 8327. 

dies, 3849. 

Marleswain. See Msrleswegen. 

Mame, river, in France, 8262ri. 

Martel, Geof&ej, besieges English in Le 
Mans, 5792. 

Martin Lightfoot, comrade of Heretrard, 
pp. 848, 864. 

Mary, daughter of Malcolm III., wife of 
Eustace of Boulogne, 4668n. 

Maserfield, Oswald killed at, 1291. 
Matelgarus, companion of Hereward, 

p. 398. 
Matilda, queen of Henry I., 4663n. 
MatUda, wife of William I., 5739, 5740. 
Mayenne, Geoffrey of, 561 In. 
Melites, Meliton. See Mellitus. 
Mellent, Robert, earl of, in Normandy 

with WiUiam II., 5875. 
Mellit. See Mellitus. 
Mellitus, archbishop of Canterbury (616- 
24), comes to England, 1028. 

bishop of London, 1065. 

preaches in Essex, 1069. 

archbishop of Canterbury, 1132. 

his successor, 1 135. 
Merce. See Mercia. 
Merceine. See Mercia. 

Merceis, Merceneis, Mercenncis, Mer- 
cenais. See Mercians. 

Mercene, Mercenne, Merceneland, Mer- 
ceiielaut. See Mercia. 

Mercia, Ep. 60-5. 

Eadberht ot Kent, takeo prisoner to 

two kings in, 2282. 

Danes in, 3840. 

delivered to Ceolwnlf by Danes, 

divided by Danes, 8121. 

Danes of, 8898. 

Eadward I. inherits Mercia from 
iEthelflrod, his sister, 8496, 8506. 

kings of, 1988. See Penda, Feada, 
Wulfhere, >*:thelred, Ceolred, 
iEthelbald, Beornrsed, Oswnlf, 
Ecgferth, Beomwulf, Wiglaf, 
Boerhtwulf, Burhred, Ceolwulf, 
Sihtric, Eadward, Cnut. 

lady of. See ^Iflsed. 

Mercians, 2277, Ep. 60. 

defeated by West Saxons at Biedan- 

heafod, 1414. 
defeated by West Saxons at Burford 



MerciaDB — cottt. 

fight against Danes, 2863. 

make truce with the Danes, 3045. 

ealdonnan of. See ^^thered. 
Mercien. See Mercians. 
Meredone. See Merton. 
Merkeneis. See Mercians. 
Merleswain. See Mserleswegen. 
Merton, Saxons defeated at, 3011. 
Mescesfeld, 2101, 20967t. 
Meserfeld. See Maserfeld. 
Middle Saxons, 846. 
Middlesex, Ep. 128, 
Midelsexe. See Middlesex. 
Midelsexiens. See Middle Saxons. 
Mideltone. See Milton. 
Milton, HsBsten huilds a fort at, 3434. 
Mirfield, 1290ri. 
Mirmartin, Ecgberht huried at, 1664. 

Constantius buried at, 1664n. 
Modred, nephew of Arthur, 526. 

gaTC land to the Saxons, 12, 4322. 

slain by Arthur, 40. 
Modret. See Modred. 
Mol. See Mul. 

Mol Edewald. See Moll ^:thelwald. 
Moll iEthelwald, king of Northumbria, 
1955, 1957. 

death of, 1966. 

son of. See ^thelred. 
Montgomery, Roger de, earl of Shrews- 
bury, 687 7». 

his son Roger the Poitevin, 5894. 

See Muncumeri. 
Morel of Bamburgfa, slays Malcolm HI. 

at Alnwick, 6121n, 6122. 
Morgan. See Glamorgan. 
Morkar. See Morkcre. 
Morkere, earl of Northumbria, made earl 
in place of Tostig, 5125. 

harries Northamptonshire, 5127. 

defends his earldom against Tostig, 

joins Hereward, 5461, 5473, pp. 373, 

dies in prison, 5701. 
Morlei, William de, holds Morpeth Castle, 

Morpathe. See Morpeth. 

Morpeth, castle of, taken by William II. , 

Mortaignc, Rotro de, with William II., 
William, count of, with William II., 
Mount Agned (Edinburgh), 934n. 
Mowbray, Robert de, earl of Northumber- 
land (1090>5), at battle of Alnwick, 
accused of being an accomplice in 

Waltheofs conspiracy, 6129. 
besieged at Bamburgh Castle by 

WilUam II., 6144, 6159. 
escapes, 6165. 

is captured, 6141?!, 6l72ii, 6173. 
dies in prison, 6176. 
Mul, brother of Ceadwalla of Wessex, 
wages war in Kent, and harries 
Isle of Wight, 1521. 
burnt by Kentishmen, 1526. 
fine paid for burning him, 1557. 
Munbrai. See Mowbray. 
Muncumeri, Hugh de, goes to Normandy 

with William II., 5891. v 
Munfichet, William de, at death of William 

II., 6400. 
Muref. See Murray. 
Murestere (Munster ?), duke of, p. 347. 
Murray, in Scotland, Iwain, king of, 6. 


Nechtanesmere, 1496//. 
Neimeis. See Lencimcis. 
New Castle, the, Northumberland, 6150. 
New Forest, 5801, 6255. 
Nichole. See Lincoln. 
Nicole. See Lincoln. 
Nidi, Nidin. See Judith. 
Ninian, saint* baptized the Ficts, 967. 
buried at Whiterne, 971. 



Noreis. See Norseman. 
Norfolc. See Norfolk. 
Norfolk, 4928, Kp. 132, 369. 

Adelbrit, king of, 54. 

Daues in, 897. 

in East Anglia, 1144, Kp. 57. 
Norfolke. See Norwich. 
Norhamtone. See Northampton. 
Norhantonschire. See Northamptonshire. 
Norheis. See Norsemen. 
Norhumberland, Norhumberlande. See 

Norhumberlant. See Northumberland. 
Norhumbreis. See Northumbrians. 
Normandy, ravaged hy Danes, d242}i, 8265. 

^thehred II. flees to, 4129ii, 4154. 

returns from, 4172. 

his children in, 4203, 4535, 4785. 

William I. visits, 5354, p. 883. 

returns from, 5357. 

William U. visits, 5784r. 

he becomes duke of, when Robert goes 
to Crusades, 6205. 

duke Robert returns to, 5773. 

in William II.'s dominion, 5963,6205. 

governed by Henry, 6210. 

duke of. See Richard, William, 

lords of, 5875n, 5897. 
Normans, 4129. 

killed by order of Godwine, 4825. 

driven out of Ekigland, 5037. 

Castles built by, in England, 5441. 

in England after the conquest, 5471, 
5476, 5529, 5572, 5615, 5657. 

slay Hereward, 5615. 

in the Holy Land, 5762. 

crown William II., 5778. 

ruled hard by William II., 5782. 

at the court of William II., 6011. 
Normant^ Normanz. See Normans. 
Normendie. See Normandy. 
Norreis. See Norwegians. 
Norreis. See Norsemen. 
Norsemen, victory of, at Fnlford, 5216. 

they seiie the country, 5218. 

defeated by Harold II., 5224, 5254, 

Norsemen— cottt. 

return home, 5245. 

iuvade Enghind in William I.'s reign 
5436, 5450. 
Nort Wales. See Wales, North. 
Nortfolc. See Norfolk. 
North, men of, flee before Penda, 1286. 

go against the Danes, 2865. 
Northampton, 4969. 
Northamptonshire, Ep. 147, p. 392. 

harried by earl Morkere, 5128. 
Northumberland, Northumbria, Ep. 71 , 

Ida, flrst English king of, 930. 

divisions of, 940. 

laid waste by Penda, 1238. 

harried by ^thelbald of Mercia, 1750. 

signs appear in, 2159. 

Danes of, 3892. 

Eadmuud I. seizes, 3547. 

seized by Olaf Kvaran, 3551. 

harried by the Scotch, 5086. 

comet seen in, in William I.'s reign, 

Hereward goes through, p. 848. 

earl of. See Mowbray, Robert. 

kings of ^e Ida, iEthelferth, 
Oswald, 08wiu,Ecgferth,Ealdferth, 
Osred, Alchred, ^thelred, Ceured, 
Osric, Eata,Eadberht, Moll ^thel- 
wald, Oswulf, Alfwold, Eardwulf, 
JEUa, Osbryht, Yric. 
Northumbreis. See Northumbrians. 
Northumbrians, 1312, 1392. 

bum Beom, a lord, 2033. 

kill ^tbelred their king, 2173. 

expel Eardwulf their king, 2225. 

drive out Olaf Kvaran, 3554. 

submit to Swegen, 4142n. 

take York, 5420n. 
Norwaleis. See Welsh, North. 
Norway, Swegen's bones carried to, 4165. 

Cnut conquers, 4686. 

Harold Hardrada, king of, 5195. 

Olaf, king of, 4687-4694. 

Biem, king of, p. 843. 
Norwegians, kill their king Olaf, 4692. 
Norwcie. See Norway. 



Norwich, taken by Swegen, 414311. 

occupied by Nomumti, p. 890. 

bishopric of, £p. 133, 
I^OBtell, Alfwold, king of Northumberland, 

buried at, 2113. 
Kostle. See Nostell. 
Nothhelm, 1767n. 
Notingham. See Nottingham. 
Nottingham, taken by the Danea, 2841. 

retaken by .Slfred, 2854. 

one of the Heren Burghs, 4222n. 

William I. at, 5879. 
Nottinghamshire, Ep. 171. 
None Forest. See New Forest 
Nonele Forest. 'See New Forest 
Nun. See lona. 
Nun. See Nunna. 
Nunna, deposes Qeraint, 1629. 


Ockley, Surrey, Danes defeated at, 2475. 
Odulf, king of Denmark, 510, 527, 739, 
H. 42, 81, 850,932, 935, 946. 
slays Gunter, king of Denmark, H. 

35, 509. 
gives the land to Arthur, H. 38. 
Arthur makes him king of Denmark, 

H. 601. 
conquered and slain by Hayeloc, 742. 
H. 962. 
Ofib,0£fe, son of JEthelferth of North- 

umbria, 1166. 
Offii, Offe, king of the East Saxony 1612. 
OflSi, Oife, king of Mcrcia (755-96), 1930, 
drives out Beornrsed, 1929. 
takes Bcnsington, 2009. 
divides archbishopric of Canterbury, 

marries his daughter Eadburg to 
Beohrtric, 2063. 

Oflfa— con/. 

defies the Danes, 2169. 

dies, 2205. 

his sou. See Ecgferth. 

Ogger, knight uf William I., p. 400. 
Olaf, Danish king, driven out by 

Eadmund I., 3536, 8537. 
Olaf Evaran, seixes Northumberland, 3550. 
holds it three years, 8554. 
driven out, 3555. 
Olaf, king of Norway, driven out by 
returns, 4690. 

killed in battle by the Norwegians, 

Olaf, son of Harold Hardrada, 52d9K. 

Orcadere Island, p. 353. 

Ordgar, ealdorman, father of queen 

iGlfthryth, 3601, 3605, 3608, 3629, 

3639, 3652, 3655, 3686, 3725. 
Orewain. See Orwain. 
Orewen. See Orwain. 
Orgar, Alwinus, son of, monk of Ely, 

p. 391. 
Orgar. See Ordgar. 
Orgarus, temp. Will. I., p. 379. 
Orkenan. See Orkney. 
Orkeneie. See Orkney. 
Orkney, men of, slay king Ecgferth* 

Copsi comeH from, 5167. 

Orrum, nephew of ^EUa, king of North- 

umbria, 2751-2817. 
his death foretold by a blind man, 

attempts to fly from a tower, 2782. 
is killed, 9815. 

Orwain, queen of Adelbrit, 68. 83, 90, 
H. 207, H. 281, II. 233. 

Osberu. See Asbidru. 

Osbem, son of earl Si ward, slaiu in 

Scotland, 5055, 6060. 
Osbern dc Bolebec, 6084n. 
Osbernus, companion of Hereward, p. 


Osbert, sheriff, p. 382. 
Osberth. See Osbryht. 



Osbreth. See Osbryht. 
Osbryht, king of Northumbria, 2606- 
iii8ult8 wife of Beom Butsecarl 2622. 
Beorn defies him, 2682. 
is deposed, 2700. 
killed by the Danes, 2723, 2746. 
Oschetel. See Oskytel. 
Oserednm, an inhabitant of Bourne, p. 

Osenz. See Osric. 

Osewald, Osewalt. See Oswald, Alfwold. 
Osflrid. See Osfrith. 
Osfrith, son of Eadwine of Northum- 
bria, killed in battle against Penda, 
Oskytel, Danish king, 3071. 
besieges Cambridge, 3075. 
takes Wareham, 3082. 

Oslac, duke, p. 341 . 

Oslac, son of iEthelfiith, 1161;t. 

Oslaf, thane of iEthelberht of Kent, killed. 

Oslaf, son of jEthelferth of Northum- 
bria, 1165. 
Osred I., king of Northumbria (706-16), 

1571, 1648. 
Osred II., king of Northumbria (789-92), 
exiled, 2137. 
returns, 8135. 
killed, 2137. 

buried at Tynemouth, 2139. 
Osret. See Osred. 
Osreth. See Ofred. 
Osric, king of York (Deira), 1260, 1316. 
0!»ric, king of Northumbria, 1649, 1728. 
Osric, caldormac, fights against the Danes, 

2451> 2453, 2552, 2555, 2557. 
Osriz. See Osric. 
Ostnit. See Ostrythe. 
Ostry the, queen of Meroia, 1 590. 
Osulf. See Oswulf. 

Oswald, king of Northumbria (634-42), 
1270, 1307, 1324, 8€96f«, 2815. 
son of king i£thelferth| 1163. 
mado king, 1262. 

Oswald — cont. 

killed by Penda at Maserfield, 1290. 

buried at Bardney, 1293. 

relics of, 1295, 1297, 2110n, 21l7n. 

succeeded by his brother, 1311. 
Oswald, ^theling, 1728. 
Oswi, Oswy. See Oswiu. 
Oswine, king of Deira (644-51), 1813, 

disinterred at Tynemouth by bishop 
iEgelwine, 5108. 
Oswine. See -^:3cwine. 
Oswine, iBtheling, 196771, 1969. 
Oswiu, king of Northumbria (642-70), 
1307, 2815. 

son of king ^thelferth, 1168. 

kills Penda at Wingfield, 1885. 

dies, 1391. 
Oswude, Oswudu, son of ^thelferth, of 

Northumbria, 1164.* 
Oswulf, king of Northombria, 1942-5. 
Otford, battle at, 1989. 
Otteford. See Otford. 
Oundle, St. Wilfrith died at, 1616. 
Ou. See £u. 
Ouso river, Danes at, 2186, 2590. 

Tostig's and Harold Hardrada's fleet 
in, 5209. 

bridge oyer, at York, p. 329 
Ouse, Yale of, 2609. 

Outi, comrade of Hereward, pp, 872, 878. 
Outi, another, p. 878. 
Oxeneford. See Oxford. 
Oxford, Ep. 197. 

given up to Eadward I. by .^thered, 
king of Mercia, 8486. 

Eadmund killed at, 4410n. 

Harold II. at, 5076. 

book of, used by Gfaimar, 6464. 

Walter, archdeacon of, 6465. 
Oxfordshire, £p. 150. 
Oxneford. See Oxford. 




Paggle, Tuda, bishop of Lindisfarne, 

buried at, 1376. 
Faitevin. See Poitevin. 
Pangar. See Bangor. 
Parret, river, Danes defeated at mouth of, 

Paulinus, archbishop of York, comes to 
England, 1027, 1050. 
baptises Badwine of Northumbria, 

1046, 1200. 
archbishop of York, 1209. 
flees, 1289. 

is made bishop of Rochester by 
Eadbald, 1252. 
Pavia, iEthelswith, sister of Alfred the 

Great, buried at, 3335. 
Peada, Peade, king of Mercia, 1336-43. 
Pedredan. See Petherton. 
Pedredan. 5>c Parrot, river. 
Peiters. See Poitiers. 
Peitevin. See Poitevin. 
Peiz. See Poiz. 
Pen, battle at, 1346. 

Penda, king of Mercia (626-54), 1211, 
1234, 2096», 2099. 
fights with Cwichelm and Cynegils, 

slays Oswald, king of Northumbria, 

is killed by Oswiu, king of North- 
umbria, at Wingfield, 1326. 
drives out Wulfh^re, 1351. 
his son. See Peada. 
Pendan, Pentan, Pentat. See Penda. 
Pen wood, Ubba killed in, 3148. 
Peonum. See Pen. 
Pere, seint. See Peter, saint. 
Peres. See Peter. 
Persia, sultan of, 5755n. 
Peter, St*, 1208, 1661. 

appears to Laurentius, 1115. 
appears to Hereward, p. 395. 
Peter, baptised name of Ceadwalla, king of 

Wessex, 1534. 
Peterborough, Hereward in woods near, 
p. 392. 

Peterborough — cont. 

earl Banlf buried at, 5069. 

abbey sacked by Hereward, 5557, 

5570, p. 395. 
abbey, relics at, 21l7n. 
MSS. belonging to, 1274n, 4937ft. 
monks of, 1297n, 2117tt. 
Brant, abbot of, p. 368. 
Turoldus, abbot of, pp. 393, 394, 395. 
Petherton, Somerset, Wulfhcre, king of 
Mercia, pursues Britons from Pen to, 
Pictais, Pictiens, Picteis, Pictes. See Picts. 
Pictavis. See Poitiers. 
Picts, p. 345. 

attacked by Saxons, 19. 

St. Columba lives among, 964. 

Ninian baptised, 968. 

also called Westmaringiens, 970. 

expelled bishop Trumbyhrt, ]493n. 

Ecgferth killed by, I496»}. 

Beorhl killed by. 1693. 

Beorhtfnth fights with, 1626. 

Healfdene, Danish king, fights against, 

defeated by JEthelstan at Brunanburfa, 

hostile to Eadmuud, 411 7. 
Poitevin. See Montgomery, Roger; 

Giffard, Walter. 
Poitiers, Hereward at, p. 356. 

dominion of William II. extended to, 

William U. intends to hold his feast 
at, 6296, 6301. 
Poix, castle of, Walter Tirel's, 6261. 
Pol, Sen. See Saint Paul. 
Pontesbury, battle at, 1357. 
Ponthieu, Danes go to, 3267. 

carl of. See Belesme, Robert de. 
Pontif. See Ponthieu. 
Poutivagus. See Seafiar. 
Pontoise (Pontesia), p. 356. 
Porcestre. See Porchester. 
Porchester, 4554. 
Portesmue. See Portsmouth. 
Portsmouth, battle at, 2026. 
Prien, name of Eadberht of Kent, 2I81«. 



Pr^QX, abbey of, Normandy, 5875n. 

Privett, Hants, 1825n. 

Pryfetesflod. See Privett. 

Pont de la Bataille. See Bridge of 

Pynkenni, vicecomes de, p. 370. 


Quintelin, Quintelm. See Cwichelm. 
Qnizeleine, Quizeline. See Cwichelm. 
Qninzheline. See Cwichelm. 


Baculne. See Recnlver. 
Rsdwald, king of East Anglia, 1 146, 2308. 
kills iEthelferth, king of Northum- 
bria, 1143. 
Kagnald, half-Danish king, 3508-3538. . 
wins York, 3508. 
driven out by Eadmnnd I., 3538. 
Ralph the Staller, count, p. 341. 
Ramsey, Rapenaldus, steward of, pp. 

373, 394. 
Rapendone. See Repton. 
Rapenaldus, steward of Ramsey, pp. 378, 

Rattlebones, supposed Danish chief, 

Raul. See Raulf. 
Raulf, earl, 5066. 

Raven, war flag of Ubba, taken, 3158. 
Reading, Danes at, 2934, 2939, 3017, 
^thelred and Alfred go to meet them 
at, 2957. 
Readwald, Readwalt. See Rsedwald. 
Reche, fovea de (Reachload? Camb.), 

p. 382. 
Reculver, 1390, 1547. 

Red king, surname of William II., 6248. 
Redinges. See Reading. 
Redwold. See Rsedwald. 
Renald. See Ragnald. 
Rependone. See Repton. 
Repton, Derbysh. ^thelbald, king of 
Mercia, buried at, 1923. 
Danes winter at, 3049, 3067. 
Richard I., duke of Normandy, 6084n. 
Richard 11., duke of Normandy, 4181. 
gives Emma, his sister, to .^ithelred 

IL, 4127, 4136. 
receives ^thelred, Emma, and their 

sons in Normandy, 4156. 
brings up children of ^thelred,4205, 
Richard, nephew of sheriff Osbert, p. 382. 
Richemunt. See Richmond. 
Richmond (Yorkshire), given by William I. 

to earl Alan of Brittany, 5325. 
Ricolan, Ricole, sister of JEthelberht, king 

of Kent, 1076. 
Ripon, St Wilfrith buried at, 1617. 
Robert, archbishop of Canterbury, driven 

out of England, 5039. 
Robert, son of William I., duke of Nor- 
mandy, 5743, 5745, 5899n. 
takes Jerusalem, 5752. 
slays Curbarant, 5755. 
becomes king of Antioch, 5760. 
makes Godfrey de Bouillon king of 

Jerusalem, 5770. 
marries Sibilla of Conversano, and 

returns to Normandy, 5772. 
gives Normandy to William II., while 
at Crusades, 6206, 6208. 
Robert, earl of Gloucester, 6449, 6454. 

had Welsh history translated, 6449. 
Robert, earl of Mellent, goes to Normandy 

with William II., 5875. 
Robert Fitz Hamon, at death of William 

II., 6357, 6395. 
Robert, son of earl of Gare, 6350n. 
Rochemabille, France, 5882n, 5884. 
Roche Mabilie. See Rochemabille. 
I Rochester, Danes at, 2421. 
bishopric o^ £p. 38, 98. 
Justus, bishop of, 1067, 1137. 




RomanoSi bishop of, 1 140. 
Paulinus, binhop of, 125S. 
llockiugham, Northants, 4189. 

castle, p. 402. 
BodbritoB, Flemish general, p. 360. 
Koger, earl, son of William Fiu Osbert, 
earl of Hereford, conspiracy of, 
Boger, earl, son of Roger de Montgomery, 

5898, 5894. 
Boger,lord, son of the earl of Clare, present 
at William II.'s death, 6850n,6851. 

Rogingham. See Rockingham. 

Rom, Rome. See Rooen. 

Remain, Romanus, bishop of Rochester, 

Rome, 6242, H. 367, p. 879. 

pallium brought from, 1048. 
legates from, 2057. 
St. Wilfrith goes to, 1457. 
Ceadwalla of Wessex goes to, 1531. 
Ine of Wessex dies at, 1642. 
Cenred of Mercia and Offa of the 

East Saxons go to, 1611. 
Daniel, bishop of the west Saxons 

goes to, 1685. 
Ine goes to, 1710. 
^thelwulf goes to, 2518. 
Burhred of Mercia goes to, dies, and 

is buried at, 8055, 8058, 3060. 
^thelswith, JGlf^ed's sister, goes to, 

St. Darid goes to, Ep. 222. 
Cnut goes to, 4727. 
earl Tostig goes to, 5099. 
William II. going to, 5972. 
English school at, 3057, 3850, 4739. 
t>t. Mary's Minster at, 3057. 
emperors of, 4761, 6472. 
popes of. See Adrian, Gregory, 
Marinus, Yitalianus. 
Komsey abbey, Hants, 4516m. 
Roteland, Rotelande, Rotelant. See Rut- 
Rothewelle, Goyinus of, and Tosti of, 
companions of Hereward, p. 878. 

Rotro of Mortaigne, joins William IL in 

Normandy, 5907. 
Roucestre, Rouecestre. See Rochester. 
Rouen, William 11. goes to, 5926. 

Robert de Belesme has streets in, 
Rns Rei. See WiUiam II. 
Russia, 4588. 
Rutland, 51, 1597, H. 198. 

part of Enmia's dower, 4139. 


Saburc. See Sebrug. 
Ssberht, king of Essex, converted by 
Mellitus, 1071. 
his sons, 1028n. 
Saham. See Soham. 
Satfit Bertin, Flanders, p. 858. 
St. David's, Wales, bishopric of, Ep. 211. 
St. Lo, Brittany, 8808n. 
S. Odmarua. See S. Omer. 
St. Olaf in Norway, Swege's bones buried 

at, 4166. 
St. Omer, pp. 858, 370. 
St Paul's. See London. 
St. Peter's minster. See York. 
St. Peter's Pence, 4786. 
Saint Richer. See St. Riquier. 
St. Riquier, Normandy, desecrated by 

Danes, 3269. 

St. Valery, Normandy, wasted by Danes, 

a knight of, p. 356. 

Saint Vincent, altar of, at Winchester, 

Saint Wilfrei. See St. Wilfrid's. 
St. Wilfrid's, Tostig's and Harold Har- 

drada's fleet at, 5210. 
SaissuuH. See Saxonsi 



Saiswold, companion of flereward, 6575. 
Salesbire. See Salisbury. 
Salesbires, Salesbiri. See Salisburj. 
Salefibiries. See Salisbury. 
Salesbyres. See Salisbury. 
Salisbury, Ceawlin and Cynrtc fight 
against the Britons at, 923. 

Eadgar I.'s court at, 3888. 

in Kadmnnd's kingdom, 4390. 

bishopric of, 1586, £p. 49, 110. 
Salomon, king of Hungary, 45 87?!. 
Salopescyre. See Shropshire. 
Sandwich, Danes gain a victory at, 2429. 

Danes are defeated at, 2480. 

Tostig's descent at, 5161 tt. 
Sanwiz. See Sandwich. 

Sarthe, river, France, William II. crosses, 

Sarum, Old, 925n. 
Saveme. See Qevem. 
Saxiens. See Saxons. 
Saxons, invading England, 9, 25, 883, 
2025, 2082, Ep. 23, 225. 
settled in England, 918, 921, 1035, 
1100, 2024, 2028,3012, Ep. 116, 
East, 846. 
Middle, 846. 
South, 845, 1368, 1707. 
West, 845, 1411, 1.540, 1712, 1760 

See also Wessex. 

Saxony. See Saxons. 

Scaldemariland, pp. 359, 360, 362, 363, 

364, 367. 
Scalre, surname of count Ralph, p. 341. 
Scantland, 3308 {see note). 
Schaftebirie. See Shaftesbury. 
Schaf tesbire. See Shaftesbury. 
Schireburne. See Sherborne. 

Scorham, Ceawlin and Cutha kill three 
British kings at 989, (see note). 

Scotch, Scots, p. 345. 

attacked by Saxons, 19. 

^gthan, king of, attacks ^thelferth 

of Northumbria, 1012. 
defeated at Dawston, 1016, 1020. 


Ceowulf wars with, 1036. 

Egferta, king of Northumbria, sends 
army against, 1480. 

defeated by ^thelstan atBrunanburh, 

subject to Eadmnnd I., 3548. 

subject to Eadgar I., 3572. 

hostile to Eadmund, 4117. 

harry Northumberland, 5085. 

treat with England, 5720. 
Scotland, harried by iEtbelstan, 3522. 

Eadgar ^theling and Margaret 
driven to, 4659. 

Cnut goes to, 4748. 

Meerleswegen goes to, 4937 n. 

Siward invades, 5044, 5060. 

Tostiggoes to, 5191. 

^gelwine and Siward Barn go to, 

William II. sends an army to, 6181. 

kings of, Ep. 74. See JEgthnn, Mnc- 
beth, Malcolm, Eadgar. 
Seafar, name of Aemulfns, p. 329. 
Seaxbnrg. See Sexburh. 
Sebilie. See Sibilla. 
Sebrug, wife of Grim, 370, H. 642, 558. 
Sees. See Seez. 

S^z, Normandy, William II. takes army 
to, 5784. 
belonged to Robt. de Belesme, 5883. 
Seibert. See Seberht. 
Seint Davi. See St David's 
Seint Galeris. See St. Valery. 
Seis. See Seez. 
Seisne. See Saxons. 

Seissoigne. See Saxons. 

Seissun. See Saxons. 

Seisuu, Seisuns. See Saxons. 

Seletun. See Silton. 

Selewode. See Selwood. 

Selred, king of Essex, 1787. 

Selwood, Somerset, 3167. 

Serpents, miraculous, seen in Sussex,l991. 

Sesoigne, Sessoigne. See Saxons. 

Sessons. See Saxons. 



Sessoneis, Robert de Belesme, earl of, 

Seven Burghs, 4222n. 
Severn, river, Cerdic conquers as far as, 
867, 870. 
the Saxona cross, 892. 
host from the Lidwiccas spread along, 

Eadmund Ironside received bejond, 

Cnut and Eadmund meet in a boat on, 

4269, 4290. 
the French cross, Ep. 231. 
Sexburc, Sexburg, Sexburh, wife of 

Ercenberht, king of Kent, 1281, 1406. 
Shaftesbury, Dorset, Eadward Martjr 
buried at, 4075. 
his saddle there, 4043». 

Shaftesbury, Eadward of. See Eadward 
II. Martyr. 

Sheppey, Danes in, 2359, 2510. 
Sherborne, Dorset, ^thelbald, son of 
-Sthelwulf, buried at, 2539. 
-^thelbtyht, buried at, 2545. 
Heahmund, bishop of, 301 Sn. 
Sherstone, Wilts, earl Thorkytel defeats 

Eadmund Ironside at, 4231. 
Shitriz. See Sihtric. 
Shrewsbury, 5877n. 
Shropshire, Ep. 163. 
Sibald. See Sigbald. 
Sibilla of Conversana, wife of Kobert, 
duke of Normandy, 5772. 

Sicga, beheads Alfwrold of Northumberland, 
dies, 2167. 

Sidrac. See Sidroc. 

Sidroc, Danish earl, killed at Englefield, 

Sidroc, earl, the old,a Dane, killed at battle 
of Ashdown, 2986, 3004. 

Sidroc, the young, a Dane at battle of 
Ashdown, 2987. 

Siebrand, Siebrant See Sigebryht. 
Siebriz. See Sigebryht. 
Sienbrith. See Sigebryht. 

Sigar Estalre, steward to Gunter, king of 
Denmark, 506-721, H. 44, 6S1- 
causes Ilaveloc to be watched when 

sleeping, 629, H. 880. 
causes Haveloc to blow Gonter's horn, 

7 09, H. 893. 
declares Haveloc to be heir of Den- 
mark, 721, H. 910. 
Sigar Lestal, Sigar the Staller. See Sigar 

Sigbald, kiUed, 1633. 

Sigebryht, king of Wessex, 1809, 1894» 

driven out by Cynewulf, 1816, 1825, 

slain in Andredesweald, 1825n, 1828. 
his brother. See Cyneheard. 
Sigeferth, a thane of the Seven Bni^, 

Sigeric, archbishop of Canterbury, 4099. 
Sigge. See Sicga. 

Sihtric, king of Mercia, slays his brother 
Niel, 3501. 
is slain by Eadward I., 3505. 
Sihtriz. See Sihtric. 
Silchester, Hants, 1664n. 
Silton, Yorks, Beom burned at, by North- 
umbrians, 2031. 
Sippenham. See Chippenham. 
Siryc. See Sigeric. 

Si ward, earl, at God wine's trial, 4919,4932. 
siieaks against Godwine, 4951. 
agrees with Macbeth, 5043. 
defeats Macbeth, 5051. 
dies, 5061. 
Siward Bam, nephew of earl Siward, 

slain in Scotland, ,*>056, 5060. 
Siward Barn, joins rebellion against Wil- 
liam L, 5458. 
Siward the White, nephew of Hereward, 

pp. 347, 357, 864, 870, 378, 895. 
Siward the Red, nephew of Hereward, 

pp. 347, 864, 370, 373. 
Siward, one of the above, p. 388. 
Siwerd Barn. See Siward Bam. 
Siwate, comrade of Hereward, p. 840. 
Snauedon. See Snowdon. 



Snowdon, city, Wales, Ep. 206. 

Soham, Camb., p. 392. 

Somerset, Somersete, 4006, Ep. 112. 

men o^ fight against the Danes, 2454, 
Somersham, Hunts (?), p. 387. 
Somerton, Somertone, seized by iEthel- 

bald, king of Mercia, 1731. 
Sonnoifl, in France, 5882ii. 
Sorte. See Sarthe. 
Sonth Saxons, 845, 1868, 1707. 
Southampton, Danes Und at, 2896. 

William II. sails from, 5825. 
Southombria, extent of, 1595. 
Cenfed, king of, 1594. 
Ecgbryht reigns over, 2346w 
Stamford, one of the Seven Burghs, 4222n, 
Kp. 168, H. 198. 

Hereward attacks, and is repulsed at, 

5563, 5570. 
his men led by a wolf to, p. 396. 
Stamford Bridge, battle of, 5237. 
Stanford. .See Stamford. 
Startulfusi, companion of Hereward, 

p. 392. 
Stnntney, Camb., p. 392. 
Stephen, king of Hungary, 4587n, 4790«. 
Stotfisdd hundred, Northants, 4963n. 
Strathclyde, 3069n. 
Streanaeshalch. See Whitby. 
Stredued, king of Galloway, 3069 {see 

Sudbury, Suff., p. 390. 
Sudeine. 5ee Surrey. 
Sudfolke. 5ee Suffolk. 
Sudhamptonescire. See Hampshire. 
Sudreie. See Surrey. 
Sudreis. See Surrey, men of. 
Sudrie. See Surrey. 
Sudsexe. See Sussex. 
Suffolk, 1144, Ep. 58, Ep. 131. 
Sumerled, Scotch thane, 301 6n. 
Snmerlede the Great, a Dane, 8016, 8017 

(fee note). 
Sumersete. See Somerset. 
Sumresham (Somersham), p. 387. 
Sunheart. See Swebheard. 
Surois [Surrey 9], H. 201. 

Surrey, Ep. 108, H. 201 (?). 
^thclbehrt, king of, 956. 
Ine warring in, 1702. 
Ecgbryht, king of, 2269. 
^thelstan, king of, 2392. 
Danes in, 2471. 

men of, fight against Danes, 2500. 
iEthelbryht, king of, 2535. 

Susie. See Russia. 

Sussex, Ep., 39, 99. 

Ine of Wessex, wars in, 1702. 
miraculous serpents seen in, 1993. 
Ecgbryht, king of, 2269. 
jElla, king of, 2303. 
^thelstan, king of, 2392. 
^thelbryht, king of, 2534. 
Haroldll. in, 5261. 

Sutfolc. See Suffolk. 
Suthdreie. See Surrey. 
Suthsexe. See Sussex. 
Suthsexiens. See South Saxons. 
Suthsexol. See South Saxons. 
Snthumbreis. See Southumbria. 
Suthwaleis. See Welsh, South. 
Sutraie. See Surrey. 
Sutsexe. See Sussex. 
Svain, Svein. See Swegen. 
*' Swafham," a cartulary of Peterborough, 

Swain. See Swegen. 

Swallow, Hereward's mare, pp. 363, 385. 

Swaue. See Sweden. 

Swebheard, king of Kent, 1551. 

Sweden, king of, 4570fi. 

king of, killed by Godwine, 4897. 

Swegen, Svein, king of Denmark, comes to 
England, 4142. 
Uhtred, earl of Lindsey submits to, 

meets with no resistance, 4152. 

goes to Gainsborough, 4159, 

his death, 4159». 

buried in St. Peter's at York, 4162, 

his body taken to Norway by Danes, 

his son. See Cnut, 



Swegen III., king of Denmark, sends his 
three sons to nvade Elngland, 

his sons, 5408, 5431, 5434ii. 

his brother. See Asbiorn. 
Sweins. See Swegen. 
Swithan, saint, 3972. See Winchester. 
Sydroc. S^e Sidroc. 
Sygar. See Sigar. 
Syward. See Siward. 


Taillebois, Ivo, pp. 384, 393, 401, 402. 
Taillefer, French minstrel at battle of 

Hastings, 5273-5306, 5279». 
Tamlse. See Thames. 
Tanet, Taneteis, Taneth. See TUanet. . 
Tanez. See Thanet. 
Tantone. See Taunton. 
Tatwine, archbishop of Canterbury, 1740. 
Taunton, v^orks there built by Ine of 
Wessex, and destroyed by .^thelburh 
his Queen, 1691, 1693. 
Tavistock, 3605n. 
Taw, river, dl48», 5405n. 
Teford. See Thetford. 
Telbald. See Theodbald. 
Teodorie. See Theodore. 
Tettenhall, Staff. Eadward I. defeats the 

Danes at, 3476. 

Thames, boundary of Southumbria, 1600. 

boundary between kingdoms of Cnut, 

and Eadmund Ironside, 4371, 4385. 

boundary of bishopric of Lincoln, Ep. 

Baldred, king of Kent, driven across, 

Danes in, 2488, 3432, 4186. 
tower beside, 4460. 

Thames — conf, 

Cnut rebukes, 4699. 
Godwine enters, 4870. 
Thanet, in Cuthred's kingdom, 2224. 

Ceorl, ealdorman, pursues Danes to, 

2458, 2462. 
Danes in, 2502, 2561. 
Tostig attacks, 5164. 
Thcford, battle of Haveloc and EdeUi at, 

H. 1027. 
Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, 

Theodbald, brother of ^tbelferth, killed, 

Theodore, archbishop of Canterbury (668- 
90), 138011, 1388, 1395. 
consecrates St. Cuthbert bishop of 

Hexham, 1487. 
dies, 1545. 
Theodur. See Theodore. 
Thetford, Adelbrit king of Norfolk, dies 
at, 80. 
Danes at, 2866. 
Guthorm, Danish king, buried at, 

Normans at, p. 390. 
bishopric tit, £p. 134. 
Thored, son of Gunner, rebels against 

king Eadgar, 3585. 
Thorkell, son of Svein, 4937n. 
Thorkytel, Danish earl, defeats Eadmund 

Ironside at Sherstone, 4229. 
Thuede. See Tweed. 
ThueflFort. See Thetford. 
Thuetenhale. See Tettenhall. 
Thuiforde. See Twyford. 
Tiford. See Thetford. 
Tine. See Tyne. 
Tinemue. See Tynemouth. 
Tirel, Walter, 6258-6334, 6482. 

his possessions in France, 6260. 
flatters William 11., 6275. 
shoots William II., 6832. 
escapes, 6334. 
Tobian, Tobias, bishop of Bochester, 1553. 
Torel. See Thored. 
Torkeseie. See Torksey. 
Torksey, Line, Danes winter at, 3048. 



Toeti, ToBtig, earl, son of Godwine, 5062- 

6282, p. 879. 
fiucoeeds Siward as earl of North- 

umbria, 5062. 
with Harold, subdues Wales, 5076, 

goes to Scotland, 5090. 
goes to Rome, 5099. 
returns, 5115. 
expelled from his earldom and goes to 

Flanders, 5120, 5181. 
invades England, 5159, 5161n. 
goes to Scotland, 5191, 5198. 
makes agreement with Harold 

Hardrada, king of Norway, 5-199. 
slain by Harold II. at Stamford 

Bridge, 5282. 
Tosti, Tostig, son of Swegen III., king of 

Denmark, invades England, 5406, 

Tostig, earl(the above ?), pp.876, 879. 

Tosti deDauene88e,companionof Hereward, 

p. 378. 
Tosti de Rothewelle, companion of 

Hereward, p. 878. 
Toteneis. See Totness. 
Totness, Ep. 179. 

end of the Foss, 4874ii, Ep. 272. 

Trailli, Nicholas de, 6482. 

Trent, (Trente,) river, battle at, 1464. 

Troie. See Troy. 

Troy, history of^ written by Gaimar, 6528. 

Tmmbyhrt, bishop of Hexham, 1498. 

Tuda, bishop of Lindis&me, 1874, 1876n. 

Turbertinus, great grandson of earl Edwin, 

with Hereward, p. 878. 
Turchil. See Thorkytel. 
Turchitell, sumamed Puer, companion of 

Hereward, pp. 379, 381. 
Turfrida, wife of Hereward, pp. 856, 364, 
371, 897, 398. 
becomes a nun at Crowland, p. 398. 

TurkiUus, companion of Hereward, pp. 

878, 881 See TurchitelL 
Turoldns, abbot of Peterborough, pp. 803, 

894, 895. 
Tnrstan, abbot of Ely, pp. 374, 895. 

U 61689. 

Turstanus, Pnepositus, companion of 

Hereward, p. 888. 
Tutbury, Baul de Dol of, 5687. 
Tweed, river, 5092. 
Twyford, Berks, 2964n. 

Danes turn back from pursuing the 
English at, 2969. 
Tyne, river, Eadwine king beyond, 2312. 

William I. lays waste as far as, 5452. 
Tynemouth, Northumb., Osred, king of 
Northumbria buried at, 2189. 
St. Oswine buried at, 5111. 
Bobt de Mowbray at, 6169. 
Tynemue. See Tynemouth. 


Ubba, Ubbe, Danish king, p. 328. 
takes Nottingham, 2841. 
martyrs St. Edmund, 2896, 2981. 
killed in Penwood, 3149. 
his flag, the Baven, 8158. 
Ubbelawe, mound made by Danes over 

Ubba, 3152. 
Uble. See Ubba. 
Uctreid. See Uhtred. 
Uhtred,earl of Lindsey, submits to Swegen, 

414211, 4145. 
Ulcus Ferreus, a giant slain by Hereward, 

p. 345. 
Undele. See Oundle. 
Unlaf. See Olaf . 
Urien, Iwain's father, In. 
Usa. See Ouse. 
Use. See Ouse. 
Ustace. See Eustace. 
Utlac, or Utlamhe, Hereward*s cook, 

pp. 378, 402. 




Velcase, people near Hangary> 4790. 
Villicus de Draitooe, companion of Here- 
ward, p. 878. 
Vitalianns, pope (6I^8'7S), 1887. 
Vordporiiis, 85fi. 


Waers, Haul, earl of (Ralph Guader, 

earl of Norfolk), 5722, p. 890. 
Walchere, bishop of Durham, 5458. 
Waleis. See Welsh. 
Wales, description of, Ep. 208. 
Britons driyen towards, 887. 
inyaded by Ine and Nmina, 1681. 
harried by Ecgbryht, 2235. 
Harold and Tostig subdue, 5078. 
kings of, 8871, 8980, 4222, 6006. 
See Geraint, Griffith. 
Wales, North, given by WiUiam II. to 
Hugh, earl of Chester, 6048. 
king of. See Griffith. 
Wales, West (Cornwall), 2870. See 
Walgar, Danish earl, Edmund Ironside's 
two sons entrusted to, 4506. 
takes them to Denmark, 4515. 
takes them to Hungary, 4574, 4619. 
Walkelin, bishop of Winchester, at funeral 

of William U., 6421. 
Wallief . See Waltheof. 
Waltheof, earl, conspires against William 
I., 5725. 
is beheaded, 5728, 6189. 
buried at (>oyland, 5788. 
miracles wrought by, 5786. 
Walter, archdeacon of Oxford, possessor 

of a history, 6465. 
Walaeier. See Walchere. 
WanslHSck, river, Northumberland, 6158. 
Wansborough, battle at, 1641. 

Wardfltano, earl Tostig and Flemings land 

at, 5161.' 
Wareham, Dorset, Beorhtric, king of 
Wessex, buried at, 2053. 
taken by Danes, 3081. 
Warenne,earl William, pp. 869, 374, 875, 
376, 379, 402. 
Frederick, his brother, p. 869, 874. 
Warewic. See Warwick. 
Warham. See Wareham. 
Warwelle. See Wherwell. 
Warwick, Bp. 198. 

earl of. See Morkere. 
Warwickshire, Ep. 167, p. 892. 
Washingborough, book of (English 

history), 6469. 
Wasing, king, 901, 920. 

killed by Cynric, 915. 
Waslin, Wasling. See Wasing. 
Wassingburc. See Washingborough. 
Wathlingstrete. See WatiJng street. 
Watling street, 4874«, 4377, Ep. 265. 
Wayleigh, 1876n. 
Wearmouth, Durham, Bede dies at, 1744. 

Ecgferth's monastery at, 2187n. 
Wedmore, Somerset, -Alfred and Guthorm 

at, 8229. 
Welle, Line.?, p. 891. 

English outlaws at, 5463. 
Wells, bishopric of, Ep. 114. 
Welsh, attacked by Saxons, 20. 

(>ithred of Wessex and ^thelbald of 

Mercia defeat, 1770, 1773. 
Cuthred is defeated by, 1804. 
defeated at Kempsfoi^ 2217-2222. 
kill Ludecan, king of Mercia, 2292. 
defeated by iBthelstan at Brunan- 

burh, 8526. 
subject to Eadgar I., 8572. 
hostile to ^thelred II., 4109, 4118. 
friendly with Eadmnnd, 4221, 4249. 
submit to Harold, 5084. 
driven out by the French (Normans), 

Ep. 231. 
their revenge and threats, Ep. 241. 
Welsh books, 6451, 6461. 
Welsh, North, submit to Ecgbryht, 2354. 
subdued by ^thelwul^ 2496. 



Welsh, South, defeat Griffith, king of North 

Wales, 5079. 
Welsh, West, 2371. 

WeUh of Strathcljde, 3069n. See Wales. 
Wembury (?), Devon, Danes at, 2461. 
Wenothus, Wenotus, comrade of Hereward, 

pp. 872, 382, 383, 398. 

Wenpix. See Wansb^ck. 
Weohstan, 2217n. 
Werebarch. See Werburb. 
Werburh, wife of Ceolred, 2089-44. 

buried at Chetter, 2042. 
works miracles, 2044. 

Werburb, daughter of Wulfhere of Mercia, 

Weremude. See Wearmoath. 
Werlame. See Wareham. 
Wessez, description of, Ep. 41. 

battles in, 1191, 8026. 

harried by ^thelbald, king of Mercian 

in Eadwine's kingdom, 2814. 

Danes in, 8025, 8128. 

the host of, 8084. 

Eadmond's share in the division with 
Cnut, 4383ft. 

kings of, Ep. 79. See iEscwiue, 
Ceolwulf, Cynegils, Cenwalh, 
Centwine,Ine, ^thelheard, Caihred, 
Cutha, Ceawlin, C3rnewulf, 
Beorhtric, Ecgbryht, i&thelwolf, 
vEtheibald, ^thelbryht, Mihelied, 
Alfred, Eadmund. 

bishop of. See Hlothere, Aldhehn. 

Cynric of, 1789. 

West Saxons, 845, 1411, 1540, 1712, 
1760, 1766, 2342, 2476, 2940. 
defeat Danes at Ockley, 2476. 
See Wessex. 

West Wales. See Wales, West. 

West Welsh. See Welsh, West. 

Westbury, Wilts, 3190n. 

Westmaringiens, another name for Picts, 

Westmereland, Westmeriland. See West- 

Westminster, William II.'s hall at, 5978. 

Westminster Abbey, 4700. 

Eadward Confessor and Eadgyth, 

buried in, 5148. 
abbot of, 4492. 

Westmoreland, 8586, Ep. 188. 
Westmoster. See Westminster. 
Westmuster. See Westminster. 
Westsexe. See Wessex. 
Westsexien, Westsexin . See West Saxons . 
Westwaleis. See Welsh, West. 
Wethmor. SeeWedmore. 
Wherwell, queen .Mfthiyth does penance, 
dies, and is buried at, 4087, 4088, 4089. 
Whistley Park, Berks, 2964r. 
Whitby, synod at, I880n. 

St. Hilda, abbess of, 1474. 

Whiterne, St. Ninian buried at, 971. 
Wicganbeorh, 2457n. 
Wide, a mere near Well, p. 391. 
Wienberghe. See Wembury. 
Wig, ancestor of Oerdic, 826n. 
Wigening, 885. 
Wight. See Isle of Wight. 
Wiglaf, king of Mercia, 2293, 2351. 
Wihtred, Wihtret, king of Kent, 1550, 
1560, 1697. 
dies, 1697. 
Wilaf. See Wiglaf . 
Wilfrei. SeeWilfrith. 
Wilfrith, siunt, bishop of York (664-678). 

consecrated, 1884. 

comet oyer, 1450. 

driven out by Ecgferth of Northum- 

bria, 1458, 1493ii, 1621. 
goes to Rome, 1457. 
returns as primate, 1504, 1505. 
dies at Oundle, 1616. 
is buried at Bipon, 1617. 
church dedicated to, 521 On. 

Wilfrith, bishop of York (721-44). 

consecrated bishop, 1510, 1511. 

dies, 1788, 1785. 
Wilfriz. See Wilfrith. 
Wilfnmus, monk of Ely, p. 868. 
Willame. See William. 
William I. king of England, 5819-5741, 
589911, pp. 369, 374. 

T 2 




WiUuun I.— «ofi/. 

gives Richmond to earl Alan of 
Brittany, 68S8», 6895. 

beoomet king, 5S44. 

goes to NormaDdy, 5854. 

imprisons lords in Yoric, 5876-^400. 

wastes Yorkshire, 5449-56 . 

besieges Heieward in Ely, 5481, 5498. 

attacks Ely, p. 876. 

his promises to the iint soldier to 
enter, p. 878. 

disposed to make peace with Here- 
ward, p. 889. 

his admiration of Hereward, p. 886. 

nearly wounded, p. 890. 

monks of Ely offer to snrrender to, 
p. 891. 

receiTCS Hereward, pp. 899, 404. 

leads an anny against Malcolm III. 

takes earl Waltheof, 5784. 

dies, 5788. 

his queen. See Matilda. 

his children, 5741. 
William H., king of England, 5776-6484. 

crowned king, 5778. 

besieges Le Mans, 5787. 
^ crosses to Normandy in a storm, 5680. 

releases Elias de la Fleche, 5945. 

gives North Wales to earl of Chester, 


besieges Robert de Mowbray in Ham- 
burgh Castle, 6149. 

grants a fee to Eadgar, king of Scot- 
land, 6185. 

duke of Normandy during Robert's 
absence, 6205. 

bis intentions of conquest, 6294. 

shot by Walter Tirel, 6828. 

grief shown by his attendints, 6350* 

buried in St. Swithun's Minster at 
Winchester, 6416. 

loved by his people, 5923. 

feared by his neighbours, 6201. 

splendour of his feast, 5977. 

laws of, 6217. 

forest laws of, 6227. 

William, count of Bvreoz, Joins William 

II. in Normandy, 5901. 
William de Conversano, 5772ji. 
William, count of Mortaigne, joins Wil- 
liam II. in Normandy, 5905. 
Wilte, ancestor of Cerdic, 886. 
Wilton, Wilts, 1820. 

Danes meet Alfred at, 8087. 

taken by Swegen, 4148n. 

chief city of Wessex, Ep. 48. 

abbey, Bp. 45. 
Wiltahire, 8990, Ep. 108. 

menof, 881 7fi. 8881. 

thanes of, 8170. 
Wimbome, Dorset, abbey built there by 
Cuthburh, sister of Ine, 1669, 1670. 

^thelredl. buried at, 8081. 
Winburgne. See Wimbome. 
Wincestre, Wynoestre. See Winchester. 

Winchester, Ep. 47, 106, 6488. 
Danes at, 8551. 
Cynewulf, king of Wessex, buried at, 

^thelwulf , son of Ecgbryht, buried at, 

Eadward I. buried in, 8514. 
part of queen Emma's dower, 4188, 

queen Emma at, 4807. 
in Eadmund's kingdom, 4890. 
Eadward Confessor crowned at, 4860fi. 
Oodwine buried at, 5048. 
Earl WaltheoPs body removed from, 

Ceolwulf, king of, 1031. 
bishopric of, 1585, Ep. 48, 105. 
bishops ot See Daniel, Hunferth, 

Hrahmund, Walkelin. 
history of, 8884, 8334, 6467. 
Winchester cathedral, built by Kenwealh, 

king of Wessex, 1304. 
^thelred Unready crowned at, 4081. 
St. Swithun buried in, 8978a. 
William 11. buried in, 6416. 
St Vincent's altar in, 4080. 
Windesoueres. See Windsor. 
Windsor, 2965. 



Wmeboine. See Wimborae. 

Wingfield, Oswy^kiniir of Northumberland, 

kills Fenda at, 1826. 
Winting, 8S6. 
Winter, companion of Hereward, 5678, 

56S6, pp. 868, 872, 878, 894. 
Winwitfe]. See Wingfield. 
Wireoestre. See Worcester. 
Wiscelet ( Whistley), ^thelred and Alfred 

driven there by the Danes, 2964. 
Wising, 884. 

Witehford, Camb., p. 891. 
Withret. See Wihtred. 
Wivhardos, comrade of Hereward, p. 871. 
Wlfhere, Wolfhere. See Wnlfhere. 
Wlfrix. See WUfrith. 
Wlgar. See Walgar. 
Wlstanet. See Wolstanet 
Wluricos Albtts, comrade of Hereward, 

p. 873. 
Wlaricos Niger, comrade of Hereward, 

pp. 872, 878. 

Wlnricus Habere (the Heron), p. 872. 

Woden, 841. 

Wodnesberghe. See Wansborongh. 

Wodnez. See Woden. 

Wolfhard. See Wulfheard. 

Wolstanet, dwarf of Badward Martyr, 

Worcester, bishopric of, Ep. 157. 
Worcestershire, Ep. 157. 

men of, 2217n. 
Wrokesham bridge (Wroxham, Norf.), 

p. 872. 
Wulfheard, ealdorman, 2260, 2899. 
Wulfhere, king of Mercia (656-75), 1848 - 
1421, 2042n. 
fights the Britons at Pen, 1847. 
fights with Cenwalh of Wessex, 

loses Ashdovm, 1360. 
gives Isle of Wight to iEthelwald, 

king of Sussex, 1866. 
is defeated by iEscwine at Biedan- 

heafod, 1414. 
dies, 1421. 
his daughter Werburh, 2042n. 

Wycheforde (Witehford), Camb., p. 891. 
Wynter. See Winter. 
Wytemen. See Whiteme. 


Yarmouth, Ourmund, Danish king, 
embarks at, 8261. 

Yiardus, companion of Hereward, p. 878. 
Tiardus, brother of Hugo Normannus, 
companion of Hereward, same as 
Wivhardus, (?) p. 873. 
York, 166411, 5180. 

called Chester, 1506. 
one of the Seven Burghs, 4222ff. 
capital of Deira, p. 881. 
bridge over the Ouse at, p. 829. 
Eadwine, king of Northumberland, 
baptised at, 1206. 

Cuthbert consecrated at, 1489. 
king iBthelred received at, 1975. 
Eardwnlf crowned at, 2202. 
Danes at, 2586, 2588, 2744, 2839, 

king Osbryht dwells at, 2607, 2684, 

battle at, 2752, 2770, 2794. 
Ragnald wins, 3508. 
^thelwold sent to, 3845. 
in Cnnt's kingdom, 4388. 
Tostig driven out of, 5119. 
Harold Hardrada at, 5212. 
William I. sends to, 5380. 
William I. imprisons barons in, 5899. 
taken by Danish invaders, 5420. 
taken (A.D. 1069) by Swegen's sons, 

4937it, 5489. 



York — conL 

bishop and archbishop of. See 

Paulinas, John, Ealdred. 
king of. See J£ila, Eadwine, Osric. 
kingdom of, 2313. 
lord of. See Siward, Tostig. 
men of, 5119. 

York Minster, built by Eadwine, 1041, 
£cgberht and Eata buried in, 1757. 
Swegen buried in, 4163. 
Yorkshire, Ep. 68, 173. 
Yric, son of Harald, king of Northombria, 

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As far back as the year 1800, a Committee of the House of Commons recom- 
mended that Indexes and Calendars should be made to the Public Becords, and 
thirty-six years afterwards another Committee of the House of Commons reite- 
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On 7 December 1855, he stated to the Lords of the Treasury that although 
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Tneir Lordships assented to the necessity of having Calendars prepared and 
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The following Works have been already published in this Series : — 

OkLSsmAxnju Gbhbalogicum ; for the Beigns of Henry III. and Edward I. 
EdUed by Chablss Bobsbts, Esq., Secretary of the Public Becord Office, 
2 Vols. 1865. 

This is a work of great value for elacidating the early history of our nobility 
and landed gentry. 

Calbkdab Of Statb Papbbs, Dokestic Ss&ies, of the Beions of Edwabd VI., 
Maet, Euzabbth, and James I., preserved in Her Majesty's Pubjio Becord 
Office. Edited by Bobbkt Lekon, Esq., F.S.A. (Vols. I. and II.), and by Kabt 
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Vol.Vn — Addenda, 1566-1579. 

Vol. vrn.— 160^1610. 

Vol. IX.— 1611-1618. 
Vol. X.— 1619-1628. 
Vol. XL.— 1623-1625, with 

Addenda, 1603-1625. 
Vol. Xn.— Addenda, 1580-1625. 

Vol.1.— 1547-1580. 
Vol. II.— 1581-1590. 
Vol. in.— 1591-1694. 
Vol. IV.— 1596-1597. 
Vol. v.— 1598-1601. 
Vol. VI.— 1601-1608. with 
Addenda, 1547-1565. 

These Calendars rendor acoessihle to inyestigation a large and important mass 
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Elisabeth and in favour of a Catholic succession ; the Gunpowder-plot ; the 
rise and fall of Somerset ; the Overhury murder ; the disgrace of Sir Edward 
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u new. wt. •* 

Oalshdab Of Statb Pafbbs, Dokestio Sskibs, 07 THE Bbign op Oha&lbs I., pre- 
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Vol. I.— 
Vol. II.— 

Vol. in.-^ 

Vol. IV.— 
Vol. v.— 
VoL VI.— 


Vol. VII.— 1634-1635. 
Vol. VIII.— 1636. 
Vol. IX.— 1635-1636. 
VoLX.— 1686-1637. 

Vol. XI.— 

Vol. xn.- 


Vol. XIII.— 1638-1639. 




Vol. XIV.— 

Vol. XV.— 

Vol. XVI.— 

Vol. XVn.— 1640-41. 

Vol. XVin.— 1641-43. 

Vol. XIX.— 1644. 

This Calendar presents notices of a large number of original documents of great 
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many hitherto unknown. 

Oalendab ov State Pa?£bb, Doiusstic 
serred in Her Majesty's Pablic 
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Vol. I.— 1649-1649. 
Vol.n.— 1650. 
Vol. in.— 1651. 
Vol. IV.— 1661-1652. 
Vol. v.— 1652-1653. 
Vol. VT.— 1653-1654. 
Vol. VII.— 1654. 

Sbbies, dubino the Gokkonwealth, pre- 
Beoord Office. Edited by Maxt Anns 

Vol. VIII.- 
Vol. IX.— 
Vol. X.— 
Vol. XI.— 

Vol. xn— 
Vol. xin.- 







This Calendar is in continuation of those during the reigns from Edward VI. 
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Calendar of the Committee fob the Advance of Monet, A.D. 1642-1656. 
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Calendab of State Pafebs, Domestic Sebibs, of the Beion of Chablbs II., pre- 
served in Her Majesty's Public Becord Office. Edited by Maby Ahvb 
Evebett Gbeen. 1860-1866. 

Vol. I.— 

Vol. n.-^ 

Vol. III.^ 
VcL IV.- 


Vol. v.— 1665-1666. 
Vol. VI.— 166^1667. 
Vol. VII.— 1667. 

Calendab of Home Office Pafbbs of the Beign of Geoboe UI., preserved in 
Her Majesty's Public Becord Office. Vols. I. and n. Edited by Joseph 
Bedihoton, Esq. 1878-1879. Vol. HI. Edited by Bichabd Abthub 
Bobbbts, Esq., Barrister-at-Law. 1881. 

Vol. I.— 1760 (26 Oot.)-1766. 
Vol. n.— 1766-1769. 

Vol. 111.-1770-1772. 

These are the first three volames of the modem series of Domestic Papers, 
commencu^c with the accession of George III. 

Calendab of State Pafebs relating to Scotland, preserved in Her Majesty's 
Public Booord Office. Edited by Mabkhak John Thobfe, Esq.. of St 
Edmund Hall, Oxford. 1858. 

VoL I., the Scottish Series, of the Beigns of Henry VIII.. Edward VI 

Mary, and Elizabeth, 1609-1689. 
Vol. if., the Scottish Series, of the Beign of Elizabeth, 1589-1603 • an 

Appendix to the Scottish Series, 1513-1592 ; and the State Papers 

relating to Mary Qneen of Scots. 

Oalevdab Of DocnxBMTS relating to Lublakd, in Her Majeaty's Public Beoord 
Office, London. Edited by Henbt Sayagb QwvBXUAX,Maq.,B.JL., Trinity 
Gollege,Dnblin,Bu'riBter-at-Law (Ireland) ; continued by Qusxayus Fbbdsbick 
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Vol. L— 1171-1261. 
Vol. II.— 1262-1284. 
Vol. III.— 1286-1292. 

Vol. IV.— 1293-1301. 
Vol. v.— 1302-1307. 

Vol. IV.— 1611-1614. 
Vol. v.— 1615-1625. 

Oalbndab of State Papebs relating to IbblabDi or the Bbigns op Henbt VIII.» 
EowABD VI., Mart, and Elizabeth, preserved in Her Majesty's Public 
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Vol. I.— 1609-1673. I Vol. III.— 1686-1688. 

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Calbndab of State Papebs relating to Ibeland, of the Beign of Jakes L, pre- 
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Law. 1872-1880. 

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Vol. II.— 1606-1608. 
Vol. III.— 1608-1610. 

This series is in continuation of the Irish State Papers commencing with 
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Galendab of State Papebs, Colonial Sebies, preserved in Her Majesty's Public 
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Vol. IV East Indies, China, and Japan, 1622-1624. 

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Calehdab oe Lettebs and Papebs, Fobeign aed Domestic, oe. the Beioh oy 
Henbt VIII., preserved in Her Majesty's Pnblio Becord Office, the British 
Mnsenm, &o. Edited by J. S. Bbewbb, M.A., Professor of English Literature, 
Kind's College, London (Vols. I.-IV.); and &^ Jakes GAiBDNEB^Esq., (Vols. 
v., VI.. VII., VIII., and IX.) 1862-1888. 

Vol. I.— 1509-1614. 

Vol. II. (in Two Parts)— 1515- 

Vol. III. (in Two Parts)— 151»- 

Vol. IV. — Introduction. 
Vol. IV., Part 1.-1524-1526. 
Vol. IV., Part 2.— 1526-1528. 

Vol. IV., Part 3.— 1529-1580. 
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Vol. VI.— 1533. 
Vol. VII.— 1534. 
Vol. Vin.— 1535, to July. 
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Vol. X. — 1636, Jan. to Jnne. 
Vol. XL— 1536, July to Dec. 

These volumes contam summaries of all State Papers and CorrespondeDce 
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formerly in the State Paper Office, in the British Museum, the Libraries of Oxford 
and Cambridge, and other Public Libraries ; and of all letters that have appeared 
in print in the works of Burnet, Strype, and others. Whatever authentic 
original material exists in England relative to the religious, political, parliamen- 
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despatches of ambassadors, or proceeding of the army, navy, treasury, or 
ordnance, or records of Parliament, appointments of officers, griaits from the 
Crown, &c., will be found calendared in these volumes. 

Oalendab Of State Pafebb, Foseion Series, of tee Beigit of Edwaed VI., pre- 
eerred in Her Hajest^'s Pablio Becord Office. 1547-1558. Edited {^ W. B. 
TxrmmJif Esq., of Lincoln'n Iiuii Barri8ter-at«Law, &o. 1861. 


OALiiroiK 07 Statb Fjlfebs, Fokriov Sbbibs, ov thb BiioK or ILlbt, preaerrod in 
He? Majesty's Publio Beoord Office. 1553-1558. BdUedhy W. B. Tu^xvuhL, 
Esq., of Linoola's Inn, BarriBter-at-Law, Ac. 1861. 

The two preceding yolnmes exhibit the negotiations of the English ambassadors 
with the courts of the Emperor Charles V. of Germany, of Henry II. of France, 
and of Philip II. of Spain. The affiurs of seyeral of the minor eondnental states 
also find various incidental illustrations of much interebt. The Papers descriptive 
of the circumstances which attended the loss of Calais merit a special nodee ; 
while the progress of the wars in the north of France, into which England 
was dragged by her union with Spain, is narrated at some length. These 
Tolomes treat only of the relations of England with foreign powers. 

Oalbhdab ov STA.TS Papbils, Fobbigb Sxbibs, or THB Bbiok of Slibjlbbth, 

Jreserred in Her Majesty's Pnblio Becord Office, Ac. Edited hy the Bey. 
08BPH Stbvbnson, M.A., of Uniyersity College, Durham, (Yols.I.-YII.), 
and Allajt Jaicbs Obosbt, Esq., M.A., Barrister-at-Law, (Vols. YIII.-XI.) 

Vol. VII.— 1664-1666. 
Vol. VIII.— 1666-1668. 
Vol. IX.— 1669-1671. 
Vol. X.— 1672-1674. 
Vol. XL— 1676-1677. 

Vol.L— 1558-1669. 
Vol. II.— 1669-1660. 
Vol. III.— 1660-1661. 
Vol. rV.— 1661-1662. 
Vol. v.— 1662. 
Vol. VI.— 1663. 

These Yolumes contain a Calendar of the Foreign Correspondence during 
the early portion of the reign of Elisibeth. They Ulastrate not only the 
external hat also the domestic afEkirs of Foreign Countries daring that period. 

Oalbydar or Trbasubt Papb&s, preseryed in Her liiajesty's Public Becord Office. 
BdUed hy Jobbph Bbdivoton, Esq. 1868-1888. 

7oL I.— 1557-1696. Vol. IV.— 1708-1714. 

Vol n.— 1697-1702. Vol. V.— 1714-1719. 

Vol. ni.— 1702-1707. 

The ahoye Papers connected with the affairs of the Treasury comprise, 
petitions, reports, and other documents relating to services rendored to the State, 
grants of money and pensions, appointments to offices, remissions of fines and 
duties, &C. They illustrate civil and military events, finance, the administration 
in Ireland and the Colonies, &c., and afibrd information nowhere else recorded. 

Calbndab of thb Cabbw Pafbbs, preseryed in the Lambeth Library. Edited ^ 
J. 8. Bbbwbb, M.A., Professor of English Literature, King's College, 
London ; and William Bullbh, Esq. 1867-1878. 

Vol. L— 1615-1574. 
Vol. II.— 1575-1588. 
Vol. III.— 1589-1600. 
Vol. IV.— 1601-1603. 

Vol. v.— Book of Howth ; Mia- 

Vol.VI.— 1603-1624. 

The Carew Papers rekiting to Irehwd, in the Lamheth Library, are unique 
and of great importance to all students of Irish history. 

Oalbkdab o? Lbitbbb, Dbsfatchbs, axd Statb Papbbs, relating to the Kegotia- 
tions between England and Spain, preseryed in the Archiyes at Simancas, 
and elsewhere. Edited hy G. A. Bbbobnboth, (Vols. I. and II.) 1862-1868, 
arid Don Pascum. db Gatakoos (Vols. III. to V.) 1873-1888. 

Vol. I.— Hen. VH.- 1485-1509. 

Vol. II.— Hen. VIII.— 1509-1525. 

Snpplement to Vol. I. and Vol. II. 

Vol. ni.. Part 1.— Hen. VIH.— 1525-1626. 

Vol. in., Part 2.— Hen. VIII.— 1527-1529. 

Vol. IV., Part 1— Hen. VIH.- 1529-1530. 

Vol. rV., Part 2— Hen. VIII.— 1531-1533. 

Vol. IV., Part 2 — continued. -^Ken. VIII.— 1581-1538. 

Vol. v., Part 1.— Hen. VIH.— 1534-1636. 

Vol. v., Part 2.— Hen. VIH.— 1636-1638. 

Mr. Bergenroth was engaged in compiling a Calendar of the Papers relating 
to England preserved in the archiyes of Spain. The Supplement contwns new 

informatioQ relating to the private life of Queen Katherine of England; 
and to the projected marriage of Henrj YII. with Queen Juana, widow of 
King Philip of Castile, and mother of the Bmperor Charles V. 

Upon the death of Mr. Bergenroth, Don Fascual de Gayangos was appointed 
to continue the Calendar, and he has been able to add much valuahle matter 
from Brussels and Vienna, with which Mr. Bergeuroth was unacquainted. 

Oalbndab Of SiMTB Papbbs and Makusciupts, relating to English Affaibs, 
preserved in the Arohives of Yenioe, Ao. Edited hy Eawdon Bbown, Esq. 

Vol. I.- 1202-1509. 
Vol. II.— 1509-1519. 
Vol. ni.— 1520-1526. 
Vol. IV— 1527-1538. 

Vol. v.— 15S4-1554. 

Vol. VI. , Part I.— 1555-1556. 
Vol. VI., Part II.— 1556-1557. 
Vol. VI., Part in.— 1557-1558. 

Mr. Rawdon Brown's researches have brought to light a number of yaluable 
documents relating to various periods of English history ; his contributions to 
historical literature are of the most interesting and important character. 

Syllabus, ik English, op Btksb's F(bdeba. By Sir Tbomas Bvjtvb Habst, 
D.C.L., Deputy Keeper of the Public Records. Vol. I.— Will. l.-Edw. 111. 
1066-1377. Vol. n.— Ric. Il.-Chaa. II. 1 877-1654. Vol. IH., Appendix and 
Index. 1869-1S85. 

Bymer's '* Fcsdera," is a collection of miscellaneous documents illustratiye 

of the History of Great Britain and Ireland, from the Norman Conquest to the 

reign of Charles II. Several editions of the " Fosdera " have been published, 

and the present Syllabus was undertaken to make the contents of this great 

national work more generally known. 

Bbpobt or THE Defittt Keepeb of the Public Kecobbs abd the Aev. J. S. Bbeweb 
TO thb Mastbb 07 THB BoLLS, upon the Carte and Carew Papers in the 
Bodleian and Lambeth Libraries. 1864. Frice 2». 6d. 

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In the Press. 

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preserved in the Arohiyes ofYenioe, Ac. Yol. YII. — ^1559, &c. 

Calehdab op Lettbbs, Dsspatches, and State Papers, relating to the Negotia- 
tions between England and Spain, preserved in the Archives at Simancas, and 
elsewhere. ^(^Ml&j^ Don Paschal dbGataitoos. Yol. Y. Part 2. — ^1537, Ac. 

Calendar op Stats Papers, Dokbstic Series, durino the Gomxonwealth, 
preserved in Her Maj esty' s Public Becord Office. Edited by Mart Anne 
SJvbrbtt Green. Yol. Xv. 

Calendar op State Papers relating to Ireland, op the Beion op Elizabeth, 
preserved in Her Majesty's PnbUo Becord Office. Edited by Hans Gladdb 
Hamilton, Esq. , P. S A. Yol. Y . —1692-1596. 

Calendar op State Papers, Colonial Series, preserved in Her Majesty's Public 
Becord Office, and elsewhere. Edited by W. Noel Sainsburt, Esq. Yol. 
Yn. — America and West Indies, 1669, &o. 

Calendar OP Treasitrt Papers, preserved in Her Majesty's Public Becord Office* 
Edited by Joseph Bedinoton, Esq. Yol. YI. — 1720, Ac. 

Descriptive Catalooxtb op Ancient Deeds, preserved in Her Majesty's Public 
Becord Office. Yol. I. 

Calendar op State Papers, Domestic Series, op the Beion op Charles f., pre- 
served in Her Majesty's Public Becord Office. Edited by William Douglas 
Hamilton, Esq., F.S.A. Yol. XX. 1645, &q. 

In Progress. 

Calendar op Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, op the Beion op 
Henrt Ym., preserved in Her Majesty's Public Becord Office, the British 
Museum, Ac. Edited by James Oairdner, Esq. Yol. XII.— 1537. 

Calendar op State Papers, Colonial Series, preserved in Her Majesty's Public 
Becord Office, and elsewhere. Edited by W. Noel Sainsbury. Esq. Yol. 
Yni.— East Indies, 1630, Ac. ^ 

Calendar op Trsasurt Papers, preserved in Her Migesty 's Public Becord Office. 
Edited by Joseph Bedington, Esq. Yol. YII. 

Calendar op the Patent Bolls, op the Beigns op Edward II. and Edward 


Calendar op Ancient Correspondence, Diplomatic Documents, Papal Bulls, 
and the like, preserved in Her Majesty*s Public Becord Office. Edited by 
C. T. Martin, Esq., B.A., P.S A. 

- — 


[RoTAL 8vo. Price 10*. each Volume or Part.] 

On 25 Jalj 1822, the House of Commons presented an address to the Crown, 

stating that the editions of the works of onr ancient historians were inconyenient 

and defectiye ; that many of their writings still remained in maainscript, and, in 

some cases, in a single copy onlj. They added, " that an uniform and con- 

' yenient edition of the wnole, published under His Majesty's royal sanction, 

' would be an undertaking honourable to His Majesty*s reign, and conducive to 

' the adyancement of historical and constitutional knowledge ; that the House 

' therefore humbly besought His Ma^'esty, that He would be ^aciously pleased 

' to giye such directions as His Majesty, in His wisdom, might think fit, for 

' the publication of a complete edition of the ancient historians of this realm, 

' and assured His Majesty that whateyer expense might be necessary for this 

' purpose would be made good." 

The Master of the Bolls, being yery desirous that effect should be giyen to the 
resolution of the House of Commons, submitted to Her Majesty's Treasury in 
1857 a plan for the publication of the ancient chronicles and memorials of the 
United Kingdom, and it was adopted accordingly. In selecting these works, it 
was considered right, in the first instance, to giye preference to those of which 
the manuscripts were unique, or the materials of which would help to fill up 
blanks in English history for which no satisfactory and authentic information 
hitherto existed in any accessible form. One great object the Master of the Bolls 
had in yiew was to form a corpus hiatoricum within reasonable limits, and which 
should be as complete as possible. In a subject of so yast a range, it was im- 
portant that the historical student should be able to select such yolumes as 
conformed with his own peculiar tastes and studies, and not be put to the expense 
of purchasing the whole collection ; an inconyenience inseparable from any other 
plan than that which has been in this instance adopted. 

Of the Chronicles and Memorials, the following yolumes haye been published. 
They embrace the period from the earliest time of British history down to the 
end of the reign of Henry VII. 

1. Thb Chsonicls or England, by John CAPGEAys. Edited hy the Bey. F. C. 

HiNGESTON, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford. 1858. 

Capmve was prior of Lynn, in Norfolk, and provincial of the order of the Friars Hermits of 
England shortly before the year 1464. His Chronicle extends from the creation of the world to 
the year 1417. Asa record of the languae;e spoken in Norfolk (being written in English), it is of 
considerable value. 

2. Chbonicon MoNAflTEBii DE Abinodon. Yols. I. and II. Editedhy the Bey. 

Joseph SisyENSON, M.A., of IJniyersity College, Dnrham, and Yicar of 
Leighton Buzzard. 1858. 

This Chronicle traces the history of the great Benedictine monastery of Abingdon in Berkshire 
from its foundation by King Ina of Wessex. to the reidn of Richard I., shortly alter which period 
the prdsent narrative was drawn up by an mmate of the establishment. The author bad access 
to the title-deeds of the house ; and incorporates into his history various charters of the Sucon 
kings, of great importance as illustrating not only the history of the locaht^ but that of the king- 
dom. The work is printed for the first tone. 

8. Lives of Bdwabd the Confessob. I. — La Estoire de Seint Aedward le Bei 
II. — Yita* Beati Edyardi Begis et Confessoris. III. — Vita iBdnnardi 
Begis qni apud Westmonasterinm reqniescit. Edited hy Henbt Bichabds 
Luaed, M.A., Fellow and Assistant Tntor of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

The first is a poem in Norman Prench, containing 4,686 lines, addressed to Alianor, Queen of 
Henry III., probably written in 1246, on the restoration of the church of Westminster. Nothing 
is known of the author . The second is an anonymous poem, containing SSS lines, written between 
1440 and 14fi0, by command of Henry yi., to whom it is dedicated. It docs not throw any new 
light on the reign of Edward the Confessor, but is valuable as a specimen of the Latin poetrr of 
the time. The third, also hj an anonymous author, was apparently written for Queen Edith, 
between 1066 and 1074, during the pressure of the suffering brought on the Batons by the Norman 
conquest. It notices many acts not found in other writers, and some which differ ccmnderably 
flrom the usual account . 


4. MoNXJMEVTA F&ANGI8CANA. Yol. I. — Thomas de Eooleston de Adventa 
Fratrnm Minorum in Angliam. Adaa de Marisco EpistolaB. Begistnun 
Fratrum Minorum Londonise. Edited by J. S. B&ewxb, M.A., Professor of 
English Literature, King*8 College, London. Yol. II.— De Adventn 
Minorum ; re-edited, with additions. Chronicle of the Grey Friars. The 
ancient English version of the Bule o f St. Francis. Abbreyiatio Statutonun , 
1451, &o. Edited by Bichabd Howlett, Esq., of the Middle Temple, 
Barrister-at-Law. 1858| 1882. 

The first Tolume contains original materials for tho history of tho settlement of the order of 
Saint Francis in England, the letters of Adam de Marisco, and other papers connected with the 
foundation and diffasion of this great body. None of these havebeon before printed. The aeoond 
volume contains materials found, since the first volume was published, among the MSS.of 8ir 
Charles Isham, and in various libraries. 

6, Fasciculi Zizaniokum Magistri Johannis Wyclip cum Teitico. Ascribed to 
Thomas Nbtteb, of Waldbn, Provincial of the Carmelite Order in England, 
and Confessor to King Henry the Fifth. Edited by the Bev. W. W. Sfii&LETy 
M.A., Tutor and late Fellow of Wadbam College, Oxford. 1868. 

This work derives its principal value from being the only contempoi-aneous aoooont of the rise 
of the Lollfurds. When written, the disputes of the schoolmen had been extended to the field of 
theology, and they appear both in the writings of Wydliff and in those of his adversaries. Wycliff 'a 
little bundles of tares are not less metaphysical than theological, and the conflict between Nomina- 
lists and Realists rages side by side with the conflict between the different interpreters of Scripture. 
The work gives a good idea of the controTtrsies at the end of the 14th and tho beginning of the ISth 

6. The Buik o? the Croniolis op Scotland ; or, A Metrical Version of the 

History of Hector Boece ; by William Stewart. Vols. I., II., and III. 
Edited by W. B. Turkbull, Esq., of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law, 1858. 

This is a metrical translation of a Latin Prose Chronicle, written in the first half of the ISth 
century. The narrative begins with the earliest legeuds and end« with the death of James I. of 
Scotland, and the " evil endiiur of the traitor:^ that clew him." Strict accuracy of statement is not 
to be looked for ; but the stories of the colonisation of Spai.i, Ireland, and Scotland are interesting 
if not true ; and the chronicle reflects tbe manners, sentiments, and character of the a^ in whion 
it was composed. The peculiarities of the Scottish dialect are well illustrated in this version, 
and the studeut of lanffuage will find ample materials for comparison with the English dialects of 
the same period, and with modern lowland Scotch. 

7. JoHAmns Capgravb Liber de Illustribus Hbmricis. Edited by the Bev. F. C. 

HmoBSTON, M.A., of Exeter College, Oxford. 1858. 

This work is dedicated to Henry Yl. of England, who appears to have been, in the author's 
estimation, the greatest of all the Henries. It is divided into three parts, each having a separate 
dedication. The first part relates only to the history of the Empire, from the election of Henry I. 
the Fowler, to the end of the reign of the Emperor Henry Vl. The second part is devoted to 
English history, ftom the accession of Henry I. in 1100, to 1446, which was the twenty-fourth year 
of tne reign of Henry VI. The third part contains the lives of illustrious men who have borne the 
name of Henry in variousparts of the world. Capgrave was bom in 1888, in the reign of Richard 
XL, and lived during the Wars of the Roses, for which period his work is of some value. 

8. HiSTORiA MoNASTERii S. AuGUSTiNi Oantuardbnsis, bv Thokas of Eliiham, 

formerlv Monk and IVeasnrer of that Fonndation. Edited by Charles Hard- 
wick, M.A., Fellow of St. Catharine's Hall, and Christian Advocate in the 
University of Cambridge. 1868. 

This history extends from the arrival of St Augustine in Kent until 1191. Prefixed ia a 
chronology as far as 1418, which shows in outline what was to have been the character of the woric 
when completed. The author was connected with Norfolk, and most probably with Elmham. 

9. EuLOGiUM (HiSTORiARUM SITE Temporis) : Chronicon ub Orbe condito nsqne ad 

ATin nm Domini 1366 ; a Monacho qnodam Malmesbiriensi exaratnm. Yols. 
I., II., and III. Edited by F. S. Hatdok, Esq., B.A. 1868-1868. 

This is a Latin Chronicle extending from the Creation to the latter part of the reign of 
Edward III., and written by a monk of the Abbey of Malraesbnry, in Wiltshire, about the year 
1887. A continuation, carrying the history of England down to the year 1418, was added In tho 
former half of the fifteenth century by an author whose name is not known. The original 
Chronicle contains a history of the world generally, but more especially <4 England to the year 
1866. The continuation extends the history down to the coronation of Henry V. The Euloginm 
itself is chiefly valuable as containing a history, by a contemporary, of the period between 1366 
and 1366. Among other interesting matter, the Chronicle contains a diary of the Poitleri 
campaign, evidently furnished by some person who accompanied the army of the Black PHnce. 
The continuation of the Chronicle is also the work of a contemporary, and gives a very 
interesting account of the reigns of Richard II. and Heniy IV. 

10. Memorials op Henry the Seventh : Bemardi Andreas Tholosatis Vita Begis 

Henrici Septimi; necnon aliaqnsBdam ad enndem Begem spectantia. Edited 
by James Gairdner, Esq. 1858. 

The contents of this volume are— (1) a life of Hem7 VII.^ by his poet lanreate and historio- 
napher, Bernard Andr^, of Toulouse, with some comnosttions m verse, of which he is suppoaed to 
Uive been the author; (2) the journals of RoKer Machado during certain embassies on which 


he was lent by Honnr YIL to Spain and Brittany, the first of which had reference to the marriage 
of the King's son, Arthur, with Oatharine of Arragon; (3) two carious reports by envoys sent 
to Spain in 1508 touching the succession to the Grown of Castile, and a project of marriage between 
Henry YIL and the Queen of Naples; and (4) an acoount of Phihp of Castile's reception in 
Bngland in 1608. Other documents of interest are given in an appendix. ^ 

11. Mbkobialb or Hsnbt the Fifth. I. — Vita Henrici Quinti, AobertoBedmanno 
anotore. II. — Verans Bhythmici in landem Regis Henrici Qninti. III. — 
Elmhami Liber Metricns de Henrico Y. Edited (y Ciiables A.CoLZ, Esq. 


This volume contains three treatises which more or less illustrate the history of the reign of 
Henry V., vis. : A life by Robert Bedman ; a Metrical Chronicle by Thomas Blmham, prior of 
Lenton, a contemporary author ; Yersus Bhythmici, written apparently by a monk of WMtminster 
Abbey, who was also a contemporary of Henry V. These works are printed for the first time. 

12. MuMitf SNTA G-ILDHALLJB LoNDONiSNSis ; Liber AlbuB, Liber Custumamm, et 
Liber Horn, in arohivis Gildhallsa asservati. Vol. I., Liber Albns. Yol. II. 
(in Two Parts), Liber Gostamaram. Yol. III., Translation of the Anglo- 
Norman Passages in Liber Albas , Glossaries , Appendices, and Index . Ediied 
by Henst Thomas Bilet, Esq., M.A., Barrister-at-Law. 1859-1862. 

The manuscript of the Liber AlbuM, compiled by John Curpenter, Common Clerk of the City 
of London in the year 1419, gives an acoount of the laws, regulations, and institutions of that City 
in the 12th, 13th, 14th, and early part of the 16th centuries. The Liber Oustumarum was compilea 
probably by various hands in the early part of the 14th century during the reign of Edward II. 
The manuscript, a folio volume, is preserved in the Record Boom of the City of London, though 
some portion in its original state, borrowed from the City in the reign of Queen Elisabeth and 
never returned, forms part of the Cottonian MS. Claudius D. II. in the British Museum. It also 
gives an account of the laws, regulations, and institutions of the City of London in the 12th, IStb, 
and early part of the 14th centuries. 

13. Ohbonica Johannis de Oxenedes. Edited by Sir Henbt Ellis, K.H. 1859. 

Although tnis Chronicle tells of the arrival of Hennst and Horsa in England in 449, yet it 
subscantiidr^ begins with the reign of King Alfred, ana comes down to 1292, where it ends 
abruptly. The history is particularly valuable for notices of events in the eastern portions of the 
Kingdom, not to be elsewhere obtained. Sonne curious facts are mentioned relative to the floods 
in that part of England, which are confirmed in the Friesland Chronicle of Anthony Heinrich, 
pastor of the Island of Mohr. 

14: A OoLLScTiON 07 Political Poems and Songs relating to English Histobt, 
FBOM THE Accession of Edwaed III. to the Eeign op Henbt YIII. Vols. L 
and II. Edited by Thomas Weight, Esq., M.A. 185^1861. 

These Poems are perhaps the most interesting of all the histories! writings of the period, 
though they cannot be relied on for accuracy of statement. They are various in character ; some 
are upon religious subjects, some may be called satires, and some give no more than a court 
scandal ; but as a whole they present a very fair picture of society, and of the relations of Uie 
different clitfses to one another. The period comprised is in itself interesting, and brings us 
through the decline of the feudal system, to the be^nning of our modern history. The songs 
in ola English are of considerable value to the philologist. 

15. The " Opus Tektium," " Opus Minus," Ac, of Eogeb Bacon. Edited by J. S. 
Bbsweb, M.A., Professor of English Literatnre, King's College, London. 


This is the celebrated treatise— never before printed— so Aneqnently referred to by the great 
philosopher in his works. It contains the fullest details we possess of the life and labours of 
Roger Bacon : also a fragment by the same author, supposed to be unique, the " Compendium 
StudU TheologuB:* 

16. Babtholomjsi de Cotton, MonachiNobwicensis, HistobiaAnglicana; 449- 

1298: necnonejusdem Liber deAohiepiscopis et Episcopis Aogliee. Edited 

by Henbt Bichabds Luabd, M.A., Fellow and Assistant Tutor of Trinity 

College, Cambridge. 1859. 

The author, a monk of Norwich, has here given us a Chronicle of England fh)m the arrival of 
the Saxons in 440 to the year 1298, in or about which year it appears that he died. The latter 
portion of this history (the whole of the reign of Edward I. more especially) is of great value, as 
the writer was contemporary with the events which he records. An Appendix contains several 
illustrative documents connected with the previous narrative. 

17. Bbut t Ttwtsogion ; or, The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales. Edited by 

the Bev. John Williams ab Ithel, M.A. 1860. 

This work, also known as " The Chronicle of the Princes of Wales,*' has been attributed to 
Candoc of Llancarvan, who flourished about the middle of the twelfth century. It is written in 
the ancient Welsh language, begins with the abdication and death of Caedwala at Bome, in the 
year 681, and continues the histoiy down to the subjugation of Wales by Edward I., about the 
year 1288. 

18. A Collection or Botal and Histobical Lbitebs dubing the Beign ov 

Henbt IV. 1399-1404. Edited by the Bev. F. C. Hingbston, M.A., of 
Exeter College, Oxford. 1860. 

This volume, like all the others in the series containing a misoelUneous selection of letters, is 
valuable on account of the light it throws upon biographical history, and the familiar view It 
presents of characters, manners, and events. 


19. Ths Bsfressob of oyer ktjgh Blamikg Of THB GiEBer. By BsaDrAi.D 
Pecock, sometime Bishop of Chicliester. Vols. L and II. Edited by 
Ghtteghill Babingtok, B.D.I Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

The''Bepre88or'* mns be considered the earliest piece of good theologioAl diaqnisition o^ 
which our English prose literature can boast. The author was Dom about the end of the fimr- 
teenth century, consecrated Bishop of 8t. Asaph in the year 14M, and translated to the see of 
Chichester in 1450. While Bishop of St. Asaph, he zealousiT defended his brother prelates fh>m 
the attacks of those who censured the bishops for their neglect of duty. He maintained that it 
was no part of a bishop's functions to appear in the pulpit, and that his time might be more profi- 
tably spent, and his dignity better maintained, in the performance of works of a higher chanctor. 
Among those who thought differently were the Lollards, and against their general doctrines the 
** Repressor " is direoted. Peoock took up a position midwi^ between that of the Broman Church 
and that of the modern Anglican Churcn ; but his work is interesting chiefly because it grres a 
full account of the views of the Lollards and of the arguments by which they were supported, and 
because it assists us to ascertain the state of feeling which ultimately led to the Beformation. 
Apart from religious matters, the light thrown upon contemporaneous history is veiy small, but 
r the " Repressor " has great value for the philologist, as it tells us what were the charaeteristics of 
the language in use among the cultivated Bnglishmen of the fifteenth century. 

20. Annales Cahbelb. EdUed hy the Bev. John Williaks ab Ithel, M.A. I860. 

These annals, which are in Latin, commence ir. 447, and come down to 1288. The earlier porticm 
appears to be taken from an Irish Chronicle used by Tigemach, and by the compiler of the Annals 
of Ulster. During its first century it contains scarcely anything relating to Britain, the earlieat 
direct concurrence with English history is relative to the mission or Augustine. Its notices 
throughout, though brief, are valuable. The annals were probably written at St. Davids, by 
Blegewryd, Archdeacon of Llandaff, the most learned man in his day in all Oymru. 

21. Thb Works op G-iRALDns Cakbrensis. Vols. I., n., III., and lY. EdUed 
hy J. S. Brewer. M.A., Professor of English Literature, King's College, 
London. "Vols. V., VI., and VII. EdUed hy the Eev. James F. Ddcock, 
M.A., Bector of Bamburgh, Yorkshire. 1861-1877. 

These volumes contain the historical works of Grerald du Barry, who lived in the reigns of 
Henry II., Richard Ih and John, and attempted to re-establish the independence of Wales by 
restoring the see of St. Davids to its ancient primacy. His works are of a very miscellaneous 
nature, both In prose and verse, and are remarkable chiefly for the racy and original anecdotes 
which they contain relating to contemporaries. He is the only Welsh writer of any importanoe 
who has contributed so much to the mediieval literature of this oonntiy, or assumed, mjcxmse- 
quence of his nationality, so tree and independent a tone. His frequent travels in Italy, in France, 
m Ireland, and in Wales, gave him opportunities for observation which did not generally lall to 
the lot of medieval writers in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and of these observations 
Giraldus has made due use. Only extracts from these treatises have been printed before and 
almost all of them are taken from unique manuscripts. 

The Topographia Hibemica (in Vol. Y.) is the result of Giraldus* two visits to Ireland. The 
first in 118S, the second in 1185-^, when he accompanied Prince John into that country. A very 
interesting portion of this treatise is devoted to the animals of Ireland. It shows that he was 
a very accurate and acute observer, and his descriptions are given in a way tiiat a scientific 
naturalist of the present day could hardly improve upon. The Bzpugiiatio Hibemica was written 
about 1188 and may be regarded rather as a great epic than a sober relation of acts occurring 
in his own days. vol. YI. contaius the Itinerarium Eambrise et Desoriptio Kambrise : and YoL 
YII.i the lives of S. Be migius and S. Hugh. 

22. Lettebs and Papebs illustbative oy the Wabs o? the English in Fbance 
nuBiNo THE Beign OF Henbt thb Sixth, King op England. Vol. I., and 
Vol. II. (in Two Parts). Edited hy the Bof. Joseph Steyxnson, M.A., of 
University College, Darham, and v icar of Leigh ton Buzzard. 1861-1864. 

These letters and papers are derived chiefly firom originals or contemporaxy copies extant in 
the Biblioth^ue Imp<^nsle, and the Dep6t des Archives, in Paris. They illustntte the ixiticy 
adopted by John Duke of Bedford and his successors during their government of Normandy, and 
other provinces of France acquired by Henry Y. Here msy be trsiced, step by step, the gndual 
declension of the English power, until we are prepared for its final overthrow. 

23. The Anglo-Saxon Chbonicle, accobding to the seyebal Obiginal Autho- 
bities. Vol. I., Original Texts. Vol II., Translation. Edited and translated 
hy Benjamin Thobfb, Esq., Member of the Bojal Academy of Sciences at 
Mnnich, and of the Society of Netherlandish Literature at Leyden. 1861. 

This chronicle, extending from the earliest history of Britain to 1154, is Justly the boast of 
England ; no other nation can produce any history, written in its own vernacular, at all approach- 
ingit, in antiquiiyj truthfulness, or extent, the historical books of the Bible alone excepted. There 
are at present six independent manuscripts of the Saxon Chronicle, ending in different ^ears, and 
written in different parts of the country- In this edition, the text of each manuscript is printed 
in columns on the same page, so that the student may see at a glance the various changes which 
occur in orthography, whetner arising from locality or age. 

24. Lettbbs and Papebs illusxbatiye of the Beigns of Eichabd in. and 
Henbt VII. Vols. I. and II. Edited hy J axes QxjXDKVK,EBq. 1861-1863. 

The prp3r8 are derived from the MBS. in Public Becord Office, the British Musenm. and other 
repositories. The period to which they refer is unusually destitute of chronicles and other sources 
of nistorical information, so that the light obtained from them is of special importanoe. The princi- 

Sii contents of the volumes are some diplomatic Papers of Richard III. ; correspondence between 
enry YII. and Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain ; documents relating to Edmund de la Pole^ Barl 
of Suffolk ; and a portion of the correspondence of James IY« of Scotland. 


25. Lbttbbs ot Bishop GBoasBiSffEE, iUustratiye of the Social Condition of bis 
Time. Edited 5yHsNBT Bichajkds Luabd, M.A.j Fellow andA^sifitant 
Tutor of Trinity College, Cambridge. 1861. 

The Letters of Bobert Grosseteate (131 in number) are here collected from various sources, 
and a large portion of them is printed for the first time. They ran^o in date from about 1210 to 
1253, and relate to various matters connected not only with thepolitical history of England dunng 
the reign of Heni^ III. but with its ecclesiastical condition. They refer especially to the diocese 
of Lincoln, of which Qrosaeteste wa bishop. 

26. DBscBimyi Catalooue oy Mavusoripts bblatino to the Kistoet ov Gebat 

B&iTAiH AND IssLAKD. Vol. I. (in Two Parts) ; Anterior to the Korman 
Invasion. Vol. XL ; 1066-1200. Vol. III. ; 1200-1327. By Sir Thomas 
DuFFUS Haedt, D.C.L., Depnty Keeper of the Pnblio Records. 1862-1871. 

The object of this work is to publish notices of all known sources of British history, both 
printed and unprinted. in one continued sequence. The materials, when historical (as distin- 
eruisbed from biographical), are arranged under the year in which the latest event is recorded in 
the chronicle or history, and not under the period in which its author, real or supposed, flourished* 
Biographies are enumerated under the year in which the person commemorated died, and not 
under the year in which the life was written. A brief analvsis of each work has been added when 
deserving it^ in which original portions are distinff:uished from mere compilations. If possible, the 
sources are indicated from which compilations nave been derived. A biographical sketeh of the 
author of each piece has been added, and a brief notice of such British authors as have written on 
historical sul^ects. 


m. Vol. L, 1216-1236. Vol. n., 1236-1272. Selected and edited by the 
Bev. W. W. Shiblet, D.D., Begins Professor of Ecclesiastical History, and 
Canon of Christ Chnroh, Oxford. 1862-1866. 

The letters contained in these volumes are derived chiefly from the aadent correspondence 
formerlv In the Tower of London, and now in the Public Becord Office. They illustrate the 
p<ditioiil histoi7 of England during the growth of its liberties, and throw considerable light upon 
the personal histoiy of Simon de Montfort. The affairs of ^ance form the subject of many of 
them, especially in regard to the province of Gascony. The entire collection consists of nearly 
700 documents, the greater portion of which is printed for the first time. 

28, Chbonica MoKASTEBn S. Albani.— 1. Thoils Walsd^ohak Histobia Angli- 
caka; Vol.1., 1272-1381 : Vol.11., 1881-1422. 2. Willelmi Bishaugeb 
Chbonica bt Ankales, 1259-1307. 8. JoHAimis de Tbokelowe et Hebbici 
DE Blabeiobdb Chbonica bt Annales, 1259-1296 ; 1307-1324 ; 1392-1406. 
4. Qesta Abbatuh Monabtheii S. Albani, a Thoma Walsingham, beg- 


I., 79^-1290: Vol. II., 1290-1349: Vol. III., 1349-1411. 6. Johannis 
Amunbesham, Monachi Monastebii S. Albani, T7t yidetub, Annales ; Vols. 
I. and II. 6. Beoistba quobxtnbah Abbatum Monastebii S. Albani, qui 


Blakenet, Cafellano, quoNBAH adscbiptum : Vol. II., Begistba Johannis 
Whethamstede, Willelmi Albon, et Willelmi Walingpobbe, Abbatum 
Monastebii Sancti Albani, cum Apfenbice, continente quASBAM Epistolas, 
A JoHANNB Whethamstede Conscbiptas. 7. Yfodigma Neustbub a Thoma 
Walsingham, quoNBAM Monacho Monastebii S. Albani, conscbiftum. 
Edited by Henbt Thomas Bilet, Esq., M. A., Cambridge and Oxford ; and of 
the Inner Temple, Barrister-at-Law. 1863-1876. 

In the first two volumes is a History of England, from the death o( Henry III. to the death of 
Henry Y., by Thomas Walsingham, Precentor of St. Albans. 

In the Srd ▼olame is a Chronicle of English History, attributed to William Bishanger, who 
lived in the reign of Edward I. : an account of transactions attending the award of the kingdom 
of Scotland to John Balliol, 1291-1292, also attributed to William Biishanger, but on no suificient 
ground: a short Chronicle of English History, 1292 to 1800, by an unxnown hand: a short 
Chronicle Willelmi Bishanger Oesta Edward! Primi, Regis Anglin, with Annales Begum Angliie, 
probably by the same hand : and fragments of three Chronicles of English History, 1285 to 1807. 

In the 4th volnme is a Chronicle of English History, 1269 to 1290: Annals of Edward II., 1807 
to 1828, bv John de Trokelowe, a monk of Bt. Albans, and a continuation of Trokelowe's Annals, 
1328, 1324, by Henry de Blaneforde : a full Chronicle of English Histoiy. 1392 to 1406 ; and an 
account of the Benefactors of St. Albans, written in the early iMtrt of the 16th century. 

The 6th, 6th, and 7th volumes contain a history of the Abbots of St. Albans, 798 to 1411. mainly 
compiled by Thomas Walsingham : with a Continuation, Trom the closing pages of Fftrker MS. TIL, 
in the Library of Corpus Christi College. Cambridge. 

The 8th and 9th volumes, in continuation of the Annals, contain a Chronicle^ probably by John 
Amnndesham, a monk of Bt. Albans. 

The 10th and 11th volumes relate especially to the acta and proceedings of Abbots Whetham- 
stede, Albon, and Wallinglbrd, and may be considered as a memorial of me chief historical and 
domestic events during those periods. 

The 12th volume contains a compendions History of England to the reign of Henry V., and of 
Normandy in early times, also by Thomas Walsingham, and dedioated to Henry Y. The compiler 
has often sabstituted other authorities in place of those consulted in the preparation of his Uurger 


29. Ohbokigon Abbatlb Eybshaxxksis, Auctobibus Domihico Pbiobe Evs- 


UNA cxTM OoNTiKUATioNB AD AsvTJU 1418. EdUed hy the Bey. W. D. Macilat, 
Bodleian Library, Oxford. 1863. 

The Chronicle of Evesham illustrates the history of that important monastery flrom its founda- 
tion b^ Egwin. about 090, to the year 1418. Its chief feature is an autobiography, which makes ni 
acquainted with the inner daily life of a fpreat abbey, such as but rarely has been recorded. Inter- 
spersed are many notices of general, personal, and local history which will be read with much 
interest. This work exists in a single MB., and is for the first time printed. 


Vol. I., 447-871. Yol. II., 872-1066. Edited hy Jora E. B. Matob, MA., 
Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. 1863-1869. 

The compiler, Richard of Cirencester, was a monk of Westminster, 1366-1400. In 1981 he 
obtained a licence to make a pilgrimage to Rome. His history, in four books, extends from 447 to 
106d. He announces his intention of continuing it, but there is no evidence that he completed any 
more. This chronicle nves many charters in favour of Westminster Abbey, and a very ftiU account 
of the lives and miracles of the saints, especially of Edward the Confessor, whose r^gn occupies 
the fourth book. A treatise on the Coronation, by William of Sudbury, a monk of Westminster, 
fills hook ii. 0. 8. It was on this author that C. J. Bertram fathered his roigeiy, De SUk BriUamim 
in 1747. 

31. Yeab Books of the Histon of Edwabd thb Fibst. Years 20-21, 21-22, 
30-31, 32-33, and 33-35 Edw. L; and 11-12 £dw. III. EdUedoynd trans- 
IcUed by Alfbed John Hobvood, Esq., of the Middle Temple Barrister- 
at-Law. Years 12-13, 13-14, and 14 Edward III. Ediled and translated 
hy Luke Oweii Pike, Esq., M.A., of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Idtw. 

The " Year Books " are the earliest of our Law Bei>orts. They contain matter not onljr 
of practical utility to lawyers in the present day, but also illustrative of almost every branch of 
history, while for certain philological purposes they hold a position absolutely unique. The hiatory 
of the constitution and of the law, of procedure, and of practice, the jurisdiction of the varioua 
Courts, and their relation to one nnother, as well as to the Sovereign and Council, cannot be 
known without the aid of the Tear Books. 

32. Nabbatiyes of the Expulsion of the English fbok Nobxandt 144d-1450. 

— Bobertns Blondelli de Bednctione Normanniae : Le BeoonYrement de 

Normendie, par Berry, H^ranlt da Boy : Conferences between the Ambas- 

Badors of France and England. Edited, from MBB* in the Imjmial Library 

at Paris, by the Bev. Joseph Stevenson, M.A., of Uniyersity GoUegey 

Dnrham. 1863. 

This volume contains the narrative of an eye-witness who details with considerable power 
and minuteness the circumstances which attended the final expulsion of the KniriiBh from 
Normandy in 1460. Commencing with the infringement of the truce by the capture ofFoug^rea^ 
and ending with the battla of Formigny and the embarkation of the Duke of Stmerset. The 
period embraced is lees than two years. 


and III. Edited hy W. H. Habt, Esq., F.S.A., Membre correspondant de 
la Boci^t^ des Antiquaires de Normandie. 1863-1867. 

This work consists of two parts, the History and the Cartulary of the Monastery of St. Peter, 
Gloucester. The history furnishes an account of the monastery from its foundation, in the year 
681, to the early part of the reign of Richard II., together with a calendar of donations and 
benefactions. It treats principally of the affairs of the monasteiy, but ocoasionally matters of 
general history are introduced. Its authorship has generally been assigned to Walter Frouoester 
the twentieth abbot, but without any foundation. 

34. Albzandbi Neckam se Natubis Bebuh libbi duo; with Neckaic's Posic^ 

Db Laudibus DiYiNJB Sapientlb. Edited hy 'j'homas V^bight, Esq., M.A., 


Neokam was a man who devoted himself to sdenoe, such as it was in the twelfth oentniy. 
In the " De Naturis Rerum " are to be found what mi^ be called the rudiments of many aoienoes 
mixed up with much error and ignorance. Neckam was not thought infallible^ even by his 
contemporaries, for Boger Baoon remarks of him, '* This Alexander in many things wrote what was 
" true and useful ; but ne neither can nor ought by just title to be reckoned among authorities.'* 
Neokam, however, had sufiBcient independence of thought to differ fW>msomo of the schoolmen 
who in his time considered themselves the only judges of Uterature. He had his own views in 
morals, and in giving us a glimpse of them, as well as of his other opinions, he throws mooh 
light upon the manners, customs, and general tone of thought prevalent in the twelfth oentuiy. 
The poem entitled '* De Laudibus Divine Sapientis " appears to be a metrical paraphrase or 
abridgment of the " De Naturis Rerum." It is written in the elegiac metre, and it is, as a whole, 
abore the ordinary standard of mediaeval Latin. 

35. Lhbchdous, Wobtcunning, and Stabcbait oi Eablt England; being a Col< 
lection of DooumentB illustrating the History of Science in this Country 
before the Norman Conquest, vols. I., II., and III. Collected and edited 


by the Bey. T. Oswald GocKATinBy M.A., of St. John's OoUege, Cambridge^ 

This work Ulustrates not only the history of science, but the higtoij of superitition. In 
addition to the information bearing directly upon the medical skill and medical &itn of the times, 
there are manypassages which mcidentally throw light upon the general mode of life and 
ordinary diet. The volumes are interesting not only in their soientiflo, but also in their social 

36. Anhalbs Monastici. Yol. Jm: — ^Annales de Margan, 1066-1232 ; Ansales 
de Theokesberia, 1066-1263; Annales de Barton, 1004-1263. Yol. II.:— 
Annales Monasterii de Wintonia. 519-1277; Annales Monasterii de 
Wayerleia, 1-1291. Yol. III. : — Annales Prioratns de Dnnstaplia, 1-1297. 
Annales Monasterii de Bermnndeseia, 1042-1432. Yol. lY.: — ^Annales 
Monasterii de Oseneia, 1016-1347; Ghronicon ynlgo dictnm Ghronicon 
Thom» Wykes, 1066-1289 ; Annales Prioratns de Wigornia, 1-1377. Yol. 
Y. :— Index and Glossary. Edited by Henbt Bichabdb Ltjajid, M.A., Fellow 
and Assistant Tntor of Trinity Oollege, and Begistrary of the Uniyersity, 
Oambridge. 1864-1869. 

The present collection of Monastic Annals embraces all the more important chronicles com- 
^ , — 1,_. _ _ ^ ._ xi — i.-_j J — f — xi.g thirteenth ceiitury. These distinct works are ten 

embrace ranges from the year 1 to 14S2, although 
in, Henry III., and Edward I. Some of these narra- 
tlT^ hare already appeared in print, but others are printed for the first time. 

37« Maoha Yita S. Huookis Episgofi Lincolnibhsis. From MSS. in the Bod- 
leian Library, Oxford, and the Imperial Library, Paris. Sditedby the Bey. 
Jambs F. Dimock, M.A., Bector of Bambnrgh, Yorkshire. 1864. 

This work contains a number of very curious and interesting incidents, and being the work 
of acontemi>orary. is very valuable, not only as a truthful biography of a celebrated ecclesiastic 
but as the work of a man, wha from j^rsonal knowledge, gives notices of passing events, as well 
as of individusls who were then taking active part in public affain. The author, in all pro- 
bability, was Adam Abbot of Bvesham. He was domestic chaplain and private confessor of 
Bishop Hugh, and in these capacities wss admitted to the closest intimacy. Bishop Hugh was 
Prior of Witham for 11 years before he became Bishop of Lincoln. His consecration tool place 
on the 21st September 1186 ; he died on the 16th of November 1200 ; and was canonized in 

38. Ohboviglbs and Mbmobials of thb Bbign op Bichabd thb Fibst. Yol. I. : — 
IxnnaLABnTM Psbbobikobum bt Gbsta Bbgis Bica&di. Yol. II. : — Efistola 
Gahtuabxbnsbs ; the Letters of the Prior and Convent of Christ Chnroh, 
Canterbury; 1187 to 1199. Ediied by William Stubbs, M.A., Yicar of 
Nayestock, Essex, and Lambeth Librarian. 1864-1865. 

The authorship of the Chronicle in Vol. I., hitherto ascribed to Qwttrey Vinesauf, is now 
more correctly ascribed to Biohard, Oanon of the Holy Trinity of London. The narrative extends 
from 1187 to 1190 ; but its chief interest consists in the minute and authentic narrative which it 
furnishes of the exploits of Richard I., f^m his departure from England in December 1189 to his 
death in 1199. The author states in his prologue that he was an eye-witness of mutfh that be 
records; and various incidental circumstances which occur in the course of the narrative confirm 
this assertion. 

The letters in Yol. II., written between 1187 and 1199, are of value as fiimishing authentic 
materials for the history of the ecclesiastical condition of England during the reign or Bichard I. 
They had their origin in a dispute which arose fh>m the attempts of Baldwin anS Hubert, arch- 
bishops of Canterbury, to found a college of secular canons, a project which gave great umbrage 
to the monks of Canterbury, who saw in it a design to supplant them in their function of 
metropolitan chapter. These letters are prioted, for the first time, from a MS. belonging to the 
arohiepiaoopal library at Lambeth. 

39. Becubil DBS Cbokiqubs bt anchibmkes Istobibs bb la Gkant Bbbtaighba 
FBB8BNT NOVMB Engletbbbb, par Jbhan db Wavbik. Yol. I. Albina to 688. 
Yol. n., 1399-1422. Yol. III., 1422-1431. Edited by Sir William Habdt. 
F.S.A. 1864-1879. Yol. lY. 1431-1443. Edited by Sir William Habdt, 
F.S.A., and Edwabd L. 0. P. Habdt, Bsq., F.S.A. 1884. 

40. A GoLLBcnoH or the Gheoniclbs and ancient Histoeies op Geeat Beitain, 
NOW CALLED ENGLAND, hj JoHN DE Wayein. Albina to 688. (Translation 
of the preceding Yols. I. and 11.) Edited -and translated by Sir William 
Habdt, F.B.A., and Edwaed L. 0. P. Haedt, Esq., F.S.A. 1864-1887. 

This curious chronicle extends flrom the fkbulous period of history down to the return) 

miniatures, vignettes, and initial letters. It was written towards the end of the fifteenth o^tury 
having been expressly executed for Louis de Bruges. Seigneur do la Qruthuyse and Earl of 
Wincheiter, from whose oabmet it passed into the library of liouis XII. at Blols. 


41. PoLTOHBomooir Bakulphi Hiodbn, with TreviBa's Tranriatioii. YoIb. I. and 
II. Edited by Owurcsill Babington, B.D., Senior Fellow of St* John's 
OoUego. Cambridge. Vols. IIL, IV., V.. VL, VIL, VIIL, and IX. Edited 
by 6he Eev. Joseph Bawson Lumbt, D.D.jNorrisian Professor of Divinity, 
Vicar of St. Edward's, Fellow of St. Catharine's College, and late Fellow of 
Magdalene College, Cambridge. 1865-1886. 

This is one of the many medisval obronioles which ai^ume the chAracter of • hiiitozy of the 
world. It besina with the creation, and is brought down to the author's own time, the reign of 
Edward III. Prefixed to the historical portion, is a chapter devoted to geography, in which is 
given a description of every known land. To say that the Polydironioon was written in the four- 
teenth oentuTT is to ^ay that it is not free from inaccuracie^. It has, however, a value apart firom its 
intrinsic merits. It enables us to form a very fair estmiate of the knowledge of histoiy and 
geography which well-informed readers of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries possesaed, for it 
was then the stsndard work on general history. 

The two English translations, which are printed with the original Latin, afford interesting 
illustrations of the gradual change of our language, for one was made in thn fourteenth centuiy, the 
other in the fifteenth. The diflerences between Trevisa's version and that of the unknown writer 
are often considerable. 


Edited by John G-lotbb, M.A., Vicar of Brading, Isle of Wight, formerly 
Librarian of Trinity College, Cambridge. 1865. 

These two treatises, though they cannot rsnk as independent narratives, are nevertheless 
valuable as carefttl abstracts or previous historians, especially ** Le Livere de Beis de Engletere." 
Some various readings are given which sre interesting to the philologist as instances of semi- 
Sazonized French. It is supposed that Peter of Ickbam was the snpposea author. 

43. Chbonica. Mokastebii de Melsa ab Anno 1150 usque ad Anvuu 1406. 
Vols. I., II., and III. Edited by Edwabd Augustus Bond, Esq., Assistant- 
Keeper of Manuscripts, and Egerton Librarian, British Mosetun. 1866-1868. 

The Abbey of Meauz was a Gisterdan house, and the work of its abbot is both curious and 
valuable. It is a faithful and often minute record of the establishment of a religious community, of 
its progress in forming an amj^le revenue, of its struggles to maintain its acquisitions, and of its 
relations to the governing institutions of the country. In addition to the private ajSiaira of the 
monasteiy, some light is thrown upon the public events of the time, which are however kept distinct^ 
and appear at the end of the history of each abbot's administration. The text has been printed 
from what is said to be the autograph of the original compiler, Thomas de Burton, the nineteenth 

44. Matt&si Fa&isiensis Histobia Anglobuu, sive, ut yulgo dicttub, Histobia 
Minoe. Vols. I., II. , and III. 1067-1253. Edited by Sir Fbedebic Madden, 
K.H., Keeper of the Manusoript Department of British Hnsenxn. 1866-1869. 

The exact date at which this work was written is, according to the chronicler. 1860. The histoiy 
is of considerable value as an illustration of the period during which the author lived, and contains 
a good summary of the events which followed the Conquest. This minor chnmiole is, however, 
biwed on another work (also written by Matthew Paris) giving fuller details, which has been called 
the " Hlstoria Major." The chronicle here published, nevertheless, gives some information not to 
be found in the greater history. 

45. Libee Monastebii de Htda : a Ghbonicle and Chabtulabt op Htdb Abbet» 
Winchestbb, 455-1023. Edited, from a Mantucript in the Libra/ry of th€ 
Earl ofMaccleafield, by Edwabd Edwabds, Esq. 1866. 

The "Book of Hyde" is a compilation fh>m much earlier sources which are usually indicated 
with considerable care and precision. In many cases, however, the Hyde Chronicler appears to 
correct, to quality, or to amplifv— either from tradition or from sources of information not now 
discoverable— ^he statements, wnich. in substance, he adopts. He also mentionii, and frequently 
quotes fhHn writers whose works are either entirely lost or at present known only by fngments. 

There is to be fbund, in the " Book of Hyde/' much information relating to the reign of King 
Alfred which is not known to exist elsewhere. The volume contains some curious speoimens of 
Anglo-Saxon and Medieval English. 

46. Chbonicon Scotobum: a Ghbonicle of Ibish Affaibs, from the Eajklibst 
Times to 1135; and Supplement, containing the Events from 1141 to 
1150. Edited, toith Tranelation, by William MAxmsELL Hennbsst, Esq. 
M.E.LA. 1866. 

There is, in this volume, a legendary account of the peopling of Ireland and of the adventures 
which befell the various heroes who are said to have been connected with Irish history. The details 
are, however, veir meagre both for this period and for the time when histonr becomes more authentic 
The plan adopted in the chronicle gives the appearance of an accuracy to which the earlier por- 
tions of the work cannot have anv claim. Tne succession of events is marked year by year, from 
A.M. 1099 to ▲.D.1150. The prindpal events narrated in the later portion of the work are. the 
invasions of foreigners, and the wars of the Irish among themselves. The text has been pnnted 
from a MS. preserved in the library of Trinity College, Dublin, written partly in Latin, purily in 


47. .The OHBOiacLE of Pibbjblb db Lakotoft, in Fbbngh Ysbsb, jmou ths bablimt 

PxBiOD TO THB Dbath ov Edwabd I. Yolfl. I. and II. EdUed by Thoxas 
WueHT, Esq., M.A. 186&-1868. 

It u probable that Pierre de Langtoft was a canon of Bridlinffton, in Torkahire, and liyed in the 
leign of Bdward I., and during a portion of the reign of Bdward II. This chroniole is divided into 
three parts ; in the first, is an abridgment of Geoffrey of Monmouth's ** Historia Britonum ;" in the 
second, a histor^r of the Anglo-Saxon and Norman kmgs. to the death of Henry III. t in the third, a 
histoiy of the reign of Edward I. Tha principal object of the work was apparently to show the 
justice of Bdwara's Scottish wars. The language is singularly corrupt, and a curious specimen of 
the French of Yorkshire. 

48. Teb Wab of the Gabbhil with thb G-aill, or The Invasions of Irbland bt 
THE Danes and othbb Nobsehen. Edited, vnth a TrdnslaMon, by Jambs 
Henthobn Todd, D.D., Senior Fellow of IMnity College, and Begins Pro- 
fessor of Hebrew in iiie Uniyersity, Dublin. 1867. 

The work in its present form, in the editor's opinion, is a comparatively modem version of an 
undoQbtedly andeat ori^pnal. That it was compiled from contemporary materials lias beenproved 
by curious incidental evidence. It is stated in the account given of the battle of Clontarf that the 
full tide in Dublin Bay on the day of the battle f 23 April 1014) coincided with sunrise ; and that the 
returning tide in the evening aided considerably in the defeat of the Danes. The fact has been 
verified by astronomical calculations, and the inference is that the author of the chronicle, if not an 
eye-witness, must have derived his information from eye-witnesses. The contents of the work are 
sufficiently described in its title. The story is told after the manner of the Scandinavian Sagas, with 
poems ana fragments of poems introduced into the prose narrative. 

49. Qesta Begis Henbici Secundi Benbdicti Abbatis. Ghbonicle of fHB Bbigns 
OF Kenbt II. and Bichabd L, 1169-1192, known nnder the name of Bbnbdict 
of Pbixbbobouoh. Vols. I. and II. Edited by William STUBsSy M. A., Begins 
Professor of Modem History, Oxford, and Lambeth Librarian. 1867. 

This chronicle of the reigns of Henry II. and Richard I., known commonly under the name of 
Benedict of Peterborough, is one of the best existing specimens of a class of historical compositions 
of the first importance to the student. 


AND Studies at Oxfobd (in Two Farts). Edited by the Bey. Henbt Anstbt, 
M.A., Vicar of St. Wendron, Cornwall, and lately Vice-Principal of St. 
Mary Hall, Oxford. 1868. 

This work will supply materials for a History of Academical Life and Studies in the University 
of Oxford during the ISth, 14th, and 15th centuries. 

51. Chronica Magistbi BooEBi DE HouEDBNE. Vols. I., IL, III., and IV. Edited 
by William Stubbs, M.A., Begins Professor of Modern History, and Fellow 
of Oriel College, Oxford. 1868-1871. 

This work has long been justly celebrated, but not thoroughly understood until Mr. Stubbs* 
edition. The earlier portion, extending from 7S2 to 1148, appears to be a copy of a compilation 
made in Northumbria about 1161, to which Hoveden added little. From 1148 to 1169 -a very 
valuable portion of this work— the matter is derived fh)m another 'source, to which Hoveden 
appears to have supplied little, and not always iudioiously. From 1170 to 1192 is the portion which 
corresponds with tne Ghronide known under the name of Benedict of Peterborough (sm No. 40) : 
but it u not a copy, being sometimes an abridgment, at others a paraphrase ; occasionally the two 
works entirely agree; showing that both writers had access to the same materials, but dealt with 
them differently. From 1198 to 1201 may be said to be wholly Hoveden's work ; it it extremely 
valuable, and an authority of the ilrst importance. 

52. WiLLBLMi Maxmbsbibibnsis Mohachi bb Gbstis FoimncuM Ahglobitm Dibbi 
QuiKQUB. Edited by N. E. 8. A. Hamiltok, Esq., of the Department of 
Manuscripts, Britisn Museum. 1870. 

Wilham of Malmesbury's " Oesta Pontiacum *' is the pf inoipal foundation of English Bccle- 
siastical Biography, down to the year 1182. The manuscript which has been followed in this 
Edition is sapp(»ed by Mr. Hamilton to be the author's autograph, containing his Utest additions 
and amendments. 

53. HisTOBic AHD Municipal Documents op Ibbland, peom the Abchivbs op the 
OiTT OP Dublin, &c. 1172-1320. Edited by JohnT. Gilbeet, Esq., F.S.A., 
Secretary of the Public Eecord Office of Ireland. 1870. 

a collection of original documents, elucidating mainly the history and condition of the muni- 
cipal, middle, and trading classes under or in relation with the rule of England in Ireland,--* 
suSeot hitherto in almost total obscurity. Extending over the ftrst hundred Mid flftyyears of the 
Anglo-Norman settlement, the series includes charters, municipal laws and regulations, rolls of 
. names or citizens and members of merchant-guilds, lists of commodities with their rates, correspon- 
dence, illustrations of reUbtions between ecclesiastics and laity ; together with many documents 
exhibiting the state of Ireland during the presence there of the Soots nnder Eobert and Edward 

U 61689. 


54. Th£ ANNi.Ls OF Loch Oe. A Oh&onicle oi I&uh Ajijleba, from 1041 to 
1590. Yols. I. and II. Edited, with a"Tran$lation, hy Williak Hattvb&ll 
Hbknessy, Esq., M.B.I.A. 1871. 

The original of thia ohroniole has passed under various names. The title of ** AnnaJs of Looh 
G4" was given to It by Professw O'Ouny, on the groond that it was transcribed lor Brian Mac 
Dermot, an Irish chieftain, who resided on the island in Loch 06, in the county of Roscommon. 
It adds much to the materials for the civil and ecclesiastical history of Ireland ; and contains maqy 
carious references to Bnglish and foreign afEairs, not noticed in any other chronicle. 

55. HovuMEjrTA Jubibiga. The Black Book of the Admibaxtt, vith Appekdices. 
Vols. I., II., III., and lY. Editedhy Sib Tbaveks Twiss, Q.C., B.CJL. 

This book contains the ancient ordinances and laws relatinK to the navv. and was pcobably 
compiled for the use of the Lord High Admiral of England. Selden calls it the ''jewel of the 
Admiralty Becords." Piynne ascribes to the Black Book the same authority in the Admiralty as 
the Black and Bed Books have in the Court of Bxchequer, and most English writers on mantune 
law recognixe its importance. 

56. Mehoeials of the Bbiov of Hehbt YI. : — Official Gobbb8pondshci of 
Thom A.S Bektvtoh, Secbbtabt to Hbnbt YI., AND Bishop of Bath abb Wells. 
Edited, from a M8* in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, with an Appendix 
ef Illusirative Documente, by the Bey. Q-eobob Williams, B.D.,Yicar of Bin g- 
wood, late Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Yols. I. and II. 1872. 

These curious volumes are of a miscellaneous character, and were probably compiled under the 
immediate direction of Beckynton before he had attained to the Episcopate. They contain many 
of the Budiop's own letters, and several written by him in the King's name ; also letters to himself 
while Royal Secretary, and others addressed to the Kiug. 

57. Matthjii Pabisiensis, Monachi Sancti Albani, Ohbokica Maioba. Yol. I. 

The Creation to A.D. 1066. Yol. II. A.D. 1067 to A.D. 1216. Yol. III. 

A.D. 1216 to A.D. 1239. Yol. lY. A.D. 1240 to A.D. 1247. Yol. Y. A.D. 

1248 to A.D. 1269. Yol. YL Additamenta. Yol. YII. Index. Edited by 

Hbnbt Bichabds Luabd, D.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Begistrary of the 

University, and Yioar of Grreat St. Mary's, Cambridge. 1872-1884. 

This, work contains the " Chronica Majora" of Matthew Paris, one of the most valuable and 
frequently consulted of the ancient English Chronicles. It is published from its commencement, 
for the first time. The editions by Archbishop Parker, and William Watts^ seyerally begin at the 
Norman Conquest. 

58. Mbicobialb Fbatbis Waltebi bb Coyektbia. — Ths Histobical Collbctiobs op 
Waltbb oif CovBNTBT. Yols. I. and II. Edited, fi-om the M8. inihsLihrary 
of Oorpvs Ohrieti College, Oambridge, by William Stubbs, M.A., Begins Pro- 
fessor of Modern History, and Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 1872-1873. 

This work, now printed in fUll for the first time, has long been a desideratum by Historical 
Scholars. The first portion, however, is not of much importance, being only a compilation from 
earlier writers. The part relating to the first quarter of the thirteenth century is the most valuable 
and interesting. 

59. Thb Avolo-Latin Satibical Fobtb akb Efiobamkatists of thb Twblfth 
Cbbtuby. Yols. I. and II. Oolleeted and edited by Thomas Wbight, Esq., 
M. A., Corresponding Member of the National Institnte of France(Acad^mie 
des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres). 1872. 

The Poems contained in these volumes have long been! Known and appreciated as the best 
satires of the age in which their authors flourished, and were deservedly popular during the 13th 
and Uth centuries. 

60. Matbbials fob a Histobt of thb Bbign of Hebbt YII., fbom obigibal 
DocmcEinsFBESBByBDiir thb Public Becobb Office. Yols. I. and II. Edited 
&y the Bey. William Campbbll, M.A., one of Her Majesty's Inspectors of 
Schools. 1873-1877» . j j f 

These volumes are valuable as illustrating the acts and proceedings of Hennr VIL on asoendiur 
the throne, and shadow out the policy he afterwards adopted. ^^ 

61. Histobical Pafbbs akd Lbttbbs fbom the Noethbeb Bbgistbbs. Edited by 

Jambs Bainb, M.A., Canon of York, and Secretary of the Snrtees Society. 

The dociments in this volume illustrate, for the most part, the general history of the north of 
England, particularly in its relation to Scotland. 

62. Bbgistbum Palatinum Dunblmbnsb. Thb Beoistbb of Bichaed db Kbllawe 
Lohd Palatine and Bishop of Dttbham ; 1311-1316. Yols. I., II., III., and 
lY. Edited by air Thomas Duffxis Habdt, D.C.L., Depnty Keeper of the 
Pahlio Beoords. 1873-1878. . 

««^ ?f^°^ ^?P»f&'> ?^«*?'* contains the prpeeediiigs of hii prelacy, both lay and ecolesiMticAl. 
and u the earliest Begister of the Palatinate of Durham« *« *» -» — » ^w^wmmmvw. 


68. Mbmobulb op Saikt Dunstak, Abchbishop op Caktebbxjbt. Edited by 
William Stubbs, M.A., Begins Professor of Modern History, ftnd 
Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 1874. 

This volume oontaizifl seTeral lives of Archbishop BuDsfam, openuig ▼arious points of Historical 
and Literary interest. 

64. Oh&onxcoh Angli^b, ab Anno Domini 1828 usque ad Annum 1888, Auotobe 
MoNACHo QUODAM Sancti Albani. Edited by Edwakd Maunbe Thompson, 
Bsq. , Barrister»at-Law, and Assistant-Keeper of the Mannscripts in the 
British Museum. 1874. 

This chroniole fpves a cironmstantial history of the dose of the reign of Edward III. 

LANDIC. Yols. I. and 11. Ediied, with English Translation, Notes, and Glossary 
by M. EibIkb MAGNtssoN, M.A., Sub-Librarian of the TJniyersity Library, 
Cfambridge. 1875-1884. 

This work is derived firom the Life of Becket written by Benedict of Peterborough, and 
apparently supplies the missing portions in Benedict's biography. 

66. Badulphi be Coggeshall Ghbonicon Anglicanum Edited by the Bey. 
Joseph Stbybnson, M.A. 1875. 

This volume contains the " Ohronioon Anglicanum," by Balph of Goggleshall. the " Libellus 
de Eipugnatione Terras Sanote per Saladinum," usually ascribed to the same auUior, and other 
pieces of an interesting character. 

67. Matebials pob the Histobt op Thomas Becket, Abchbishop op Oantbbbubt. 
Vols. I., II., III., lY., v., and VI. Editedby the Bev. James Cbaigie 
Bobebtson, M.A., Canon of Canterbury. 1875-1883. Vol. VII. Edited 
by Joseph Bbigstocke Sheppabb, Esq., LL.D. 1885. 

This publication comprises all contemporary materials for the history of Archbishop Thomas 
Becket. The first volume contains the life of that celebrated man, and the miracles after his death, 
by William, a monk of Canterbury. The second, the life by Benedict of Peterborough ; John of 
Sahsbnry ; Alan of Tewkesbury ; and Edward Grim. The third, the life by William Pitsstepfaen ; 
and Herbert of Bosham. The fourth, anonymous lives, Quadrilogus, &c. The fifth, sixth, and 
seventh, the Epistles, and known lettdrs. 

68. Badulpi be Diceto Decani Lunboniensis Opeba Histobica. The Hibtobical 
WoBKS OP Masteb Balph de Diceto, Dean op Lonbon. Vols. I. and II. 
Edited, from the Original Manuscripts, by William Stubbs, M.A., Begins 
Professor of Modem History, and Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford. 1876. 

The Historical Works of Balph de Dioeto are some of the most valuable materials for British 
History. The Abbreviationes Ohronicorum extend from the Creation to 1147, and the Tmagines 
Historiarum to 1201. 

69. Boll op the Fboceebings op the King's Council in Ibbland, ioe a Pobtion 
OP THE 16th Yeah op the Beign op Bichabb II. 1392-98. Edited by the 
Bey. James Gbayes, A.B. 1877. 


This Boll throws considerable light on the History of Ireland at a period little known. It 
seems the only document of the kind extant. 


IN Varios Teactatus Distincti. Ab Diveesobum etVetustissimobumCobi- 
cum Oollationbm Ttpis Vulgati. Vols. I., II., III., rV.,V.,and VI. Edited 
by Sir Teavebs Twiss, Q.O., D.O.L. 1878-1883. 

This is a new edition of Bracton's celebrated work, collated with M8S. in the British Museum ; 
the Libraries of Lincoln's Inn, Middle Temple, and Gray's Inn ; Bodleian Library, Oxford ; the 
Bibliothdque Kationale, Paris ; Ac. 

71. The Historians op the Church op Yobk, anb its Archbishops. Vols. I. 
and II. Edited by Jambs Baine, M. A., Canon of York, and Secretary of the 
Surtees Society. 1879-1886. 

This will form a complete " Corpus Historicum Eboraoense," a work vei7 mnoh needed. 

72. Bbgxstrum Malmesburiense. TheBegister op Malmesburt Abbey; Pbe- 
SERYED IN THE PuBLic BscoRB Oppice. Vols. I. and II. Edited by J. 8. 
Brewer, M.A., Preacher at the Bolls, and Bector of Toppesfield ; a1^d 
Charles Trice Martin, Esq., B.A. 1879, 1880. 

This work illustrates many curious points of history, the growth of society, the distribution of 
land, the relations of landlord and tenant, national customs, &c. 



73. Hino&ioix Wobks or Gsbtxbb ot Oaiitbbbvbt. Vols. !• and II. Tex 


YASX, TEX MoHK o? Oaxtxxxi7X,t. Editedhy Yfiu^u Stubbs, D.D. ; Canoa 
Besidentiary of St. Paul's, London ; Begras Profesaor of Modern History 
and Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford ; &o. 1879, 1880. 

The Hifltorical Works of GemMe of Oanterbuiy we of great importuice sa nfODrds the 
questions of Ohuroh and State, daring the period in whloh he wrote. This work was printed by 
Twysdeo, in the '^ Historic Anglieans Scriptores X," more than two oentnries ago. 

74. HxBxioi AxcsiDiiLOONi HuxTBVBiTirxxsis HisioBiA AxoLOBinc. Tex Histobt 
Of TEX Bkolise, bt HmTBT, Abgedxaoox or Hytntinodoh, from a.d. &5 to 
▲.D. 1154, in Eight Books. EdUed hy Teomas Abbolb, Esq., M.A., of 
Uniyersity College, Oxford. 1879. 

Henry of Huntingdon's work was first printed by Sir Henry SavOe, in 1606^ in his " Scriptores 
post Bedam," and reprinted at Frankfort in 1601. Both editions are Teiy rare and inaoonrato. The 
Bnt Qto books of the History were published in 1S48 in the " Honumenta Historiea Britannica," 
which is out of print. The present volume contains the whole of the manuscript of Huntingdon's 
History in eight Dooks, collated with a manuscript lately discoTered at Paris. 

75. Tex Histobical Wobks or Stmbon or DiTBEiJC. Yols. I. and II. Edited hy 
Teomas Abnolb, Esq., M.A., of Uniyersity College, Oxford 1882-1885. 

The first Tolume of this edition of the Historical Works of Symeon of Duiham, contains the 
" Historia Dnnelmerorts Boclesi»," and other Works. The second Tolume oontains the ** Historia 
Bsgum." Ac 

76. Oebohiglxs or tsb Bxioks or Edwabd I. abb Edwabd II. Yols. I. and II. 
EdUed by William Btubbs, D.D., Canon Besidentiary of St. Paul's, London ; 
Begins Professor of Modern History, and Fellow of Oriel College, Oxford, 
&o. 1882,1883. 

The first volume of these Chronicles oontains the " Annales Londonienses " and the *' Annates 
Fanlini t *' the second, I.-'Gommendatio Lamentahilis in Transitu magni Regis BdwardL II.~Geata 
Bdwardi de Oamanran Auotore Canonioo Bridlinictoniensl. III.— Monachi cujusdam Mahnes- 
beriensis Vita, Bdwardi II. IV.— Vita et Mors Bdwardi II. Conscripta a Thoma de la Moore. 

77. Bboistbum Efistolabum Fbatbis Johannib Pxcksam, Abceibpiscopi Cav- 
TUABIXV8I8. Yols. I., II., and III. Edited hy Ceablxs Tbicx Mabtib, Esq., 
B.A., F.S.A., 1882-1886. 

These Letters are of great value for illustrating English Ecclesiastical History. 

78. BxsiSTXB or 8. Osmund. EditedhyiheB^y.W.'R. Bicn Jonbs,M.A.,F.S.A., 
Canon of Salisbury. Yicar of Bradford-on-Avon. Yols. I. and II. 1888, 1884. 

first tinm, is among the moot 

its name fh>m oontaininf the 

1 oy S. Osmund, to be observed in the Oathedral and 

diocese of Salisbuiy. The first 19 folios contain the ** Consuetudinaiy," the exposition, as regards 

ritual, of the " Use of Sarum." 

79. Ceabtulaby or TEX Abbbt or Bamsey. Yols. I. and II. Edited hyWiLLiAU 
Hbbbt Habi, Esq., F.S.A., and the Bey. Ponsonbt Avkbslxt Lyons , 1884, 

This Ohartulanr of the Ancient Benedictine Monastery of Bamsey. Hnntixigdanshire, csme to 
the Grown on the Dissolution of Monasteries, was afterwards preserved in the Stone Tower« West- 
minster Hall, and thence transferred to the Fiiblic Record Office. 

80. Ceabtulabibs or St. Maby's Abbxy, Dublin, with tsx Bxoibtxb or its eousb 


Edited hy JoEx Teomas Gilbxbt, Esq., F.S.A., M.B.I.A. Yols. I. & 11. 

The Ghartularies and register, here printed for the first time, are the only surviving manu- 
scripts of their class in connexion with the Olsteroians in Ireland. With them are included 
accounts of the other establishments of the Cistereian Order in Ireland, together with the earliest 
body df Anglo-Irish Annals extant. 

81. Eadmxbi Hisiobia. Noyobum in Anglia, xt onrscuLA duo bb Yita Sancti 
Ansklmi XT QUIBU8DAM MiBACULis xjus. Edited hy the Bev. Mabttn Bulx, 
M.A. 1884. 

This volume oontains the "HistorinNovorum in Anglia^" of Eadmer ; his treatise " De Vita et 
conversatione Anselmi Arehiepiaoopi Cantuariensis." and a f&act entitled "Quaedam Parva l)e- 
scriptio Miraculorum gloriosi Patris Anselmi OantuariensiB." 

82. Chbobiclxs or thx Beions or Stxpeen, Heney II., and Bichaed I. Yols. I. 

II., and ni., EdUed hy Bichabd Howleit, Esq., of the Middle Temple, 
Barrister^t-law. 1884-1886. 


Tol. I. contains Books L-IV.of the "flistoria Berum Anglicaram"of William of Newbnrgli. 
Vol. 11. contains Book V. of that work, the continuation of the same to A.I>. 1886, and the " Bnoo 
NonnanniooB " of Etienne de Bouen. 

Vol. III. contains the ''Gesta Stephani Begis,*' the Ohronide of Richard of Hexham, the 
" Belatio de Stimdardo " of St. Aelred of fideyaulx, the poem of Jordan Fantosme. and the Ohroniole 
of Bichard of Deyises. 

83. Ohbonicle 07 tub Abbst of Bamsbt. Edited hy the Bev. Williax Ditbb 
Macbat, M.A., F.S. A., Beotor of Dncklington, Ozon. 1886. 

This Chronicle forms part of the Ghartulary of the Abhey of Bamaey, preserved in the Public 
Record Office (see No. 79). 

84. Cbbonica Bogebi be Wenboybb, sitb Flobbs Histobiabitm. YoIb. I. and II. 
Eddied by Henbt Gat Hewlett, Esq., Keeper of the Becords of the Land 
Bevenue. 1886-1887. 

This edition gives that portion only of Roger of Wendover's Chronicle which can be accounted 
an original authority. 

85. The Letter Books oi the Monastebt of Ohbibt Ghubch, Oavtbbbttbt. Edited 
hy Joseph Bbigstockb Sheppabb, Esq., LL.D. YoIb. L and IL, 1887, 18^. 

The Letters printed in these volumes were chiefly written between the years 1296 and 1988. 
Amon^ the most notable writers were Prior Henry <x Eastry, Prior Richard Oxenden, and the 
Archbishops Reynold and Meopham. 

86. The Metbical Ghbonicle of Bobebt of Gloucesteb. Edited hy William 
Aldis Weight, Esq., M.A. Parts I. and II., 1887. 

The date of the composition of this Chronicle is placed about the year 1300. The writer appears 
to have been an eve witness of many events which he describes. The language in which it is written 
was the dialect of Gloucestershire at that time. 

87. Chbokicle of Bobebt of Bbitnne. Edited hy Fbebbbick Jambs Fvkniyall. 

Esq., M.A., of Trinity Hall, Gambridge, Barrister-at-Law. Parts I and II. 


Robert of Brunne, or Bourne, co. Lincoln, was a member of the Gilbertine Order established at 
Sempringham. His Chronicle is described by its editor a» a work of fiction, a contribution not to 
Engush history, but to the history of English. 

88. Icelandic Sagas and otbeb Historical Documents relating to the Settlements 
and Descents of the Northmen on the British Isles. Vol. I. Orkneyinga 
Saga, and Magnus Saga. Vol. II. Hakonar Saga, and Magnus Saga. 
Edited hy M. Gubbbamb Yiopusson, M.A. 1887. 

89. The Tbipabtite Life op St. Patbick, with other docnments relating to that 
Saint. Edited 61/ Whitley Stokes, Esq., LL.D., D.G.L., Honorary Fellow of 
Jesus GoUege, Oxford ; and Gorresponding Member of the Institute of 
France. Parts I. and II. 1887. 


BT Histobls Koyells, libbi III. Edited hy William Stubbs, D.D., Bishop 
ofGhester. Vol.1. 1887. 

91. Lestobibbes Engles solum Geppbei Gaimab. Edited hy the late Sir Thomas 
Duppus Habbt, D.G.L., Deputy Keeper of the Public Eeoords ; continued and 
ircmslatedhy Ghablbs Tbice Mabtib, Esq., B.A., F.S.A. Yols. I. and IL 
1888, 1889, 

In the Press. 

IcELAHBiG Sagas, abb otheb Histobical Documents relating to the Settle- 
ments and Descents of the Northmen on the British Isles. YoIb. in.— 
lY. Trcmslated hy Sir Geobge Webbe Dasbmt, D.G.L. 


et Histobls Novells, libbi III. Edited hy William Stubbs, D.D., Bishop 
of Oxford. Yol. IL 

Ghabtulabt OP THE Ancient Benebictine Abbet op Bamset, from the MS. in the 
Public Record Office. Yol. III. J7<2t^6(2&y the late William Henbt Habt, 
Esq., F.S.A., and the Bey. Ponsonbt Anneslet Lyons. 

Chabtebs anb Documents, illustbating tbe Histoby op the Gathebbal and 
GiTY OP Sabum, 1100-1300 ; forming an Appendix to the Begister of S. 
Osmimd. Yol. III. Edited hy the late Bey. W. H. Bich Jones, M.A., 
F.S.A., and the Bey. W. D. Macbay, M.A., F.S,A.» Bector of Ducklington. 


In the Press — (continued). 

Flober HisToiiTjjLUM, FEiQL Matthjbuh Westmokastejoekseh collecti. Edited hy 
Heney BiCEAJiDS LuAKD, D.D., Fellow of Trinity College, Registrary of tbe 
XJniYersity, and Yicar of Great St. Mary's, Cambridge. 


.-Edited wnd translated hy Sir Tbavebs Twiss, Q.C, D.O.L. 

Ohboniglb op Adam Mubimuth, with the Chbonicle op Bobebt of Avesbttbt. 
Edited hy Edwabd Maukde Thoicfson, Esq., Principal Librarian and 
Secretary of the British Mnsenm. 

Ysab Books of the Bei&h op Edwabd III. Edited and translated hy Luxe Owen 
Pike, Esq., M.A., of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law. 

Oebokicle op Hbnby Enightok, Canon of Leicester, to the death of Bichabd IL 
Edited hy the Bev. Joseph Bawsok Luhbt, D.D. 

The Lbtteb Books of the Monasteby of Chbist Chubch, Cantebbuey. Edited 
hy Joseph Bbigbtocke Shefpabd, Esq., LL.D. Yol. IIL 

Ankals ob Meicobials op St. Eduondsbuby. Edited hy Thomas Abnold, Esq., 
M.A., of University College, Oxford. 

Bbgubil DS8 Cboniqxtss et avchiekkes Istobibs db la Gbant Bbstaignb a 
pbesbkt nomme Enoletebbe, par Jehan de Waubin. Yol. Y. 1448-1461. 
Edited hy the late Sir William Habdy, F.S.A., and Edwabd L. C. P. 
Habdt, Esq., F.S.A., of Lincoln's Inn, Barrister-at-Law. 

Ohbonicles of the Beigns of Stephen, Henby II., and Bichabd I. Yol. lY- 
Edited hy Bichabd Howlett, Esq., of the Middle Temple, Barrister-at-Law. 

Ohbonioa Bogebi db Wendoveb, Site Flobbs Histobiabum. Edited &v Henby 
Gay Hewlbtt, Esq., Keeper of the Becords of the Land Bierenne. Vol. III. 

Chabtulaby of the Abbey op St, Thomas the Mabtyb, Dublin. Edited hy 
John Thomas Gilbebt, Esq., F.S.A., M.I.B.A. 

In Progress. 

Dbsgbiftive Catalogue of Mant7scbipts belating to the Histoby op Gbeat 
Bbitain and Ibsland. Yol. lY. ; 1327, &c. Edited hy the late Sir Thomas 
DuFPUS Habdy, D.C.L., Depnty Keeper of the Becords, and C. Tbice 
Mabtin, Esq., B.A., F.S.A. 

The Tbeatise " De Pbincipum Instbuctionb," of Gibaldus Cambbensis ; with an 
Index to the first four volumes of the *' Works of Giraldns Cambrensis," 
edited by the Bev. J. S. Brewer. Edited hy Geobgb F. Wabneb, Esq., of 
the Department of MSS., British Mnsenm. 

Tee Bed Book of the Ekcheqiteb, preserved in the Public Becord Office. 
Edited hy Walfobd Daking Selby, Esq., of the Public Becord Office. 

The Histobians of the Chubch of Yobk and its Abchbishops, Yol. IIL Edited 
hy James Baihe, M.A., Canon of York, and Secretary of the Surtees Society. 



[In boards or cloth.] 

BoTULOBUX Obioinalium in Cctbia Scagcabii Abbbeyiatio. lien. in. — ^Edw. Ill 

Edited by Henby Platfobd, Esq. 2 Vols, folio (1805 — 1810). 12s. 6d, each. 
Calendabium Inquisitionum Post Mobtbm Siyb Esoaetabum. Hen. III. — Bic. III. 

Edited by John Calby and John Batlbt, Bsqrs. Folio (1821 — 1828) : Vol. 3, 2l5, ; 

Vol. 4, 248. 
Libbobuh Manuscbiptobum Bibliotheca Hableianjs Catalooub. Vol. 4. Edited 

by the Bev. T. Habtwbll Hobnb. Folio (1812), 18«. 
Abbbeyiatio FLAcrroBUM. Bichard L — ^Edward II. Edited by the Bight Hon. Obobgk 

BoBE and W. Illinowobth, Esq. 1 Vol. folio (1811), IS^. 
Libbi Genbualis Yocati Domebdat-Book, Indices. Edited by Sir Henbt Ellis. 

Folio (1816), (Domesday-Book, Vol. 3). 21«. 
Libbi Genbualis Yocati Domebdat-Book, Additaxbnta ex Godic. Antiquibb* 

Edited by Sir Henbt Ellis. Folio (1816), (Domesday-Book, Vol. 4). 21«. 

Statutes of the Bealv. Edited by Sir T. E. Tomlinb, Jobn Baithbt, John Galet, 

and Wm. Elliott, Esqre. Vols. 7, 8,9, 10, and 11, folio (1819 — 1828). 31». 6d, 

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Valob Ecclebiasticub, temp. Hen. VIII., Auctoritate Begia institutns. Edited by 

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Pabliamentabt Wbits and Wbitb of Militabt Summons, with Becords and Muni- 
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(1833, 1844). Vol. 1, 1204 - 1224. Vol. 2, 1224—1227. Edited by Thomas Duffus 
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DoMBSDAT Book, or the €I^bbat Subyet oj Enolavd op William the Conqueboe, 
1086 ; fac-simile of the Fart relating to each county, separately (with a few 
exceptions of double counties). Fhotozincographed, by Her Majesty's Com- 
mand, at the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton, Colonel Sir Henbt 
James, B.E., F.B.S., &g., DtREcroB-Q-EinBBAL of the Obdnance Subvet, under 
the Superintendence of W. Bajsevi Sandebs, Esq., Assistant Keeper of 
Her Majesty's Records. 35 Parts, imperial quarto and demy quarto 
(1861-1863), boards. Price Ss, to 11, 38. each Part, according to size ; or, 
bound in 2 Yols., 207. {The edition in itvo voLwmee is out of print.) 

This important and nniqne survey of the greater portion of England* is the 
oldest and most valuable record in the national archives. It was conunenced 
about the year 1084 and finished in 1086. Its compilation was determined 
upon at Gloucester by William the Conqueror, in council, in order that he might 
know what was due to him, in the way of tax, from his subjects, and that each 
at the same time might know what he had to pay. It was compiled as much 
for their protection as for the benefit of the sovereign. The nobility and people 
had been grievously distressed at the time by the king bringing over large num- 
bers of French and Bretons, and quartering them on his subjects, *'each 
" according to the measure of lus land," for the purpose of resisting the invasion of 
Cnut, King of Denmark, which was apprehended. The Commissioners appointed 
to make the survey were to inquire the name of each place ; who held it in the 
time of King Edward the Confessor; the present possessor ; bow many hides 
were in the manor ; how many ploughs were in the demesne ; how many homagers 
how many villeins ; how man}' cottars ; how many serving men ; how many free 
tenants ; how many tenants in soccage ; how much wood, meadow, and pasture ; 
the number of mills and fish ponds ; what had been added or taken away from 
the place ; what was the gross value in the time of Edward the Confessor; the 
present value ; and how much each free man or soc-man had, and whether any 
advance could be made in the value. Thus could be ascertained who held the 
estate in the time of King Edward ; who then held it ; its value in the time of 
the late King ; and its value as it stood at the formation of the survey. So 
minute was the survey, that the writer of the contemporary portion of the Saxon 
Chronicle records, with some asperity — " So veiy narrowly he caused it to be 
'' traced out, that there was not a single hide, nor one virgate of land, nor even, 
*' it is shame to tell, though it seemed to him no shame to do, an ox, nor a cow, 
*' nor a swine was left, that was not set down." 

Domesday Survey is in two parts or volumes. The first, in folio, contains the 
counties of Bedford, Berks, Bucks, Cambridge, Chester, and Lancaster, Corn- 
wall, Derby, Devon, Dorset, Gloucester, Hants, Hereford, Herts, Huntingdon, 
Kent, Leicester and Butland, Lincoln, Middlesex, Northampton, Kottin^am, 
Oxford, Salop, Somerset, Stafford, Surrey, Sussex, Warwick, Wilts, Worcester, 
and York. The second volume, in quarto, contains the counties of Essex, 
Norfolk and Suffolk. 

Domesday Book was printed verhaiim et literatim during the last century, in 
consequence of an address of the House of Lords to King George lU. in 1767. 
It was not, however, commenced until 1773, and was completed early in 1788. 
In 1860, Her Majesty's Government, with the concurrence of iho Master of the 
Rolls, determined to apply the art of photozincography to the production of a 
fac-simile of Domesday Book, under the superintendence of Colonel Sir Henry 
James, R.E., Director-General of the Ordnance Survey, Southampton. The 
fao-sfanile was completed in 1863. 

* ¥or some reason left unexiUdned, many parts were left unsurveyed; Northumberland, Cumber- 
land, Westmoreland, and Durham, are not described in the surrey ; nor does Lencaahire appjaar under 
its pioper name ; bat Pumess, and the northern part of lAncashire. as well as the south ol weatmore- 
hmd, with a part of Cumberland, are included withiu the West Riding of Torkahlre. That part of 
Lanoadiire wnich lies between the Eibble and Mersey, and which at the time of the survey compre- 
hended 688 manors, is J6ined to Cheshire. Part of Rutland is deaoribed in theoountiet of Northunpton 
and Linooln* 


Fao-siiolbs or National Makvscbiptb, from Williax the Gokqitbbob to Qussv 
Ainra, selected ander the direction of the Master of the Bolls, and Photo- 
zincographed, bj Command of Her flfajestj, by Colonel Sir Hbhst Jambs, 
B.E., F.B.S., DiBECTOB-G-ENEBAL of the Obdnance Subvet, and edited bj 
W. Baseyi Savdebs, Assistant Keeper of Her Majesty's Becords. Price t 
each Part, with translations and notes, doable foolscap folio, 16s. 
Part I. (William the Conqneror to Henry VII.) . 1866. ( Out ofprini.) 
Part II. (Henry YIII. and Edward VI.) 1866. 
Part III. (Mary and Elizabeth). 1867. 
Part rV. (James I. to Anne). 1868. 

The first Part extends from William the Conqueror to Heniy VII., and contains 
autographs of the kings of England, as well as of many other illustrious per- 
sonages famous in history, and some interesting charters, letters patent, and 
state papers. The second Part, for the reigns of Henry VIH. and Edward VI., 
consists principally of holograph letters, and aotographs of kings, princea, 
statesmen, and other persons of great historical interest, who lived during those 
Tfigns. The third Part contains similar documents for the reigns of Muy and 
Elizabeth, including a signed bill of Lady Jane Grey. The fourth Part con- 
cludes the series, and comprises a number of documents taken from the originals 
belonging to the Constable of the Tower of London ; also several records illus- 
trative of the Gunpowder Plot, and a woodcut containing portraits of Mary 
Queen of Scots and James VI., circulated by their adherents m England, 1580-8. 
Fac-similbs of An&lo-Saxok MiLNTJSCMPTs. Photozincographed, by Commaod of 
Her Majesty, upon the recommendation of the Master of the Bolls, by the 
Dibbctor«Gbkeba1i of the Obdkakcb Sukybt, Lieut.-General J. Cakebok, 
B.B., O.B., F.B.S., and edited by W. Baseti Sakdbbs, Assistant Keeper of 
Her Majesty's Becords. Part I. Price 21. 10s. 

The Anglo-Saxon MSS. represented in this volume form the earlier portions 
of the collection of archives belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Canterbury, 
and consist of a series of 25 charters, deeds, and wills, conunencing with a 
record of proceedings at the first Synodal Council of Clovestho in 742, and 
terminating with the first part of a tripartite cheirograph, whereby Thurston 
conveyed to the Church of Canterbury land at Wimbish in Essex, in 1049, the 
sixth year of the reign of Edward the Confessor. 
FAC-€i]n£B8 01 Avolo-Baxoit Maititscbipts. Photozincogpraphed, by Command of 
Her Majesty, npon the recommendation of the Master of the Bolls, by the 
Dibbctor-Gbnkral of the Obdnakcb Subvbt, Major-General A. Cookb, B.E.9 
C.B., and collected and edited by W. Basbvi Sakdebs, Assistant Keeper of 
Her Majesty's Becords. Part II, Price 3/. 10*. 
(Also, separately. Edward the Confessor's Charter. Price 2s.) 

The originals of the Fac-similes contained in this volume belong to the Deans 

and Chapters of Westminster, Exeter, Wells, Winchester, and Worcester ; the 

Marquis of Bath, the Earl of Echester, Winchester College, Her Majesty's 

Public Becord Office, Bodleian Library, Somersetshire Archseological and 

National History Society's Museum in Taunton Castle, and William Salt Library 

at Stafford. They consist of charters and other documents granted by, or 

during the reigns of, Baldred, ^thelred, Offii, and Burgred, Kings of Mercia ; 

Uhtred of the Huiccas, Ceadwalla and Ini of Wessex ; ^thelwul^ Eadward the 

Elder, .Sthelstan, Eadmnnd the First, Eadred, Eadwig, Eadgar, Eadward the 

Second, iEthelred the Second, Cnut, Eadward the Cozuessor, and William the 

Conqueror, embracing altogether a period of nearly four hundred years. 

Fac-sixilbs op Akolo- Saxon Makuscbifts. Photozincographed, by Command of 

Her Majesty, npon the recommendation of the Master of the Bolls, by the 

DnuBOTOii-G-EKsaAL of theOsDNAKOE SuKYET, Colonol B. H. Stothebo, B.E., 

G.B., and collected and edited by W. Baseyi Saitoebs, Assistant Keeper of 

Her Majesty's Becords. Part III. Price 62. 6«. 

This volume contains tac-similes of the Ashbumham collection of Anglo-Saxon 
Charters, &c., including King Alfred's Will. The MSS. represented in it, range 
from A.D. 697 to A.D. 1161, being charters, wills, deeds, «nd reports of 
Synodal transactions during the reigns of Kings Wihtred of Kent, Offa, 
Eardwulf , Coenwulf, Cuthred, Beomwulf , ^thelwulf, .ffilfred, Eadward the Bdder, 
Eadmund, Eadred, Queen Eadgiiu, and Kings Eadgar, Athelred the Second, 
Cnut, Henry the First, and Henry the Second. In addition to these are two 
belonging to the Marquis of Anglesey, one of them being the Foundation 
Charter of Burton Abbey by iEthelred the Second with the testament of its great 

Public Becord Office, 
Jammx/ry 1889. 









First Bbport, with Apfbndix 

Contents : — 

England. House of Lords ; Cambridge 
Colleges; Abingdon, and other Cor- 
porations, &c. 

Scotland. Advocates' Library, Glas- 
gow Corporation, &c. 

Ibbland. DabHn, Cork, and other Cor- 
porations, &c. 

Sbcond Rbport, with Appendix, and 
Index to the First and Second Re- 
ports - - - - - 

Contents : — 

England. Home of Lords; Cam- 
bridge Colleges ; Oxford Colleges ; 
Monastery of Dominican Friars at 
Woodchester, Duke of Bedford, 
Earl Spencer, &c. 

Scotland. Aberdeen and St. An- 
drew's Universities, &c. 

Ireland. Marquis of Ormonde; 
Dr. Lyons, &c. 

Third Befort, with Appemdix and 
Index - - - - - 

Contents :— 

England. House of Lords; Cam- 
bridge Colleges; Stonyhurst Col- 
lege ; Bridgewater and other Cor- 
porations; Duke of Northumber- 
land, Marquis of Lansdowne, Mar- 
quis of Bath, &c. 

Scotland. Uniyersity of Glasgow ; 
Dnke of Montrose, &c. 

Ireland. Marquis of Ormonde; 
Black Book of i«imerick, &o. 



C. 55 

C. 441 


C. 673 

a, d. 
I 6 

8 10 










Fourth Bepost, with 
Pakt I. - 
Contents : — 
Enolakd. House of Lords; West- 
minster Abbey ; Cambridge and 
Oxford Colleges ; Cinqne Ports, 
Hjthe, and otber Corporations, 
Marquis of Bath, £vl of Denbigh, 
Scotland. Duke of Argyll, &e. 
Ibkland. Trinity College, Dublin; 
Marquis of Ormonde. 

Ditto. Pabt II. Indbx - - - 

Fifth Bbpokt, with Appendix. Past I. - 
Contents : — 
Enoland. House of Lords; Oxford 
and Cambridge Colleges ; Dean and 
Chapter of Canterbuiy ; Bye, Lydd, 
aud other Corporations, Duke of 
Sutherland, Marquis of Lansdowne, 
Beginald Cholmondeley, Esq., &c. 
Scotland. Earl of Aberdeen, &c. 

Ditto. Part II. Index - - - 

Sixth Bbport, with Appendix. Part I. - 
Contents : — 

England. House of Lords; Oxford 
and Cambridge Colleges; Lambeth 
Pahice; Black Book of the Arch- 
deacon of Canterbury ; Bridport, 
Wallingford, and other Corporations ; 
Lord Leconfield, Sir Reginald Graham, 
Sir Henry Ingilby, &c. 

Scotland. Duke of Argyll, Earl of 
Moray, &c. 

Ireland. Marquis of Ormonde. 

Ditto. Part II. Index - - - 

Seventh Report, with Appendix. 
Part I. - 
Contents : — 
House of Lords ; County of Somerset ; 
Earl of Egmont, Sir Frederick 
Graham, Sir Harry Vemey, &c. 

Ditto. Part H. Appendix and Index - 
Contents : — 
Duke of Athole, Marquis of Ormonde, 
S. F. Livingstone, Esq., &c. 

Eighth Report, with Appendix and 
Index. Part I. . - - 

Contents : — 
List of collections examined, 1869-1880. 
England. House of Lords; 
Duke of Marlborough; Magdalen 
College, Oxford; Royal CoU^ge 
of Physicians ; Queen Anne's 
Bounty Office; Corporatioos of 
Chester, Leicester, &c. 
Ireland. Marquis of Ormonde, Lord 
Bmly, The O'Conor Don, Trinity 
College, Dublin, &c. 




s. (L 
6 8 

C. 857 L 
C. 1452 






C. 1432 i. 
C. 1745 

C. 2102 
C. 2540 

C. 2840 i. 

C. 8040 

9 6 

S 6 

8 6 

1 10 
7 6 

8 6 

8 6 















Ditto. Part II. Appbndiz and Index - 
ConteDta :— 
Duke of Manchester. 

Ditto. Pabt III. Appendix and Index - 
Contents : — 
Earl of Ashbomham. 

Ninth Bbpo&t, with Appendix and 
Index. Past I. - 
Contents : — 
St. Paul's and Canterbary Cathedrals ; 
Eton College ; Carlisle, Yarmouth, 
Canierbury, and Barnstaple Corpora- 
tions, &c. 

Ditto. Pabt II. Appendix and Index - 
Contents : — 
England. House of Lords; Earl of 
Leicester ; C. Pole Gell, Alfred Mor- 
rison, Esquires, &c. 
Scotland. Lord Elphinstone, H. C. 

Maxwell Stuart, Esq., &c. 
IsBLAND. Duke of Leinster, Marquis 
of Drogheda, &c. 



Ditto. Part III. 
' Index - - - 

Contents : — 
Mrs. Stopford Sackvillc. 

Calendar op the Manubobiftb of the 
Marquis of Salisburt, E.G. (or Cecil 
MSS.). Part I. - - - - 

Tenth Report - . - - 

This is introductory to the following : — 

(I.) Appendix and Index 

The Earl of Eglinton, Sir J. S. Max- 
well, Bart., and C. S. H. D. Moray, 
C. F. Weston Underwood, G. W. 
Digby, Esquires. 

(2.) Appendix and Index 

The Family of Gawdy, formerly of 

(3.) Appendix and Index 
Wells Cathedral. 

(4.) Appendix and Index 

Earl of Westmorland ; Captain 
Stewart ; Lord Stafford ; Sir N. W. 
Throckmorton, Bart., Stonyhurst 
College; Sir P. T. Mainwaring, 
Bart., Misses Boycott, Lord Man- 
caster, M.P., Captain J. F. Bagot, 
Earl of Kilmorey, Earl of Powis, 
A. Salwey, L. Parkinson, G. 
Browne, Z. Lloyd, Esquires, Keys. 
T. 8. Hill, C. B. Manning, W. H. 
Sewell, and others, the Corporations 
of Kendal, Bishop's Castle, Wen- 
luck, Bridgnorth, Eye, Plymouth, 
and the County of Essex. 












C. 30401. 


C. 3773 

C. 3773 i. 


C. 3777 
C. 4548 

C. 4575 


C.4576 ii. 

C. 4576 

I 9 

1 4 

5 8 

6 3 

•1 7 

3 5 


3 7 

1 4 


3 6 











(5.) Appendix and Index - - - 

The Marquis of Ormonde, Earl of 
Fingall, Corporations of Oalway, 
Waterford, the Sees of Dublin and 
of Ossory, Archives of the Jesuits 
in Ireland. 

(6.) Appendix and Index - - - 

Marquis of Abergavenny, Lord Braje, 

G. F. Luttrell, P. P. Bouverie, W. B. 

Davenport, M.P., K. T. Balfour, 


Elutenth Rbpobt - - - - 

This is introductory to the following : — 

(I.) Appendix and Index - - - 

H. D. Skrine, Esq., Salvetti Corre- 

(2.) Appendix and Index - 

The House of Lords. 1678-1 688. 

(3.) Appendix and Index - 

The Corporations of Southampton and 

(4.) Appendix and Index- 

The Marquess Townshend. 

(5.) Appendix and Index . . - 

The Earl of Dartmouth. 

(6.) Appendix and Index - 
The Duke of Hamilton. 

(7.) Appendix and Index - 

The Duke of Leeds, Lord Hothfield, 
Mr. le Strange ; Mr. A. W. Savile ; 
Corporation of Reading, Inner 
Temple Library, &c. In the 

Calendar of the Manuscripts of tue 
Marquis of Salisbury, E.G. (or Cecil 
MS?.)- PartH. - 

Twelfth Report. 

This will be introductory to the following : — 
(1.) Appendix. Part I. - 

The Earl Cowper, K.G. (Coke MSS., 
at Melbourne Hall, Derby), Vol. I. 

Other Appendixes in the Press. 








4576 i. 

C. 5242 

C. 5060 

C. 5060 

, iC.5060i. 

C. 5060 

■ • 


C. 5060 


C. 5060 

C. 6060 


C. 5060 

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C. 5463 

C. 5472 

s. d, 

2 10 

1 7 


1 1 


1 8 

2 6 

2 8 

1 6 

8 5 

2 7 

Stationery Office, 

January 1889. 








Chief Contents of Appendices. 













Subjects of Research by Literary In- 
quirers, 1852-1861. — Attendances at 
the various Kecord Offices, previously 
to the passing of the Public Record 

List of Calendars, Indexes, &c., in the 
Public Record Office. 

Calendar of Crown Leases, 83-^8 Hen. 
VIII. — Calendar of Bills and Answers, 
&c.,Hen. VIII.-Ph. & Mary, for Cheshire 
and Flintshire. — ^List of Lords High 
Treasurers and Chief Commissioners of 
the Treasury, from Hen. VII. 

List of Plans annexed to Inelosure Awards, 
31 Geo. II.-7 WUl. IV.— Calendar of 
Privy Seals, &c.. Hen. VI.-Eliz., for 
Cheshire and Flintshire. — Calendar of 
Writs of General Livery, &c., for 
Cheshire, EUz.-Charles I. — Calendar 
of Deeds, &c., on the Chester Plea 
Kolls, Hen. III. and £dw. I.— List of 
Documents photozincographed, Will. I.- 
Hen. VII. 

List of Awards of Inelosure Commis« 
sioners. — References to Charters in the 
Carts Antiques and the Confirmation 
Rolls of Chancery, Ethelbert of Kent- 
James I. — Calendar of Deeds, &c., on 
the Chester Plea Rolls, £dw..II.— List 
of Documents photozincographed, Hen. 
VIII. and Bdw. VI. 

Fees in the Public Record Office. — 
Calendar of Fines, Cheshire and Flint- 
shire, Edw. I. — Calendar of Deeds, &c., 
on the Chester Plea Rolls, Edw. III.— 
List of Documents photozincographed, 

C. 2970 

C. 3142 
C. 3318 

C. 3492 

C. 3717 

C. 3839 

8. d. 




1 6 



















Chief Ck>ntent8 of Appendices. 

Mary and EUx., and Scottish, Part L 
— Table of Law Terms, from the Nor- 
man Conquest to 1 Will IV. 

Calendar of Royal Charters. — Calendar 
of Deeds, &c., on the Chester Plea 
Rolls, Richaid II.-Hen. YII.-~Durham 
Records, Letter and Report. 

Duchy of Lancaster Records, Inventory. 
— Durham Records, Inventory, Indexes 
to Kellawe*s Register. — Calendar of 
Deeds, &c., on the Chester Plea Rolls, 
Hen. VIII. — Calendar of Decrees of 
Court of General Sorveyors, 34-38 Hen. 
VIII. — Calendar of Roval Charters.— 
State Paper Office, Calendar of Docu- 
ments relating to the History of, to 
1800. — List of Documents photozinco- 
graphed, Eliz.-Anne. — Tower of Lon- 
don. Index to Documents in custody of 
the Constable of. — Calendar of Dockets, 
&c., for Privy Seals, 1634-1711, in the 
British Museum. Report of the Com- 
missioners on Carte Papers. — Venetian 

Duchy of Lancaster Records, Calendar of 
Royal Charters, Will. II.-Ric. II.— 
Durham Records, Calendar of Chancery 
Enrolments; Cursitor's Records. — List 
of Officers of Palatinate of Chester, in 
Cheshire and Flintshire, and North 
Wales. — List of Sherifib of England, 
31 Hen. I. to 4 Edw. III.— List of Docu- 
ments photozincographed, Scottish, 

Part I. — Report of the Commissioners on 
Carte Papers. — Calendarium Genea- 
logicum, 1 & 2 Edw. II. — Durham 
Records, Calendar of Cursitor's Records, 
Chancery Enrolments. — ^Duchy of Lan- 
caster Records, Calendar of Rolls of the 
Chancery of the County Palatine. 

Part II. — Charities; Calendar of Trust 
Deeds enrolled on the Close Rolls of 
Chancery, subsequent to 9 Geo. II. 
c. xxxvi. 

Duchy of Lancaster Records, Calendar of 
Rolls of the Chancery of the County 
Palatine. — Durham Ilecords, Calendar 
of the Cursitor's Records, Chancery 
Enrolments. — Report on the Shaftes- 
bury Papers. — Venetian Transcripts. — 
Greek copies of the Athanasian Creed. 

Parliamentary Petitions; Index to the 
Petitions to the King in Coancil. * 



s. d. 

C. 4012 


C. 4165 


[C. 187] 

[C. 374] 

[C. 374] 

[C. 620] 

[O. 728] 

S 3 

2 2 

5 6 

1 10 

1 9 





Chief Contentf of Appendioetf . 















Durham Becords, Calendar of the 
Cursitor'B Beoords> Chancery Enrol- 
ments. — Lbt of Docoments photosinco- 
graphed. Scottish, Part III. — Supple- 
mentary Report on the Shaftesbury 

Duchy of lancaster Becords, Calendar of 
Ancient Charters or Grants. — Palatinate 
of Lancaster; Inventory and lists of 
Documents transferred to the Public 
Becord Office. — Durham Becords, 
Calendar of Cursitor's Records, Chan- 
cery Enrolments. — ^List of Documents 
photozincographed, Irish, Part I. — 
Second Supplementary Beport on the 
Shaftesbury Papers. 

Durham Becords, Calendar of the Cursi- 
tor's Becords, Chancery Enrolments. — 
Duchy of Lancaster Becords ; CflJendar 
of Ancient Charters or Grants. — ^List of 
Documents photozincographed ; Irish, 
Part IL— M. Armand &schet's Beport 
upon Documents in French Archiyes 
relating to British History. — Calendar 
of Becognisance Bolls of the Palatinate 
of Chester, to end of reign of Hen. lY. 

Part I.— Durham BecordSi Calendar of 
the Cursitor's Becords, Chancery Enrol- 
ments. — ^Duchy of Lancaster Records, 
Calendar of Ancient Bolls of the Chan- 
cery of the County Palatme.-*M. Bas- 
chef 8 list of French Ambassadors, &c., 
in England, 1509-1714. 

Part II. — Calendar of Becognizance BoUs 
of the Palatinate of Chester; Hen. V.- 
Hen. VII. 

Exchequer Becords, Catalogue of Special 
Commissions, 1 Eliz. to 10 Vict., OUen- 
dar of Depositions taken by Commission, 

I EHs. to end of James L— list of Bep- 
resentatiye Peers for Scotland and 

Calendar of Beeognizance Rolls of t he 
PaUtmate of Chester, 1 Hen. VIII.- 

II Geo. IV. — Exchequer Becords, 
Calendar of Depositions taken by Com- 
mission, Charles I. — ^Duchy of La^castCf: 
Becords; Calendar of Lanoasbirelnqui* 
sidons post Mortem, &c. — ^Third Supple* 
mentary Beport on the Shaftesbory 
Papers. — ^Anglo-Saxon Charters photo- 
sincographed.— M. Basohet's list of 
Despatohes of French Ambassadors to 
England, 1509-1714. 

[C. 1048] 

[C. 1801] 

[C. 1544] 

«• d. 

i 6 

4 4 

1 2 

[C. 1544] 

[C. 1747] 

[C. 2138] 

4 4 

4 8 

4 6 

V SUB9. 





Chief Oontente of Appoidiees* 















Calendar of DepositionB taken by Com- 
misnon, Commonwealth-James II.— 
MiseellaneoiftS Beooids of Queen's 
Bemembranoer in the Excheqaer.— 
Dnriiam Reoords, Calendar of the 
Conitor's Beeords, Chancery Enrol- 
ments. — ^Dnohy of Lancaster Records, 
Calendar of Patent Bolls, 6 Bio. IL«- 
21 Hen. VII. — ^Bnles and Begolations 
respecting the pnblic nse of the Records. 

Calendar of Depositions taken by Com- 
mission, Williun and MJary to George 1. 
— Calendar of Norman Bolls, Hen. Y., 
Part L— Anglo-Saxon Charters photo- 
zincographed. — Report from Rome- 
List of Calendars, Indexes, &c. in the 
Pablic Record Office on Slst December 

Calendar of Deporitions taken byCom?- 
mission, George II. — Calendar of Nor- 
man Rolls, Hen. V., Part II. and Glos- 
sary. — Calendar of PatentRolls,! Edw.I. 
— ^Anglo-Saxon Charters photosinoo- 
graphed. — Transcripts from Paris. 

Calendar of Privy Seals, &c., 1-7 Charles I. 
— -Dachy of Lancaster Records, Inven- 
tory of Conrt Rolls, Hen. in.-Qeo. IV., 
Calendar of Privy Seals, Rio. II.—- 
Calendar of Patent Bolls, 2 Bdw. I.— 
Anglo-Saxon Charters photozineo- 
graphed. — ^Fourth Supplementary Re- 
port on the Shaftesbnry Papers.— 
Transcripts from Paris. — ^Report on 
Libraries in Sweden.— Report on Papers 
relating to English EKstory in the 
State Archives, Stockholm.— Report on 
Canadian Archives. 

Calendar of Patent Rolls, 8 Edw. I.— 
Darham Records, Cnrntor's Records, 
Inquisitions post Mortem, &e.— Calen- 
dar of French Rolls, 1-10 Hen. V. 
— Anglo-Saxon Charters photosiBoo- 
graphed. — Report from Venice. — ^Trans- 
cripts from Paris.-«Report fh>m Borne. 

Dnchy of Lancaster Becords, Inventory of 
Agisters' and Beoeivers' Aecoonts, 
Edw. I.-Geo. III.— Durham Becords, 
Onr8itor*s Beoords, Inquisitions post 
Miortem, Ste^ — ^Treasury of the Becelpt 
of the Exchequer, Calendar of Diplo- 
matic Documents. — Anglo -Saxon 
Charters photoaincogra^ed. -« Tran- 
scripts fh>m Paris. — JEteporti itom 
Rome and Stodkholm. — Beport on 
Arohives of Denmark, &c.— Thm- 

[C. 2877] 


[C. 2658] 

4 8 

[C. 2972] 


[C. 8425] 

8 10 

[C. 8771] 

3 8 

[C. 4425] 

4 S 













Chief Consents of ^pendiees. ] 



scripts firom Venice. — Calendar of 
Patent Bolls, 4 Edw. i. 

Presentations to Offices on the Patent 
Bolls, Charles II. — Anglo-Saxon 
Charters, &c., photozincographed. — 
Transcripts from Paris. — Beports from 
Bome.— Second Beport on Archives of 
Denmark, &c. — Calendar of Patent 
Bolls, 5 Edw. I. — Catalogue of Venetian 
Manuscripts bequeathed by Mx, Baw- 
don Brown to the Public Becord 

Transcripts from Paris.— Beports from 
Bome. — Third Beport on Archives of 
Denmark, &c.—- List of Creations of 
Peers and Baronets, 1483-1646. — 
Calendar of Patent Bolls, 6 Edw. I. 

Calendar of Patent Bolls, 7 Edw. I.— 
Calendar of French Bolls, Henry VI. 
— Calendar of Privy Seals, &c., d-ll 
Charles L -— Calendar of Dmlomatic 
Documents.— Schedules of Valueless 

Calendar of Patent Bolls, 8 Edw. I.~ 
Calendar of Early Chancery Proceed- 
ings. — ^Lidex to Leases and Pensions 
(Augmentation Office). — Calendar of 
Star Chamber Proceedings. In the 

Indexes to Printed Beports, viz. : 
Beports 1-S2 (1840-1861) - 
„ 88-89 (1869-1878) - 

[C. 4746] 

[C. 4888] 

[C. 5234] 

[C. 5596] 

f. <L 

8 10 

9 9 

8 6 

S 3 


PvhUe Record Offi^se, 
Joffmary 1889. 







Of THE Becobd Cohmissionebs, see pp. 26-28.] 

1 Chbovioles dj the Picts and Scots, and otheb eaelt Mekobials op Scottish 
HisTOBT. Royal 8vo., half bound (1867). Edited &y William F. Skens, 
LL.D. Pfioe 10s. Out of print 

2. Ledoeb of Andbew Haltbxtrton, Oonsebvatob OF THE Pbiyileges of the 
Scotch Nation in the Nbthebi.ands (1492-1503) ; togetheb with the Books 


Iknes. Royal 8vo., half bonnd (1 867) . Price 10«. 


Alexandeb the Thibd to THE ACCESSION OF RoBEBT Bbijce, from original and 
anthentic copies in London, Paris, Brnssels, Lille, and Ghent. In 2 Yols. 
royal 8vo., half bound (1870). Edited hy Rev. Joseph Stevenson. Price 10«. 
4. Accounts of the Lobd High Tbeasubeb of Scotland. Vol. 1, A.D. 1473- 
1498. Edited hyTROV-AsBiCKSOTS. 1877. Price lOs. 

5 Registee of the Pbivt Council of Scotland. Edited and arra/nged hy J. H- 
' Bubton, LL.D. Vol. 1, 1645-1569. Vol. 2, 1569-1578. Vol. 8, A.D. 1578- 

1585 Vol. 4, A.D. 1585-1592. Vol. 5, 1592-1599. Vol. 6, 1599-1604. 
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6 RoTULi ScACCABii Regum Scotobum. The Exchequeb Rolls of Scotland 

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LL b ' and Geobgb Bubnbtt, Lyon King of Arms. 1878-1880. Vol. 3, 
AD 1879-1406. Vol. 4, A.D. 1406-1436 (1880). Vol. 5, A.D. 1437-1454 
ri882) Vol. 6. 1455-1460 (1883). Vol. 7, 1460-1469 (1884). Vol. 8, A.D. 
147(^i479 (1885). Vol. 9, 1480-1487. Addenda, 1437-1487 a886). 
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Edited hy Geobge Bubnbtt. Price lOs. each. 


V^ 1 (1881). Vol. II. 1272-1307 (1884). Vol. IH. 1307-1357 aSST). 
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R HieaiSTEB OF THE GbEAT SeAL OF SCOTLAND. A.D. 1424-1513 ^1882). A.D. 

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November 1 888. 





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Fag-similes of National Manuscbipts of Ibeland, tbom the eabxjest extant 
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Part I. commences with the earliest Irish MSS. extant. 

Part II.: From the Twelfth Century to A.D. 1299. 

Part III.: From A.D. 1800 to end of reign of Henry VIII. 

Part IV. 1.: From reign of Edward VI. to that of James I. 

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Stationery Offices, 

If owmber IS8S. 






Chief Contents of Appendices. 

























Contents of the principal Record Repositories 
of Ireland in 1864. — Notices of Records 
transfeired fi^om Chancery Offices. — Irish 
State Papers presented by Philadelphia 
Library Company. 

Notices of Records transferred from Chancery, 
Queen's Bench, and Exchequer Offices.— 
Ijadex to Original Deeds receiyed firom 
Master litton's Office. 

Notices of Records transferred from Queen's 
Bench, Common Pleas, and Exchequer 
Offices. — ^Report on J. F. Ferguson's MSS. 
—Exchequer Indices, &c. 

Records of Probate Registries 

Notices of Records from Queen's Bench 
Calendar of Fines and Recoveries of the 
Palatinate of Tipperary, 1664-1715.— Index 
to Reports to date. 

Notices of Records transferred firom Chancery, 
Queen's Bench, and Common Pleas Offices. 
—Report respectixig *' Facsimiles of 
National MSS. of Ireland."— List of 
Chancery Pleadings (1662-1690) and 
Calendar to Chancery Rolls (1662-1718) 
of Palatinate of Tipperary. 

Notices of Records from Exchequer and 
Admiralty Office s. — C alendar and Index to 
Fiants of Henry Vm. 

Calendar and Index to Fiants of Edward YI. 

Index to the Liber Munemm Publicorum 
HibemiiB. — Calendar and Index to Fiants 
of Philip and Mary. 

Schedule of Parochial Registers deposited.— 
In^ex to Deputy Kee^r's 6th, 7th| 8th, 
9th, and loth Reports. 

Calendar to Fiants of Elisabeth (1558-1570) 

Calendar to Fiants of Elisabeth/ continued 
(1570-1576).— Schedule of Parish Regis- 
ten of Irehnd. 


C. 4157 

[C. 137] 

[C. 829] 

[C. 515] 
[C. 760] 

[C. 968] 

[C. 1175] 

[C. 1469] 
[C. 1702] 

[C. 2084] 

[C. Mil] 
[C. 2688] 



«. d. 
2 8 






1 8 



1 4 
I 8 





Chief Contents of Appendices. 
















Calendar to Slants of Elisabeth, continaed 

Beport of Keeper of State Papers containing 
Cataloffne of Commonwealth Books trans- 
ferred nrom Bermingham Tower, 

Calendar to Fiants of Elixabeth, continued 
(1583-1586). — ^Indez to Deputy Keeper's 
11th, 12th, 18th ,14th, and 15th Reports. 

Calendar to Fiants of Elizabeth, oontinned 

Beport on Iron Chest of attainders following 
after 1641 and 1688. — Queen's Bench 
Calendar to Fiants of Elizabeth, continued 

Calendar to Fiants of Elizabeth, continued 
(1601-1603). — ^Memorandum on State- 
ments (1702) and Declarations (1718-14) 
of Huguenot Pensioners. — Schedule of 
present places of Custody of Parish 

Notice of Records of Incumbered and Landed 
Estates Courts.— Report of Keeper of State 
Papers, containing Table of Abstracts of 
Decrees of Innocence (1668), with Index. 

Calendar to Christ CSiurch Deeds in Noyum 
Begistrum. 1174-1684. Index to Deputy 
Keeper's i6ih, 17th, 18th, 19th, and 20th 



[C. 8215] 



[C. 4062] 

[C. 4487] 







8. d» 
1 5 



1 6 

1 6 

1 1 



Public Becord Ofiice of Irelcmd, 
November 1888. 


f k